# 2. A bubble-gum machine contains 25 gumballs. There are 12 green, 6 purple, 2 orange, and 5 yellow gumballs.

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1 A C E Applications Connections Extensions Applications. A bucket contains one green block, one red block, and two yellow blocks. You choose one block from the bucket. a. Find the theoretical probability that you will choose each color. P(green) = P(yellow) = P(red) = b. Find the sum of the probabilities in part (a). c. What is the probability that you will not choose a red block? Explain how you found your answer. d. What is the sum of the probability of choosing a red block and the probability of not choosing a red block?. A bubble-gum machine contains 5 gumballs. There are green, 6 purple, orange, and 5 yellow gumballs. a. Find each theoretical probability. P(green) = P(purple) = P(orange) = P(yellow) = b. Find the sum. P(green) + P(purple) + P(orange) + P(yellow) = c. Write each of the probabilities in part (a) as a percent. P(green) = P(purple) = P(orange) = P(yellow) = d. What is the sum of all the probabilities as a percent? e. What do you think the sum of the probabilities for all the possible outcomes must be for any situation? Explain.

2 3. Bailey uses the results from an experiment to calculate the probability of each color of block being chosen from a bucket. He says P(red) = 35%, P(blue) = 45%, and P(yellow) = 0%. Jarod uses theoretical probability because he knows how many of each color block is in the bucket. He says P(red) = 45%, P(blue) = 35%, and P(yellow) = 0%. On Bailey s turn, he predicts blue. On Jarod s turn, he predicts red. Neither boy makes the right prediction. a. Did the boys make reasonable predictions based on their own probabilities? Explain. b. Did they do something wrong with their calculations? Explain. 4. A bag contains two white blocks, one red block, and three purple blocks. You choose one block from the bag. a. Find each probability. P(white) = P(red) = P(purple) = b. What is the probability of not choosing a white block? Explain how you found your answer. c. Suppose the number of blocks of each color is doubled. What happens to the probability of choosing each color? d. Suppose you add two more blocks of each color to the original bag. What happens to the probability of choosing each color? e. How many blocks of which colors should you add to the original bag to make the probability of choosing a red block equal to? 5. A bag contains exactly three blue blocks. You choose a block at random. Find each probability. a. P(blue) b. P(not blue) c. P(yellow)

3 6. A bag contains several marbles. Some are red, some are white, and some are blue. You count the marbles and find the theoretical probability of choosing a red marble is. You also find the theoretical 5 probability of choosing a white marble is 3 0. a. What is the least number of marbles that can be in the bag? b. Can the bag contain 60 marbles? If so, how many of each color does it contain? c. If the bag contains 4 red marbles and 6 white marbles, how many blue marbles does it contain? d. How can you find the probability of choosing a blue marble? 7. Decide whether each statement is true or false. Justify your answers. a. The probability of an outcome can be 0. b. The probability of an outcome can be. c. The probability of an outcome can be greater than. 8. Patricia and Jean design a coin-tossing game. Patricia suggests tossing three coins. Jean says they can toss one coin three times. Are the outcomes different for the two situations? Explain. 9. Pietro and Eva are playing a game in which they toss a coin three times. Eva gets a point if no two consecutive toss results match (as in H-T-H). Pietro gets a point if exactly two consecutive toss results match (as in H-H-T). If all three toss results match, no one scores a point. The first player to get 0 points wins. Is this a fair game? Explain. If it is not a fair game, change the rules to make it fair. 3

4 0. Silvia and Juanita are designing a game. A player in the game tosses two number cubes. Winning depends on whether the sum of the two numbers is odd or even. Silvia and Juanita make a tree diagram of possible outcomes. Number Cube Number Cube Outcome odd odd even odd even even a. List all the outcomes for the sums. b. Design rules for a two-player game that is fair. c. Design rules for a two-player game that is not fair. d. How is this situation similar to tossing two coins and seeing if the coins match or don t match?. Melissa is designing a birthday card for her sister. She has a blue, a yellow, a pink, and a green sheet of paper. She also has a black, a red, and a purple marker. Suppose Melissa chooses one sheet of paper and one marker at random. a. Make a tree diagram to find all the possible color combinations. b. What is the probability that Melissa chooses pink paper and a red marker? c. What is the probability that Melissa chooses blue paper? What is the probability she does not choose blue paper? d. What is the probability that she chooses a purple marker? 4

5 . Lunch at school consists of a sandwich, a vegetable, and a fruit. Each lunch combination is equally likely to be given to a student. The students do not know what lunch they will get. Sol s favorite lunch is a chicken sandwich, carrots, and a banana. a. Make a tree diagram to determine how many different lunches are possible. List all the possible outcomes. b. What is the probability that Sol gets his favorite lunch? Explain your reasoning. c. What is the probability that Sol gets at least one of his favorite lunch items? Explain. 3. Suppose you spin the pointer of the spinner at the right once and roll the number cube. (The numbers on the cube are,, 3, 4, 5, and 6.) a. Make a tree diagram of the possible outcomes of a spin of the pointer and a roll of the number cube. b. What is the probability that you get a on both the spinner and the number cube? Explain your reasoning. c. What is the probability that you get a factor of on both the spinner and the number cube? d. What is the probability that you get a multiple of on both the number cube and the spinner? 5

6 Connections 4. Find numbers that make each sentence true. a. 5 = = 8 3 b. 3 = = 6 7 c. 8 6 = = Which of the following sums is equal to? a b c Describe a situation in which events have a theoretical probability that can be represented by the equation = Kara and Bly both perform an experiment. Kara gets a probability of for a particular outcome. Bly gets a probability of a. Whose experimental probability is closer to the theoretical probability of? Explain your reasoning. 3 b. Give two possible experiments that Kara and Bly can do and that have a theoretical probability of 3. 6

7 For Exercises 8 5, estimate the probability that the given event occurs. Any probability must be between 0 and (or 0% and 00%). If an event is impossible, the probability it will occur is 0, or 0%. If an event is certain to happen, the probability it will occur is, or 00%. Sample Samantha: I watch some television every night, unless I have too much homework. So far, I do not have much homework today. I am about 95% sure that I will watch television tonight. 8. You are absent from school at least one day during this school year. 9. You have pizza for lunch one day this week. 0. It snows on July 4 this year in Mexico.. You get all the problems on your next math test correct.. The next baby born in your local hospital is a girl. 3. The sun sets tonight. 4. You take a turn in a game by tossing four coins. The result is all heads. 5. You toss a coin and get 00 tails in a row. 7

8 6. Karen and Mia play games with coins and number cubes. No matter which game they play, Karen loses more often than Mia. Karen is not sure if she just has bad luck or if the games are unfair. The games are described in this table. Review the game rules and complete the table. Game Can Karen Win? Karen Likely to Win? Game Fair or Unfair? Game Roll a number cube. Karen scores a point if the roll is even. Mia scores a point if the roll is odd. Game Roll a number cube. Karen scores a point if the roll is a multiple of 4. Mia scores a point if the roll is a multiple of 3. Game 3 Toss two coins. Karen scores a point if the coins match. Mia scores a point if the coins do not match. Game 4 Roll two number cubes. Karen scores a point if the number cubes match. Mia scores a point if the number cubes do not match. Game 5 Roll two number cubes. Karen scores a point if the product of the two numbers is 7. Mia scores a point if the sum of the two numbers is 7. 8

9 7. Karen and Mia invent another game. They roll a number cube twice and read the two digits shown as a two-digit number. So, if Karen gets a 6 and then a, she has 6. a. What is the least number possible? b. What is the greatest number possible? c. Are all numbers equally likely? d. Suppose Karen wins on any prime number and Mia wins on any multiple of 4. Explain how to decide who is more likely to win. Multiple Choice For Exercises 8 3, choose the fraction closest to the given decimal A. B. 4 C. 8 D F. G. 4 H. 8 J A. B. 4 C. 8 D F. G. 4 H. 8 J. 0 9

10 3. Koto s class makes the line plot shown below. Each mark represents the first letter of the name of a student in her class. Suppose you choose a student at random from Koto s Class. a. What is the probability that the student s name begins with J? b. What is the probability that the student s name begins with a letter after F and before T in the alphabet? c. What is the probability that you choose Koto? d. Suppose two new students, Melvin and Theo, join the class. You now choose a student at random from the class. What is the probability that the student s name begins with J? 33. A bag contains red, white, blue, and green marbles. The probability of choosing a red marble is. The probability of choosing a green 7 marble is. The probability of choosing a white marble is half the probability of choosing a red one. You want to find the number of marbles in the bag. a. Why do you need to know how to multiply and add fractions to proceed? b. Why do you need to know about multiples of whole numbers to proceed? c. Can there be seven marbles in the bag? Explain. 34. Write the following as one fraction. a. of 7 b

11 Extensions 35. Place objects of the same size and shape, such as blocks or marbles, in a bag. Use three or four different solid colors. a. Describe the contents of your bag. b. Determine the theoretical probability of choosing each color by examining the bag s contents. c. Conduct an experiment to determine the experimental probability of choosing each color. Describe your experiment and record your results. d. How do the two types of probability compare? 36. Suppose you toss four coins. a. List all the possible outcomes. b. What is the probability of each outcome? c. Design a game for two players that involves tossing four coins. What is the probability that each player wins? Is one player more likely to win than the other player? 37. Suppose you are a contestant on the Gee Whiz Everyone Wins! game show in Problem.4. You win a mountain bike, a vacation to Hawaii, and a one-year membership to an amusement park. You play the bonus round and lose. Then the host makes this offer: Would you accept this offer? Explain.

12 38. Suppose you compete for the bonus prize on the Gee Whiz Everyone Wins! game in Problem.4. You choose one block from each of two bags. Each bag contains one red, one yellow, and one blue block. a. Make a tree diagram to show all the possible outcomes. b. What is the probability that you choose two blocks that are not blue? c. Jason made the tree diagram shown below to find the probability of choosing two blocks that are not blue. Using his tree, what probability do you think Jason got? start Bag Bag Outcome blue blue-blue blue not blue blue-not blue blue not blue-blue not blue not blue not blue-not blue d. Does your answer in part (b) match Jason s? If not, why do you think Jason gets a different answer?

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