Schreibstil im Technischen Englisch

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Schreibstil im Technischen Englisch"

Transcription

1 Schreibstil im Technischen Englisch David Burkhart Workshop für Ernst & Young Stuttgart Oktober, 2015

2 Develop a clear writing style Technical English uses simple, direct, easilyunderstandable vocabulary. Examples File not found NO STEP Bad data

3 Develop a clear writing style 1. Use simple grammatical structures. Avoid subordinate clauses. Loading a cassette module: Place a new cassette in the cassette module. Lock it into position. Press the Pump key on the operating panel of the cassette module. The cassette module closes automatically and is pumped down.

4 Develop a clear writing style 2. Keep your sentences short and simple. Do not write like this: Over the last several decades, increasingly exacting demands have been placed on the quality and functionality of electronic components in the motor vehicles, and this trend is set to continue.

5 Develop a clear writing style 3. Avoid substantival expressions. Do not write like this: The two workers accomplished the division of the material into two piles.

6 Develop a clear writing style Das Ablösen des Etikettes vom Übergabestempel erfolgt druckluftunterstützt. Suggested procedure: 1. Rewrite the German text in simple German. 2. Translate that. Do not attempt to translate poor German into English directly! It won t work!

7 Develop a clear writing style 1. Rewrite the German text: Mit Druckluft wird das Etikett vom Übergabestempel abgelöst. or: Das Etikett wird mit Druckluft vom Übergabestempel abgelöst.

8 Develop a clear writing style 2. Translate that: The label is removed from the transfer stamp with compressed air.

9 Develop a clear writing style Die Zugriffsberechtigungen und die Zuordnung eines Nutzers zu einer dieser Gruppen dürfen auch durch die Systemadministratoren nicht veränderbar sein.

10 Develop a clear writing style Die Systemadministratoren dürfen die Zugriffsberechtigungen nicht verändern können? Die Systemadministratoren dürfen die Zugriffsberechtigungen nicht verändern?

11 Develop a clear writing style Die Systemadministratoren dürfen die Zugriffsberechtigungen und die Zuordnung eines Nutzers zu einer dieser Gruppen nicht verändern. The system administrators are not allowed to change the access privileges and the assignment of a user to one of these groups.

12 Avoid substantival expressions A flashing red LED on the system panel indicates insufficient tire pressure. That is very substantival. Also, the author is placing two statements in one sentence. An initial correction, making the sentence less substantival: A flashing red LED on the system panel indicates the tire pressure is too low.

13 Avoid substantival expressions A flashing red LED contains two statements: A red LED is located on the system panel. If it flashes, the tire pressure is too low. More generally: The author was trying to express a thought about an eventuality: An event X might happen. If it does, the meaning of the event is this: In the original sentence, the thought of IF is missing.

14 Avoid substantival expressions Recommendation Use a verbal pattern: A red LED is located on the system panel. If it flashes, the tire pressure is too low. This expresses exactly the situation and the author s intention.

15 Avoid substantival expressions It is possible that the rejection of the constitution might provoke a radical restructuring of the European unification project. If the French reject the constitution, the European unification project could be radically restructured.

16 Avoid substantival expressions General topics should always be introduced with the ing (gerund) form. 3.2 EOF-Byte-Überprüfung 3.2 Checking the EOF byte 4.5 Aligning the cams 12.7 Inspecting the machine

17 Avoid using the passive voice Use the passive voice only: 1. If the agent is totally unimportant: Robots are used for repetitive activities. or: 2. To emphasize the important thing: Ink droplets are ejected from the nozzle at high speed.

18 Avoid using the passive voice Durch Eingabe eines zweistelligen Parameters wird die Zeit vorgewählt. Select a time by entering a two-digit parameter.

19 Each sentence should communicate only one thought Do not attempt to express the following in a single sentence: Die einzelnen per Tastendruck abrufbaren Menüs entnehmen Sie bitte folgenden Bildern. This is important as in the laser curing of the melting station the discs have been heated up which could lead to a misinterpretation in the following quality inspection by the sensors.

20 Avoid amputated sentences Mit der Taste FAST kann die TEACH- Geschwindigkeit umgeschaltet werden. (Funktion, wie Manuell-Betrieb). Recommendation Fully write out the thought in parentheses.

21 Avoid amputated sentences How do you express the following in English? Durch Drücken der Reset-Taste... Nach Erreichen der Obergrenze... Programmabbruch mit der Abort-Taste

22 Avoid amputated sentences Programmabbruch mit der Abort-Taste 1. Write a fully written-out German sentence. Example: Wenn Sie die Ausführung des Programms abbrechen möchten, dann drücken Sie die Abort- Taste. 2. Say that in English. If you want to abort program execution, then press the Abort key.

23 Avoid amputated sentences Durch Drücken der Reset-Taste wird zum Hauptmenü zurückgekehrt. Durch Drücken der Reset-Taste Rückkehr zum Hauptmenü. If it is clear that the user is to do something, then write the sentence as a command: Drücken Sie die Reset-Taste, um zum Hauptmenü zu gelangen. Press the Reset key to return to the main menu.

24 Avoid amputated sentences: examples Bei Verwendung der Schrittgröße 4 sollte immer dann in das special-menü zurückgekehrt werden, wenn mit Sicherheit davon auszugehen ist, daß das Ölfilter verschmutzt oder beschädigt ist. Ansonsten Verletzungsgefahr!

25 Avoid amputated sentences: examples Die Voraussetzung für die Benutzung der Maus ist jedoch die Auswahl des Treibers L1 durch den autorisierten Benutzer (Punkt Maustreiber im Menü Systemeinstellungen). Bei Verwendung des falschen Treibers bzw. Nichtauswahl eines Treibers erfolgt Fehlfunktion der Maus. Nach Auswahl des Treibers Warmstart des Rechners erforderlich (Reset).

26 First word = conceptual subject Das Herz des Systems ist der Hebearm. Poor English The heart of the system is the lifting arm.

27 First word = conceptual subject Recommendation 1. Identify who or what is doing something in each sentence. That is the conceptual subject of the sentence. 2. Make sure this conceptual subject is the grammatical subject of the sentence. Rewrite the text if it is not. 3. Place this grammatical subject at the very beginning of the sentence.

28 First word = conceptual subject Applying the recommendation The lifting arm is the heart of the system. This is easy to understand.

29 First word = conceptual subject Word order is actually much more complicated than the above discussion would have you believe. The fundamental rule is: Always keep the main message together. Never provide details within the main message. Example John saw last Tuesday afternoon the new car.

30 First word = conceptual subject Where do we put details? We place details either before or after the main message, like this: detail main message detail

31 First word = conceptual subject When do details go before the main message, when afterwards?

32 First word = conceptual subject If a detail is important, then it goes first. For example: Last Tuesday afternoon, John saw the new car. (When did John see the new car?) If the detail is unimportant, then it goes last. For example: John saw the new car last Tuesday afternoon.

33 First word = conceptual subject I enjoyed a long, pleasant meal and then met my wife for a movie at our local cinema despite the thunderstorm. Despite the thunderstorm, I enjoyed a long, pleasant meal and then met my wife for a movie at our local cinema.

34 First word = conceptual subject Although our neighbors had a long party in the garden and played music all night that I cannot stand, I slept well. I slept well, although our neighbors had a long party in the garden and played music all night that I cannot stand.

35 Address your reader directly General statement instead of a command Example: It is essential to comply with the safety notes in Section 2 during installation! Suggestion Comply with the safety notes in Section 2 during installation. or: During installation, you absolutely must comply with the safety notes in Section 2.

36 Address your reader directly "sollen" instead of a command Example: Der Cursor soll jetzt links von dem Eingabefenster stehen. Place the cursor to the left of the input window. or: Make sure the cursor is to the left of the input window.

37 Address your reader directly The passive voice instead of a command Example: Der Dichtring wird gereinigt und mit wenig Dichtungsfett eingefettet. Clean the sealing ring and lubricate it with just a little sealing grease.

38 Address your reader directly If the agent is unimportant, use the passive voice. If the reader is to do something, use the command form. Ein Vertauschen der Farbanschlüsse der Krokodilklemmen - schwarz auf rot oder umgekehrt - sollte vermieden werden. Do not swap the alligator clips. Do not connect the black one where the red one goes, or vice versa.

39 Use simple verbs Beim Transport stellt das Gewicht des Förderarms das größte Problem dar. Good translation During transportation, the weight of the lifting arm is the major problem.

40 Use simple verbs A transformer may be present in the VS system. Your VS system might have a transformer. or: Your VS system might include a transformer.

41 Use simple verbs Sometimes, the verb can be eliminated completely. Example: Comply with the wiring instructions issued by the manufacturer. Applying the recommendation Comply with the manufacturer's wiring instructions. or: Comply with the wiring instructions of the manufacturer.

42 Express concrete things in a concrete way 1. Es findet ein Umdenken statt. 2. Have mounting performed professionally.

43 Rule sheet on commas 1. Never use commas as you would in German. Never write: She said, the motorcycle was too expensive. He claimed, the participants arrived late. 2. Separate subordinate clauses with commas: As he stumbled down the hill, Mr. Jones noticed a car coming by. Everyone looked forward to the party, although the planning had been chaotic.

44 Rule sheet on commas 3. Subordinate clauses in the middle of a sentence must be surrounded by commas. Mr. Jones, everybody's favorite teacher, was unable to attend the assembly. The price of gasoline, experts agree, will increase steadily in future years. The New York Times, the most respected newspaper in the United States, will be increasing its subscription rates as of January 1, Insert commas after hence, thus, or therefore whenever a sentence begins with one of these words. Hence, the printer failed to work properly. Thus, the diameter is directly related to the circumfrance. Therefore, the asylum-seeker will be deported. 5. Separate a series of adjectives with commas. Everyone admired her beautiful, sleek, fascinating car. They liked the fast, powerful, expensive, high-speed boat.

45 Rule sheet on commas 6. If possible, insert only one comma per sentence. Typical problem cases: Thus, the diameter is directly related to the circumfrance, although the exact relationship is unknown. If possible, examine the consumption of flour in Third-World Countries, but it might be difficult to find relevant data. Often, the solution is to divide the statement into two sentences: Thus, the diameter is directly related to the circumfrance. However, the exact relationship is unknown. If possible, examine the consumption of flour in Third-World Countries. However, it might be difficult to find relevant data.

46 Commas: examples 1. Paul Jones the owner of a large luxurious sophisticated yacht a classic Fedship from the Netherlands arrived at the port on time. 2. The thresholds must be combined making sure that only one threshold can be reached at a certain time. 3. He claimed, the best essay was submitted by your sister.

47 Commas: examples 6. In my opinion the publishing date should be moved up but I realize this may cause hardship for some people. 7. She said, the work must be done whether you like it or not.

48 Rule sheet on hyphens 1. Never use hyphens as you would in German Never write: Enter your name in the name-field. We all attended the Christmas-party. The PC-printer is not working correctly. The correct punctuation is as follows: Enter your name in the name field. (or Name field) We all attended the Christmas party. The PC printer is not working correctly. 2. Place a hyphen between an amount and the unit Example: She purchased a 9-volt battery. (NOT: 9-volt-battery or 9 volt battery!) We were amazed by the 400-pound elephant. (NOT: 400-pound-elephant!)

49 Rule sheet on hyphens 3. Use hyphens to clarify what an adjective is modifying Without the proper punctuation, a reader might not know what an adjective is modifying: the word which follows immediately after it or the subject of the sentence. Consider the following: The hot water faucet is broken. This is confusing. What is hot, the water or the faucet? There are two possibilities:

50 Rule sheet on hyphens The men repaired the cold water pipe. People should invest money in private old age insurance. The men repaired the cold-water pipe. People should invest money in private old-age insurance.

51 Avoid substantival expressions: examples 1. Die Breite des Tisches beträgt 1,2 Meter. 2. Die Anzahl der Teilnehmer ist auf 25 Personen begrenzt. 3. The assembly of the module is performed by arc welding. 4. There is no difference in the treatment of long variables with 256 or more characters and short variables with less than 256 characters.

52 Develop a clear writing style: examples 5. The use of connection modules that are not named is not permissible. 6. Der Reinigungsprozess erfolgt durch das Drehen der Maschine im Servicebetrieb. 7. Die Kompaktheit von Maschinen und Anlagen nimmt fortwährend zu.

53 Develop a clear writing style: examples 8. (Der Sensor lernt die Objektunterschiede über eine Teach-In Prozedur ein und kann durch weitere Produktparameter (z.b. Sensitivität) gezielt an die Applikation angepasst werden.) Die Konfiguration erfolgt manuell über Schalter am Produkt oder automatisiert durch die Maschinensteuerung über die IO-Link- Schnittstelle.

54 Avoid using the passive voice: examples 1. It is maintained by the contractor that Your letter has been received by us, and When the display has been noted and is no longer needed, press the F7 button to proceed with the program.

55 Each sentence should communicate only one thought: examples 1. The increasing amount of in-boat electronics is causing ever greater complexity in terms of the interactions of individual components and is the biggest challenge facing the boat industry's entire value chain. 2. The TG4 has a stainless steel front this will help in cleaning the oven.

56 Avoid amputated sentences: examples Auswahl der Leerfahrfunktion generell nur bei vorheriger Entfernung aller Flaschen vom Förderband möglich! Sonst Flaschenstau!

57 Avoid amputated sentences: examples Rückspulen des Bandes durch gleichzeitiges Drücken der Tasten Back und Tape. Hörbares Bandendegeräusch nach Erreichen des Bandendes dann Stop drücken.

58 Word order: structure your sentences Improve the English: 1. To set up safety-related systems, hardware and software components are required. Needed, for example, is a controller with corresponding design and programming tools. Translate: 1. Erdgas aus unkonventionellen Quellen spielt in der Versorgung mit Energieträgern eine immer bedeutendere Rolle.

59 Word order: structure your sentences Translate: 2. Präzision, höchste Verfügbarkeit und lange Lebensdauer sind die wichtigsten Anforderungen, die an induktive Sensoren gestellt werden. 3. Am Markt wird bislang nur das Gehäuse mit entsprechender UL-Zertifizierung angeboten; die Wahl des passenden Sicherheits-Lichtvorhanges zieht dann unweigerlich weitere Tests nach sich.

60 Address your reader directly: examples 1. In the following cases, the use of the output module for formation of measurement circuits is not permissible 2. Jetzt wird die andere Schutzfolie abgezogen und nun kann der Lautsprecher auf die Leiterplatte geklebt werden. 3. Compliance with the safety precautions of Chapter 2 is necessary. 4. Seals must be glued in on one side.

61 Use simple verbs: examples 1. The final date of a sensing period is determined by the beginning date plus the duration (number of days). 2. In case a threshold is reached, the discount is granted. 3. All systems raising error codes can return warning messages

62 Use simple verbs: examples 4. Transfer decoding can only occur for the execute command. 5. Only GCD-relevant elements are contained in this drawing. 6. Erst nach Vorliegen eines ausreichenden Behälter-Füllstandes kann mit der Flaschenreinigung begonnen werden.

63 Use commas + hyphens correctly: examples 1. The problem however cannot be solved as described in the -message. 2. She claimed, the best essay was written by your brother. 3. Therefor the shelves can be repainted but that will be expensive.

64 Use commas + hyphens correctly: examples 4. The user's name must be entered in the Name-Field. 5. In my opinion the printing-date should be pushed back but this could cause hardship for some people. 6. Depending on the noise level the customer must take all required steps to protect operating personnel in accordance with noise protection regulations and standards. 7. The PC-cabel is broken.

65 Use commas + hyphens correctly: examples 8. Why I asked do you reject my proposals which I worked on so long? 9. The radio needs new 1½ volt batteries I believe. 10. Why I asked do you reject the proposals I worked on so long? 11. She said, the work must be done whether you like it or not 12. The 4-liter-hat is too big for my head. 13. While standing on the top of a hill she called her children to her side. Bonus sentence I talk on my handy all the time since I have this flat-rate.

66 1. Characteristics of German technical jargon Substantival Very brief Amputated sentences Impersonal; the reader is not addressed directly Instructions are not written as commands 66

67 1. Characteristics of German technical jargon Abstract Much information is packed into adjectives Uses run-on sentences Uses flexible (confusing) word order Uses complicated verbs 67

68 Characteristics of German technical jargon German technical jargon is substantival. Rückkehr zum Hauptmenü durch Drücken der Reset-Taste. Die Anzahl der Teilnehmer ist auf 25 Personen begrenzt. Die Breite des Tisches beträgt 1,2 Meter.

69 Characteristics of German technical jargon German technical jargon is very brief. Ansonsten Verletzungsgefahr. Sonst Flaschenstau!

70 Characteristics of German technical jargon Amputated sentences are common. Nach Verlassen der Gefahrenzone Trotz Überschreitens des Sollwertes von Ventil V8 kann die Anlage

71 Characteristics of German technical jargon Instructions are not written as commands. Als nächstes wird die Folie abgezogen. Nun werden die beiden Drähte angelötet.

72 Characteristics of German technical jargon German technical jargon is abstract. Der Reinigungsvorgang erfolgt durch Drehen der Maschine in Servicemodus. Entsprechende Pläne der EPA seien dem Unternehmen bekannt, sagte ein BMW-Sprecher. Wir unterstützten das im Sinne von Transparenz und Erhalt von Vertrauen.

73 Characteristics of German technical jargon Much information is packed into adjectives. Das Ablösen des Etikettes vom Übergabestempel erfolgt druckluftunterstützt. Die Geldausgabe erfolgt programmgesteuert und zeitversetzt.

74 Characteristics of German technical jargon German technical jargon uses complicated verbs. Das Gewicht des Förderarms stellt das größte Problem dar.

75 German technical jargon: summary Substantival Very brief Amputated sentences Impersonal; the reader is not addressed directly Instructions are not written as commands Abstract Much information is packed into adjectives Uses run-on sentences Uses flexible (confusing) word order Uses complicated verbs

76 3. Is English-language technical jargon similar to German technical jargon? Substantival - NO Very brief - NO Amputated sentences - NO Impersonal; the reader is not addressed directly - NO Instructions are not written as commands - NO Abstract Much information is packed into adjectives Uses run-on sentences Uses flexible (confusing) word order Uses complicated verbs

77 4. Characteristics of technical English: informal texts 1. They use simple, everyday language. Class A operation can only be obtained when the transistor spends its entire time in the active mode, never reaching either cutoff or saturation. - Lessons in Electric Circuits, Volume III - Semiconductors, by Tony R. Kuphaldt Fifth Edition, last update March 29, 2009, p. 225 The text is easy to understand; the author s intention clear.

78 Characteristics of technical English: informal texts 2. The author addresses the reader personally, and writes we. This is not unprofessional. Class B operation is what we had the first time an AC signal was applied to the common-emitter amplifier with no DC bias voltage. - Lessons in Electric Circuits, Volume III - Semiconductors, by Tony R. Kuphaldt Fifth Edition, last update March 29, 2009, p. 225 The text is easy to understand; the author s intention clear.

79 Characteristics of technical English: informal texts 3. They use slang words and slang expressions. The output voltage of a feedback system heads for infinite voltage when Aβ = TI Application Note Design of op amp sine wave oscillators, August 2000 The text is easy to understand; the author s intention clear.

80 8. Summary of English-language technical jargon The texts use simple, everyday language. The author addresses the reader personally, and writes we. This is not unprofessional. The texts use slang words and slang expressions. The text is easy to understand; the author s intention is clear.

81 enthalten: 9. Terms often used in Englishlanguage technical jargon to include: Examples Your VX power module might include a built-in poweroff indicator. The updated version of the Third-Party Launcher now includes the following features: a cleaner user interface easy access to the toolbar a built-in option for sending files

82 9. Terms often used in Englishlanguage technical jargon to include: examples verfügen über: = The instrument panel includes a collisionavoidance display.

83 Terms often used in Englishlanguage technical jargon einschließlich vorsehen: Im Modul ist ein USB-Anschluß vorzusehen. = The module will include a USB port. (context is technical specifications, Pflichtenheft)

84 Terms often used in Englishlanguage technical jargon to include: examples u.a.: darunter:

85 Terms often used in Englishlanguage technical jargon to include: examples Include the verb to include in your translations as much as possible, because it can be included in many contexts, including

86 Terms often used in Englishlanguage technical jargon Our product offering also includes special solutions for the lubrication of industrial systems such as hydraulic systems, turbines, compressors, bearings, open and closed transmissions, machine tool guides, pneumatic tools and industrial gears. Our product offering also includes special solutions for the lubrication of industrial systems such as the following: hydraulic systems turbines compressors bearings open and closed transmissions

87 Terms often used in Englishlanguage technical jargon in terms of This is used to express als eine Funktion von or im Sinne von Some examples: 0of&searchLoc=0&resultOrder=basic&multiwordShowSingle= on

88 Terms often used in Englishlanguage technical jargon in terms of : Example Because amplifiers have the ability to increase the magnitude of an input signal, it is useful to be able to rate an amplifier s amplifying ability in terms of an output/input ratio.

89 Terms often used in Englishlanguage technical jargon in terms of : Example When mathematics students first study calculus, they begin by exploring the concept of rates of change for various mathematical functions. The derivative, which is the first and most elementary calculus principle, is an expression of one variable s rate of change in terms of another.

90 Terms often used in Englishlanguage technical jargon in terms of : Example Battery capacity could be measured in terms of total number of electrons, but this would be a huge number. source: 11/battery-ratings/

91 Terms often used in Englishlanguage technical jargon in terms of : Example All of these symbols are expressed using capital letters, except in cases where a quantity (especially voltage or current) is described in terms of a brief period of time (called an instantaneous value). source:

92 to use Terms often used in Englishlanguage technical jargon benutzen verwenden einsetzen gebrauchen

93 Terms often used in Englishlanguage technical jargon to use: Example The GDO is used as a wavemeter with a meter indicator.

94 Terms often used in Englishlanguage technical jargon to indicate This is used to express: auf etwas hinweisen etwas anzeigen einen Wert, einen Status angeben

95 Terms often used in Englishlanguage technical jargon to indicate: Examples If the red LED flashes, this indicates the tire pressure is too low.

96 Nouns in Electrical Engineering Bias has a special meaning. e.g. biasing, bias resistor, bias voltage button versus key circuitry (Beschaltung) The way components are connected together to create a circuit. clock (Takt) e.g., clock signals. Do not translate Taktsignale as cycle signals. 96

97 Nouns in Electrical Engineering consumption e.g. current consumption (Stromaufnahme), power consumption Do not translate Stromaufnahme as current intake. controls on a device (Regler) current (electric current) current (aktuell) connectivity 97

98 Nouns in Electrical Engineering default value, default device, etc. default cannot be used interchangeably with standard Examples of standard: a standard weight; an industrial standard; a standard value (assumed value; the value which is usually used) detection (the process of detecting a signal) gain generation (of electric power; of errors) line, wire, cable, conductor 98

99 Nouns in Electrical Engineering load - Last, Verbraucher If the context is a circuit, do not translate Verbraucher as consumer! In English, a consumer is always a human being! matching (Anpassung) e.g. impedance matching Ohmic losses resistance versus reactance power cord A device has a power cord, not a power cable. convert - umrüsten retrofit - nachrüsten 99

100 Verbs in Electrical Engineering convert - umrüsten retrofit - nachrüsten upgrade - aufrüsten The corresponding nouns are: the conversion the retrofit the upgrade to attenuate - abschwächen The antonym is to amplify. The corresponding noun is attenuator. 100

101 Verbs in Electrical Engineering to control versus to monitor e.g., the meaning of a control unit is clear. It determines what happens; it does not merely supervise processes. voltage levels are converted (not changed ) to detect (signals; errors in a digital train) ein Signal detektieren; Fehler finden to deteriorate e.g., Signal quality deteriorates whenever the Ohmic losses of the line exceed 50 kω 101

102 Verbs in Electrical Engineering to dismantle - auseinanderbauen Antonym: to assemble (to put together, zusammenbauen). Example: an assembly line (Fließband). to enhance e.g., to enhance voice quality to improve is not a technical term! to generate (signals; errors) to implement (British: to realize) = realiseren The RAM chips are implemented in CMOS technology. 102

103 Verbs in Electrical Engineering Screws: differentiate the following: to loosen (lockern), to remove (entfernen). Often, the exact meaning of die Schraube lösen is unclear. Does the author mean to loosen, or to remove? to match - anpassen Be sure to match the output of the amplifier to its load. to process e.g. signal processing to troubleshoot - nach Fehlern suchen 103

104 Adjectives in Electrical Engineering active - passsive These terms have an exact technical meaning. high-speed e.g. high-speed transmission lines Fast is not a technical term. An engineer would not talk about a fast transmission line. perpendicular (im rechten Winkel) 104

105 Adjectives in Electrical Engineering rapid e.g. rapid prototyping quick is not a technical term. An engineer would not talk about quick prototyping. synchronous versus asynchronous wireless (the channel is air) 105

106 11. Exercise: translate 1. Der Regler steuert die Ohmschen Verluste des Netzkabels. 2. Die Nachrüstung des Gerätes mit der Platine DIS2 bewirkt, dass Eingangssignale abschwächt werden. 3. Ändert der Benutzer keine Parameter, dann arbeitet das Modul mit den Standardwerten.

107 11. Exercise: translate 4. Mit dem LMD mit Taktsignal ist nun eine intelligente Sensorvariante verfügbar, die statt mit einer Leuchtdiode mit einem einstellbaren Taktsignal ausgestattet ist. Der Gatter mit dem Taktsignal ist einfach einbaubar.

108 Exercise: edit Correct or improve the English. Do not translate. 1. Responsibility for use of the control module in a safety function is a matter for the user. 2. The equipments change the voltage levels. 3. Protect the product during transport and storage from impermissible burdens, such as: mechanical loads impermissible temperatures aggressive atmospheres.

109 Exercise: edit Rewrite the following texts in technical jargon: Your VS system contains a broadband transformer. First, select an angle.