# Applications. 28 How Likely Is It? P(green) = 7 P(yellow) = 7 P(red) = 7. P(green) = 7 P(purple) = 7 P(orange) = 7 P(yellow) = 7

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1 Applications. A bucket contains one green block, one red block, and two yellow blocks. You choose one block from the bucket. a. Find the theoretical probability that you will choose each color. P(green) = 7 P(yellow) = 7 P(red) = 7 b. Find the sum of the probabilities in part (a). c. What is the probability that you will not choose a red block? Explain how you found your answer. d. What is the sum of the probability of choosing a red block and the probability of not choosing a red block?. A bubble-gum machine contains 5 gumballs. There are green, 6 purple, orange, and 5 yellow gumballs. a. Find each theoretical probability. P(green) = 7 P(purple) = 7 P(orange) = 7 P(yellow) = 7 b. Find the sum. P(green) + P(purple) + P(orange) + P(yellow) = 7 c. Write each of the probabilities in part (a) as a percent. P(green) = 7 P(purple) = 7 P(orange) = 7 P(yellow) = 7 d. What is the sum of all the probabilities as a percent? e. What do you think the sum of the probabilities for all the possible outcomes must be for any situation? Explain. 8 How Likely Is It?

2 3. A bag contains two white blocks, one red block, and three purple blocks. You choose one block from the bag. a. Find each probability. P(white) = 7 P(red) = 7 P(purple) = 7 b. What is the probability of not choosing a white block? Explain how you found your answer. c. Suppose the number of blocks of each color is doubled. What happens to the probability of choosing each color? d. Suppose you add two more blocks of each color. What happens to the probability of choosing each color? e. How many blocks of which colors should you add to the original bag to make the probability of choosing a red block equal to. A bag contains exactly three blue blocks. You choose a block at random. Find each probability. a. P(blue) b. P(not blue) c. P(yellow) 5. A bag contains several marbles. Some are red, some are white, and some are blue. You count the marbles and find the theoretical probability of choosing a red marble is. You also find the theoretical 5 3 probability of choosing a white marble is. 0 a. What is the least number of marbles that can be in the bag? b. Can the bag contain 60 marbles? If so, how many of each color does it contain? c. If the bag contains red marbles and 6 white marbles, how many blue marbles does it contain? d. How can you find the probability of choosing a blue marble?? For: Multiple-Choice Skills Practice Web Code: ama Decide whether each statement is true or false. Justify your answers. a. The probability of an outcome can be 0. b. The probability of an outcome can be. c. The probability of an outcome can be greater than. Investigation Experimental and Theoretical Probability 9

3 7. Melissa is designing a birthday card for her sister. She has a blue, a yellow, a pink, and a green sheet of paper. She also has a black, a red, and a purple marker. Suppose Melissa chooses one sheet of paper and one marker at random. a. Make a tree diagram to find all the possible color combinations. b. What is the probability that Melissa chooses pink paper and a red marker? c. What is the probability that Melissa chooses blue paper? What is the probability she does not choose blue paper? d. What is the probability that she chooses a purple marker? 8. Lunch at Casimer Middle School consists of a sandwich, a vegetable, and a fruit. Today there is an equal number of each type of sandwich, vegetable, and fruit. The students don t know what lunch they will get. Sol s favorite lunch is a chicken sandwich, carrots, and a banana. Casimer Middle School Lunch Menu Sandwiches Vegetables Fruit Chicken Hamburger Turkey Carrots Spinach Apple Banana a. Make a tree diagram to determine how many different lunches are possible. List all the possible outcomes. b. What is the probability that Sol gets his favorite lunch? Explain your reasoning. c. What is the probability that Sol gets at least one of his favorite lunch items? Explain. 30 How Likely Is It?

4 9. Suppose you spin the pointer of the spinner at the right once and roll the number cube. (The numbers on the cube are,, 3,, 5, and 6.) a. Make a tree diagram of the possible outcomes of a spin of the pointer and a roll of the number cube. b. What is the probability that you get a on both the spinner and the number cube? Explain your reasoning. c. What is the probability that you get a factor of on both the spinner and the number cube? d. What is the probability that you get a multiple of on both the number cube and the spinner? 0. Patricia and Jean design a coin-tossing game. Patricia suggests tossing three coins. Jean says they can toss one coin three times. Are the outcomes different for the two situations? Explain.. Pietro and Eva are playing a game in which they toss a coin three times. Eva gets a point if no two consecutive toss results match (as in H-T-H). Pietro gets a point if exactly two consecutive toss results match (as in H-H-T). The first player to get 0 points wins. Is this a fair game? Explain. If it is not a fair game, change the rules to make it fair.. Silvia and Juanita are designing a game. In the game, you toss two number cubes and consider whether the sum of the two numbers is odd or even. They make a tree diagram of possible outcomes. For: Help with Exercise Web Code: ame-7 Number Cube Number Cube odd odd even even odd even Outcome a. List all the outcomes. b. Design rules for a two-player game that is fair. c. Design rules for a two-player game that is not fair. d. How is this situation similar to tossing two coins and seeing if the coins match or don t match? Investigation Experimental and Theoretical Probability 3

5 Connections 3. Find numbers that make each sentence true. j 5 3 j 6 6 j a. = = b. = = c. = = 8 3 j 7 j 0 5. Which of the following sums is equal to? 3 a. + + b. + + c From Question, choose a sum equal to. Describe a situation whose events have a theoretical probability that can be represented by the sum. j 6. Kara and Bly both perform the same experiment in math class. Kara 5 08 gets a probability of and Bly gets a probability of a. Whose experimental probability is closer to the theoretical probability of Explain your reasoning. 3? b. Give two possible experiments that Kara and Bly can do that have a theoretical probability of For Exercises 7, estimate the probability that the given event occurs. Any probability must be between 0 and (or 0% and 00%). If an event is impossible, the probability it will occur is 0, or 0%. If an event is certain to happen, the probability it will occur is, or 00%. 3. The event is impossible. The event is certain to happen. 0 0% 5% 50% 3 75% 00% Sample You watch television tonight. I watch some television every night, unless I have too much homework. So far, I do not have much homework today. I am about 95% sure that I will watch television tonight. 7. You are absent from school at least one day during this school year. 8. You have pizza for lunch one day this week. 9. It snows on July this year in Mexico. 3 How Likely Is It?

6 0. You get all the problems on your next math test correct.. The next baby born in your local hospital is a girl.. The sun sets tonight. 3. You win a game by tossing four coins. The result is all heads.. You toss a coin and get 00 tails in a row. Multiple Choice For Exercises 5 8, choose the fraction closest to the given decimal A. B. C. D F. G. H. J A. B. C. D F. G. H. J Investigation Experimental and Theoretical Probability 33

7 9. Koto s class makes the line plot shown below. Each mark represents the first letter of the name of a student in her class. First Letters of Names A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Letter Suppose you choose a student at random from Koto s Class. a. What is the probability that the student s name begins with J? b. What is the probability that the student s name begins with a letter after F and before T in the alphabet? c. What is the probability that you choose Koto? d. Suppose two new students, Melvin and Tara, join the class. You now choose a student at random from the class. What is the probability that the student s name begins with J? 30. A bag contains red, white, blue, and green marbles. The probability of choosing a red marble is 7. The probability of choosing a green marble is The probability of choosing a white marble is half the probability. of choosing a red one. You want to find the number of marbles in the bag. a. Why do you need to know how to multiply and add fractions to proceed? b. Why do you need to know about multiples of whole numbers to proceed? c. Can there be seven marbles in the bag? Explain. 3. Write the following as one fraction. a. of b How Likely Is It?

8 3. Karen and Mia play games with coins and number cubes. No matter which game they play, Karen loses more often than Mia. Karen is not sure if she just has bad luck or if the games are unfair. The games are described in this table. Review the game rules and complete the table. Games Is It Possible for Karen to Win? Is It Likely Karen Will Win? Is the Game Fair or Unfair? Game Roll a number cube. Karen scores a point if the roll is even. Mia scores a point if the roll is odd. Game Roll a number cube. Karen scores a point if the roll is a multiple of. Mia scores a point if the roll is a multiple of 3. Game 3 Toss two coins. Karen scores a point if the coins match. Mia scores a point if the coins do not match. Game Roll two number cubes. Karen scores a point if the number cubes match. Mia scores a point if the number cubes do not match. Game 5 Roll two number cubes. Karen scores a point if the product of the two numbers is 7. Mia scores a point if the sum of the two numbers is 7. Investigation Experimental and Theoretical Probability 35

9 33. Karen and Mia invent another game. They roll a number cube twice and read the two digits shown as a two-digit number. So if Karen gets a 6 and then a, she has 6. a. What is the least number possible? b. What is the greatest number possible? c. Are all numbers equally likely? d. Suppose Karen wins on any prime number and Mia wins on any multiple of. Explain how to decide who is more likely to win. Extensions 3. Place objects of the same size and shape in a bag such as blocks or marbles. Use three or four different solid colors. a. Describe the contents of your bag. b. Determine the theoretical probability of choosing each color by examining the bag s contents. c. Conduct an experiment to determine the experimental probability of choosing each color. Describe your experiment and record your results. d. How do the two types of probability compare? 35. Suppose you are a contestant on the Gee Whiz Everyone Wins! game show in Problem.3. You win a mountain bike, a CD player, a vacation to Hawaii, and a one-year membership to an amusement park. You play the bonus round and lose. Then the host makes this offer: You can choose from the two bags again. If the two colors match, you win \$5,000. If the two colors do not match, you do not get the \$5,000 and you return all the prizes. Would you accept this offer? Explain. 36 How Likely Is It?

10 36. Suppose you compete for the bonus prize on the Gee Whiz Everyone Wins! game in Problem.3. You choose one block from each of two bags. Each bag contains one red, one white, and one blue block. a. Make a tree diagram to show all the possible outcomes. b. What is the probability that you choose two blocks that are not blue? c. Jason made the tree diagram shown below to find the probability of choosing two blocks that are not blue. Using his tree, what probability do you think Jason got? Start Bag Bag blue blue not blue blue not blue not blue Outcome blue-blue blue-not blue not blue-blue not blue-not blue d. Does your answer in part (b) match Jason s? If not, why do you think Jason gets a different answer? 37. Suppose you toss four coins. a. List all the possible outcomes. b. What is the probability of each outcome? c. Design a game for two players that involves tossing four coins. What is the probability that each player wins? Is one player more likely to win than the other player? Investigation Experimental and Theoretical Probability 37

### 2. A bubble-gum machine contains 25 gumballs. There are 12 green, 6 purple, 2 orange, and 5 yellow gumballs.

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### b. 2 ; the probability of choosing a white d. P(white) 25, or a a. Since the probability of choosing a

Applications. a. P(green) =, P(yellow) = 2, or 2, P(red) = 2 ; three of the four blocks are not red. d. 2. a. P(green) = 2 25, P(purple) = 6 25, P(orange) = 2 25, P(yellow) = 5 25, or 5 2 6 2 5 25 25 25

### 3. a. P(white) =, or. b. ; the probability of choosing a white block. d. P(white) =, or. 4. a. = 1 b. 0 c. = 0

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