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1 CCM6+7+ Unit 11 ~ Page 1 CCM6+7+ UNIT 11 PROBABILITY Name Teacher: Townsend ESTIMATED ASSESSMENT DATES: Unit 11 Vocabulary List 2 Simple Event Probability 3-7 Expected Outcomes Making Predictions 8-9 Theoretical vs. Experimental Probability 10 Showing All Outcomes in different ways Probability as Area 13 The Counting Principle to find the total outcomes Compound Events--Independent and Dependent Probability Probability Games Study Guide Page 1

2 CCM6+7+ Unit 11 ~ Page 2 UNIT 11 ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY Probability Outcome Sample Space Simple Event Theoretical Probability Experimental Probability (Relative Frequency) Tree Diagram Punnett Square Organized List Counting Principle Compound Events Independent Probability Dependent Probability Page 2

3 CCM6+7+ Unit 11 ~ Page 3 What is Probability? Probability is describing the chance that something will happen. Look at the diagram below. All probabilities range from 0 (Impossible) to 1 (Certain). Finding the probability of something is finding the ratio: # ways to get what you want Total # outcomes possible The total number of outcomes possible is called the sample space. Look at the figures in the chart below. Determine the probability of something to happen. What is the probability of What is the probability of flipping heads on a picking out a striped marble? coin? P(striped)= P(heads)= What is the probability of spinning an odd number? P(odd)= If you draw a card from these, what is the probability of getting a card with a face on it? P(face card)= What is the probability of rolling a prime number? P(prime)= On a regular number cube, what is the probability of rolling a multiple of 1? P(multiple of 1)= On a regular number cube, what is the probability of rolling a 7? P(7)= Give an example of a probability that is unlikely but not impossible. Give your answer in words and as a number. Page 3

4 CCM6+7+ Unit 11 ~ Page 4 If possible, write a ratio to represent each probability below and then list the given letter above the number line. Problem A is done for you to use as an example. Next, determine if each event is impossible, unlikely, equally likely, likely, or certain. It will not be able to have a ratio represent each scenario but you CAN determine the likelihood of the event using the categories shown on the number line. A. If you roll a die you will get a number less than 7. B. If you roll a die you will get an odd number %_ : certain : C. Jodi has dance rehearsals on Tuesday afternoons. D. A bag contains 12 pennies and 12 dimes. How likely is it that Jodi is at the mall on a Tuesday afternoon? How likely is it that you will draw a dime from the bag? : : E. You must be 15 years old to obtain a learner s permit to F. The club volleyball team is made up of 7 drive. Emily is 13 years old. How likely is it that Emily has her How likely is it that the first player chosen at learner s permit? random will be a girl? : : G. Card numbered 1-8 are in a box. How likely is it that you H. How likely is it that the card you will pull will pull out a number greater than 2? out in problem G will be a number less than 4? : : Page 4

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6 CCM6+7+ Unit 11 ~ Page 6 Simple Events An event that consists of exactly one outcome. A simple event is the event of a single outcome. HEADLINES- DISTRICT 12 REAPING BEING HELD TODAY May the odds be ever in your favor will they be today??? In the book The Hunger Games, 24 contestants fight until only 1 is left standing. The contestants range from age 12 to age 18. In their country of Panem there are 12 districts. One boy and one girl from each district are chosen to attend the Hunger Games. They are called tributes. Below is a summary of the tributes District BOY BOY BOY BOY BOY BOY BOY BOY BOY BOY BOY BOY GIRL GIRL GIRL GIRL GIRL GIRL GIRL GIRL GIRL GIRL GIRL GIRL Use the table above to answer the following questions. Write the probabilities as simplified fractions. For #1-10, you choose one of the 24 contestants at random. 1 P(boy) [What is the probability you will choose a boy?] 2 P(a person from district 12) 3 P(a girl from district 11) 4 P(a person not from district 2) 5 P(either a boy or girl) 6 P(a person from district 13) 7 P(a girl from district 4, 5, or 6) 8 P(a person from a district that is a multiple of 3) 9 P(a person from an even numbered district) 10 P(a boy from an even numbered district) Page 6

7 CCM6+7+ Unit 11 ~ Page 7 Hunger Games Competition The chart below shows how many tributes were left at the end of each day of the 74 th Annual Hunger Games Assume that all of the contestants have equal abilities to win the Hunger Games. Use the table above to answer the following questions. Page 7

8 CCM6+7+ Unit 11 ~ Page 8 Expected Outcomes If the Hunger Games were played 84 times, about how many times would you expect a tribute from District 11 would win? [Assume equal chances for all districts.] What is the probability that a tribute from District 11 would win? Decimal Fraction Percent Multiply the probability times the number of events. 84 = OR Set up a proportion 1 12 = x 84 Suppose 24 tributes compete in a Hunger Games simulation. 1. If there is one simulation, what is the probability of a tribute from District 12 winning? 2. If you run the simulation 96 times, about how many times would you expect the boy from District 1 to win? 3. If you run the simulation 120 times, about how many times would you expect a tribute from a prime district to win? 4. If you run the simulation 80 times, about how many times would you expect a girl tribute from district 4, 5, or 6 to win? In the Hunger Games simulation the final for tributes consist of two from District 12, one from District 2, and one from District If there is one simulation, what is the probability that district 12 will win? 6. If you run the simulation 9 2times, about how many times will district 2 win? 7. If you run the simulation 144 times, about how many times will district 5 not win? Cinna puts the following color cards in a bag for Katniss to choose one for her next dress: green, yellow, orange, red, purple 8. If Katniss draws 65 times, about how many draws would be green? 9. If Katniss draws 180 times, about how many draws would not be red? 1 0. If Katniss draws 640 times, about how many draws would be green, red, or purple? Page 8

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10 Experimental & Theoretical Probability CCM6+7+ Unit 11 ~ Page 10 Page 10

11 CCM6+7+ Unit 11 ~ Page 11 Showing ALL OUTCOMES There are several ways you can find probabilities of compound events using organized lists, tables, tree diagrams and simulation. For example: What is the probability of flipping a coin and it landing on heads both times. Table: H T H HH HT T TH TT Organized List: (H, T) (H, H) (T, H) HH = 1 4 Tree Diagram: (T, H) HH = 1 4 H H T T H T After you use the diagrams you might notice a pattern to where you can multiply the probabilities together = 1 4 HH = 1 4 Page 11

12 CCM6+7+ Unit 11 ~ Page 12 Create a tree diagram and give the total number of outcomes. 1. Flipping three coins 2. Flipping a Coin and Rolling a Number Cube 3. The product of rolling two dice 3. Katniss bought 3 pins: One with a star, a butterfly, and a mockingjay. She has a blue dress and a green dress. How many dress/pins combinations are possible? 4. Peeta has three different types of icing that are chocolate, cream cheese, and butter crème. His cake flavors are red velvet, birthday cake, and strawberry. How many possible cake-icing outcomes are there? 6. Katniss is choosing her last meal before the Hunger Games. She has 3 choices for entrée: soup, chicken, or beef. She can choose from 2 desserts and can drink water, tea, or milk. What are all the combinations she can make? Page 12

13 CCM6+7+ Unit 11 ~ Page Find the probability that a golf ball will not land in the water shaded in the region below. A. B. C. D. 2. If someone throws a hopscotch stone onto a random square, what is the probability that it will land in the shaded region? A. B. C. D. 3. While you were riding in a hot-air balloon over a park, a sandbag fell off of the basket, but you don't know where in the park it fell. The entire park is 60,000 square feet. The playground in the park is 12,000 square feet. What is the probability that the sandbag is in the playground? A. B. C. D. Page 13

14 CCM6+7+ Unit 11 ~ Page 14 The Counting Principle uses multiplication to find the number of possible outcomes. Example: The Capitol s Best Pizza serves 11 different kinds of pizza with 3 choices of crust and in 4 different sizes. How many different selections are possible? Apply the Counting Principle: = pizza selections Use the Counting Principle to find the total number of outcomes in each situation. 1. The Hob nursery has 14 different colored tulip bulbs. Each color comes in dwarf, average, or giant size. How many different kinds of bulbs are there? 2. The type of bicycle Prim wants comes in 12 different colors of trim. There is also a choice of curved or straight handlebars. How many possible selections are there? 3. At a tribute banquet, guests were given a choice of 4 entrees, 3 vegetables, soup or salad, 4 beverages, and 4 deserts. How many different selections were possible? 4. Gale is setting the combination lock on his briefcase. If he can choose any digit 0-9 for each of the 6 digits in the combination, how many possible combinations are there? 5. Clove is flipping a penny, a nickel and a dime. 6. Rue choosing one of three appetizers, one of four main dishes, one of six desserts, and one of four soft drinks. 7. In how many different ways can Rue, Foxface, Clove, and Katniss place 1 st, 2 nd, and 3 rd for a costume contest? 8. How many codes can Katniss make using 2 letters followed by a 1 digit number? Page 14

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16 Here s an example: CCM6+7+ Unit 11 ~ Page 16 FINDING OUTCOMES when there aren t categories. There are 5 boxes of cereal in your cabinet at home. If you eat a different cereal each day, how many orderings of cereals could there be? 3 days so draw 3 blanks: On the first day there are 5 options. Write a 5 in the first blank. On the second day there are 4 options left. Write a 4 in the second blank. On the third day there are 3 options left. Write a 3 in the third blank. For the Counting Principle, what did you do with the numbers that were in each category? Yes, you multiplied. Do that to the numbers in the blanks. There are possible orders of eating cereal those 3 days. Here s another to try: A standard license plate consists of 3 letters followed by 4 numbers. All letters are possible and can be repeated. The first digit cannot be a zero, but that is the only number restriction. How many different license plates can be created? Page 16

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18 Compound Event Probability CCM6+7+ Unit 11 ~ Page 18 To find the probability of multiple things happening, multiply the probabilities of each event. What is the probability of flipping heads on a coin and rolling a 5 on a die? What is the probability of pulling out a striped marble, putting it back, then pulling out a white marble? These compound events are called INDEPENDENT EVENTS, since each event always has the same possible outcomes. What if you draw a marble out of the bag above, keep it out, then draw a second marble out. What is the probability of drawing a striped then a white? (This is called without replacement. The above example when you put the marble back is called with replacement. ) In this example, after you pull the first marble out of the bag, the next pull has fewer options. Your options for the second pull DEPEND ON what was taken out on the first pull. These kinds of situations are called DEPENDENT EVENTS. How do the denominators change for dependent events? Page 18

19 CCM6+7+ Unit 11 ~ Page 19 Determine if the situation involves independent or dependent probability, then calculate the probability of the event occurring. 1. A dresser drawer contains one pair of socks with each of the following colors: blue, brown, red, white and black. Each pair is folded together in a matching set. You reach into the sock drawer and choose a pair of socks without looking. You replace this pair and then choose another pair of socks. What is the probability that you will choose the red pair of socks both times? 2. A card is chosen at random from a standard deck of 52 playing cards. Without replacing it, a second card is chosen. What is the probability that the first card chosen is a queen and the second card chosen is a jack? (There are four of each type of card.) 3. Mr. Parietti needs two students to help him with a science demonstration for his class of 18 girls and 12 boys. He randomly chooses one student who comes to the front of the room. He then chooses a second student from those still seated. What is the probability that both students chosen are girls? 4. A jar contains 3 red, 5 green, 2 blue and 6 yellow marbles. A marble is chosen at random from the jar. After replacing it, a second marble is chosen. What is the probability of choosing a green and then a yellow marble? Page 19

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23 CCM6+7+ Unit 11 ~ Page 23 Sometimes you just need to list out the sample space to get the probability. Let s say Amy and Bob are married and hope to have 3 children one day. What is the probability that they will have two girls and a boy (in any order)? Here s another one: You flip a coin four times. What is the probability that you ll get 3 heads and a tail (in any order)? Page 23

24 CCM6+7+ Unit 11 ~ Page 24 DICE DIFFERENCES This game is for two players. RULES 1. Decide who will be player A and who will be player B. 2. Decide who goes first and alternate turns. 3. On your turn, do the following: Roll two dice. If the values are different, subtract the lesser value from the greater value. Record the difference in the boxes below (see sample game). If the values are the same, write a zero. 4. Play at least 3 games. SCORING Player A scores a point if the difference is 0, 1, or 2. Player B scores a point if the difference is 3, 4, or 5. The winner of the game is the first to score 10 points. Sample game: GAME 1: Player A gets 10 points, so player A wins. Player B got 4 points. Game 2: Game 3: Page 24

25 CCM6+7+ Unit 11 ~ Page 25 Do you think this game is fair? What makes a game fair? Fill in the chart below by subtracting the numbers on top and side. subtract Write the probability of each outcome: A difference of 5: A difference of 4: A difference of 3: A difference of 2: A difference of 1: A difference of 0: How could you change the rules to make this game fair? Page 25

26 This is a game for two players. CCM6+7+ Unit 11 ~ Page 26 CROSSING THE RIVER Each player wants to move their pieces across the river. The first player to move all their pieces across wins. How to play: Each player needs 11 colored cubes, a different color per player. Each player places the cubes on numbers on his/her own side of the river. Player 1 rolls two dice. If the sum on the dice matches the number where one of his/her cubes is located, that cube can move across the river to the other side. Only one cube can move per roll. Player 2 rolls two dice and if the sum matches where a cube is located, that player can move the cube to the other side. The winner gets all 11 cubes across the river first. Play the game twice on the next page. Then answer these questions. 1. Did you change where you placed your cubes on the second game? Why or why not? 2. What is the probability of each sum? Fill in the chart below to find the sample space for all outcomes How is knowing probability helpful in this game s strategy? Page 26

27 CCM6+7+ Unit 11 ~ Page 27 CROSSING THE RIVER GAME BOARD Page 27

28 CCM6+7+ Unit 11 ~ Page 28 UNIT 7 STUDY GUIDE Page 28

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31 CCM6+7+ Unit 11 ~ Page 31 Example 1: There are three choices of jellybeans grape, cherry and orange. If the probability of getting a grape is 3 1 and the probability of getting cherry is, what is the probability of getting orange? 10 5 Example 2: The container below contains 2 gray, 1 white, and 4 black marbles. Without looking, if Eric chooses a marble from the container, will the probability be closer to 0 or to 1 that Eric will select a white marble? A gray marble? A black marble? Justify each of your predictions. Page 31

32 CCM6+7+ Unit 11 ~ Page 32 Example 3: Suppose we toss a coin 50 times and have 27 heads and 23 tails. We define a head as a success. RELATIVE FREQUENCY How often something happens divided by all outcomes. Example: if your team has won 9 games from a total of 12 games played: * the Frequency of winning is 9 * the Relative Frequency of winning is 9/12 = 75% The relative frequency of heads is: The theoretical frequency of heads is: Example 4: A bag contains 100 marbles, some red and some purple. Suppose a student, without looking, chooses a marble out of the bag, records the color, and then places that marble back in the bag. The student has recorded 9 red marbles and 11 purple marbles. Using these results, predict the number of red marbles in the bag. Example 5: If Mary chooses a point in the square, what is the probability that it is not in the circle? Write your answer as a percent rounded to the nearest whole percent. Example 6: Jason is tossing a fair coin. He tosses the coin ten times and it lands on heads eight times. If Jason tosses the coin an eleventh time, what is the probability that it will land on heads? Page 32

33 CCM6+7+ Unit 11 ~ Page 33 Example 7: How many ways could the 3 students, Amy, Brenda, and Carla, come in 1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd place? Example 8: A fair coin will be tossed three times. What is the probability that two tails and one heads in any order will result? Example 9: Show all possible arrangements of the letters in the word FRED using a tree diagram. If each of the letters is on a tile and drawn at random, what is the probability of drawing the letters F-R-E-D in that order? What is the probability that a word will have an F as the first letter? Page 33

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