# November 6, Chapter 8: Probability: The Mathematics of Chance

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1 Chapter 8: Probability: The Mathematics of Chance November 6, 2013

2 Last Time Crystallographic notation Groups

3 Crystallographic notation The first symbol is always a p, which indicates that the pattern repeats (is periodic ) in the horizontal direction. The second symbol is m if there is a vertical line of reflection. Otherwise, it is 1. The third symbol is m (for mirror ), if there is a horizontal line of reflection (in which case there is also glide reflection) a (for alternating ), if there is a glide reflection but no horizontal reflection 1 if there is no horizontal reflection or glide reflection The fourth symbol is 2, if there is half-turn rotational symmetry; otherwise, it is 1.

4 Group A group is a collection of elements {A, B, } and an operation between pairs of them such that the following properties hold: Closure: The result of one element operating on another is itself an element of the collection (A B is in the collection). Identity element: There is a special element I, called the identity element, such that the result of an operation involving the identity and any element is that same element (I A = A and A I = A). Inverses: For any element A, there is another element, called its inverse and denoted A 1, such that the result of an operation involving an element and its inverse is the identity element (A A 1 = I and A 1 A = I ). Associativity: The result of several consecutive operations is the same regardless of grouping or parenthesizing, provided that the consecutive order of operations is maintained: A B C = A (B C) = (A B) C.

5 This Time Probability Models and Rules Discrete Probability Models Equally Likely Outcomes

6 Probability Random A phenomenon or trial is said to be random if individual outcomes are uncertain but the long-term pattern of many individual outcomes is predictable. Probability The probability of any outcome of a random phenomenon is the proportion of times the outcome would occur in a very long series of repetitions. Probabilities can be expressed as decimals, percentages, or fractions.

7 Probability Model Sample Space The sample space S of a random phenomenon is the set of all possible outcomes that cannot be broken down further into simpler components. Event An event is any outcome or any set of outcomes of a random phenomenon. That is, an event is a subset of the sample space. Probability Model A probability model is a mathematical description of a random phenomenon consisting of two pairs: a sample space S and a way of assigning probabilities to events.

8 Example Consider a simple coin toss The sample space is {H, T }, with two events, each with probability 1 2 Consider n simple coin tosses The sample space consists of all 2 n outcomes each with probability 1 2 n

9 Question What is the probability that two dice rolled will sum to 7? sum to 5?

10 Events Complement of an Event The complement of an event A is the event that A does not occur, written as A C. Disjoints Events Two events are disjoint events if they have no outcome in common. Disjoint events are also called mutually exclusive events. Independent Events Two events are independent events if the occurrence of one event has no influence on the probability of the occurrence of the other event.

11 Probability Rules Probability Rules Rule 1. The probability P(A) of any event A satisfies 0 P(A) 1. Rule 2. If S is the sample space in a probability model, then P(S) = 1. Rule 3. The complement rule: P(A C ) = 1 P(A). Rule 4. The multiplication rule for independent events: P(A and B) = P(A) P(B). Rule 5. The general addition rule: P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) P(A and B). Rule 6. The addition rule for disjoint events: P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B).

12 Discrete Probability Models Discrete Probability Model A discrete probability model is a probability model with a countable number of outcomes in its sample space. Example: Dice roll Coin flip

13 Equally Likely Outcome Finding Probabilities of Equally Likely Outcomes If a random phenomenon has equally likely outcomes, then the probability of event A is P(A) = count of outcomes in event A count of outcomes in sample space S

14 Combinatorics Combinatorics is the study of methods for counting. Permutation A permutation is an ordered arrangement of k items that are chosen without replacement from a collection of n items. It can be notated as P(n, k), n P k of Pk n and has the formula P(n, k) = n (n 1) (n k + 1) Factorial The factorial for a positive integer n equals the product of the first n positive integers. The term n factorial is notated n!: n (n 1) (n 2) By convention, we define 0! to equal 1, which can be interpreted as saying there is one way to arrange zero items.

15 Combinations Factorial The factorial for a positive integer n equals the product of the first n positive integers. The term n factorial is notated n!: n (n 1) (n 2) By convention, we define 0! to equal 1, which can be interpreted as saying there is one way to arrange zero items. Combination A combination is an unordered arrangement of k items that are chosen without replacement from a collection of n items. It can be notated as ( n k), C(n, k), or n C k and is sometimes spoken n choose k. C(n, k) = n (n 1) (n k + 1) k! = n! k!(n k)!

16 Counting distinct items Counting Ordered Collections of Distinct Items Rule A. Suppose we have a collection of n distinct items. We want to arrange k of these items in order, and the same item can appear more than once in the arrangement. The number of possible arrangements is n n n = n k Rule B. (Permutations) Suppose we have a collection of n distinct items. We want to arrange k of these items in order, and any item can appear no more than once in the arrangement. The number of possible arrangements is n (n 1) (n k + 1)

17 Counting Distinct Items Counting Unordered Collections of Distinct Items Rule C. Suppose that we have a collection of n distinct items. We want to select k of those items with no regard to order, and any item can appear more than once in the collection. The number of possible collections is (n + k 1)! k!(n 1)! Rule D. (Combinations) Suppose that we have a collection of n distinct items. We want to select k of these items with no regard to order, and any item can appear no more than once in the collection. The number of possible selections is n! k!(n k)!

18 Question Choose a young adult (aged 25 to 34 years) at random. The probability is 0.12 that the person choose did not complete high school, 0.31 that the person has a high school diploma but no further education, and 0.29 that the person has at least a bachelor s degree. (a) What must be the probability that a randomly chosen young adult has some education beyond high school but does not have a bachelor s degree? (b) What is the probability that a randomly chosen young adult has at least a high school education?

19 Question You toss a balanced coin 10 times and write down the resulting sequence of heads and tails. (a) How many possible outcomes are there for 10 tosses? (b) What is the probability that your 10-toss sequence is either all heads or all tails? (c) What is the probability that your 10-toss sequence has a combine 5 heads and a combine 5 tails? In poker, a royal flush is a 5-card hand containing an ace, king, queen, jack, and 10, all of the same suit. (a) How many royal flush hands are possible? (b) What is the number of 5-card hands possible from a 52-card deck? (c) What is the probability that 5 cards drawn at random from a 52-card deck will yield a royal flush?

20 Question Suppose a monkey is at a type writer and can only press a, r, e. 1 How many possible three-letter words can the monkey type using only these letters? 2 Which of these are words in an English dictionary? 3 What is the probability that the word the monkey typed is in a English dictionary? 4 What if the word can be any length?

21 Next time Quiz over chapter 19 and chapter 8 Continuous Probability Models

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