# Counting Methods and Probability

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1 CHAPTER Counting Methods and Probability Many good basketball players can make 90% of their free throws. However, the likelihood of a player making several free throws in a row will be less than 90%. You will use compound probabilities to calculate the likelihood of two or more events happening..1 Rolling, Flipping, and Pulling Probability and Sample Spaces p Multiple Trials Compound and Conditional Probability p Counting Permutations and Combinations p Trials Independent Trials p To Spin or Not to Spin Expected Value p The Theoretical and the Actual Experimental Versus Theoretical Probability p. 333 Chapter Counting Methods and Probability 291

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3 .1 Rolling, Flipping, and Pulling Probability and Sample Spaces Objectives In this lesson you will: Calculate the probability of independent events with and without replacement. Calculate the probability of dependent events. Determine the sample space for independent and dependent events. Key Terms probability desired outcomes outcomes sample space compound events independent events dependent events without replacement with replacement Problem 1 In our daily lives, we encounter many instances of probability. The probability of rain today is 40%. A basketball player s probability of making a free throw is 5%. For a multiple-choice question with four answer choices, the probability of guessing the correct answer is one fourth. Therefore, understanding the meaning and interpretation of probability is becoming increasingly important. With a partner: 1. Using fractions, interpret each of the probabilities listed. 2. If the probability of rain is 40% for today and also 40% for tomorrow, then what is the probability it will rain both days? Neither day? Only one day? Lesson.1 Probability and Sample Spaces 293

4 3. The basketball player described has a one and one, meaning that if she makes the first shot, she gets another shot. What is the probability that she makes both free throws? Only one? Neither? 4. Suppose a test were composed of eight multiple-choice questions, each with four answer choices. You guess the answer to each question. What is the probability you will guess the correct answer for the first two questions? For all of the questions? Problem 2 The probability of an event happening is the ratio of the number of desired outcomes to the total number of possible outcomes, P( x) desired outcomes possible outcomes. A list of all of the possible outcomes is called the sample space. 1. One of the simplest examples of probability is the flipping of a coin. a. If a fair coin is flipped, what are the possible outcomes? b. What would be the probability of getting a head, P(H)? A tail, P(T)? c. If we flipped the coin again, does the probability of getting a head change? Explain. d. Suppose you flip a coin twice. List the sample space. e. What would be the probability of getting two heads? One tail and one head? Two tails? f. What is the sum of the probabilities you determined in part (e)? Are there any other possible outcomes? 294 Chapter Counting Methods and Probability

5 2. Another example of probability is rolling a number cube with faces numbered 1 to 6. a. List the sample space if you roll the number cube once. b. What is the probability of rolling an even number, P(even)? A number greater than 2, P(greater than 2)? 3. Suppose you roll a number cube and then flip a coin. This is an example of compound events because it consists of two or more events. a. List the sample space for this event. b. What is the probability of rolling an odd number and flipping a tail? Rolling a 3? c. What is the probability of flipping a head? 4. A deck of playing cards consists of 52 cards with 13 cards in each suit: clubs, diamonds, hearts, and spades. Clubs and spades are black, and diamonds and hearts are red. Each suit is made up of cards from 2 to 10, a jack, a queen, a king, and an ace. You draw one card at random from a well-shuffled deck. a. How many possible outcomes are in the sample space? Do you need to list them all? Explain. b. What is the probability of drawing a king? A red card? A club? A red 10? c. If you draw an ace of diamonds and then put it back in the deck and shuffle the cards, what is the probability of drawing the ace of diamonds? Why? Lesson.1 Probability and Sample Spaces 295

6 The events described in Question 4 are independent events. In independent events, the outcome of the first event does not affect the outcome of the second event. In dependent events, however, the second event is affected by, or dependent on, the outcome of the first event. 5. Suppose you draw the 5 of clubs from a standard deck of playing cards. You do not replace this card, and you draw an additional card. You want to determine the probability that the second card will be a king. This problem is an example of determining probability without replacement. Had you replaced the 5 of clubs, it would be an example of determining probability with replacement. a. After drawing the 5 of clubs without replacement, what is the probability that the second card you draw will be a king? A black card? A club? A red 10? b. How do these probabilities differ from the ones in part (b) of Question 4? Explain. Problem 3 Determining sample spaces can be time consuming and difficult when the spaces are large. Two methods for generating exhaustive sample spaces are using a tree diagram and using a table. Here is a tree diagram for the sample space for rolling a number cube followed by flipping a coin. 296 Chapter Counting Methods and Probability

7 H 1H 1 T 1T H 2H 2 T 2T H 3H 3 T 3T H 4H 4 T 4T H 5H 5 T 5T H 6H 6 T 6T The sample space can also be shown in a table: H 1H 2H 3H 4H 5H 6H T 1T 2T 3T 4T 5T 6T 1. How many outcomes are there for flipping a coin? How many outcomes are there for rolling a number cube? How many outcomes are there for the compound event of flipping a coin and rolling a number cube? In many applications, two number cubes are rolled and the sum of the numbers is calculated. Lesson.1 Probability and Sample Spaces 29

8 2. Make a tree diagram for rolling two number cubes. Include the sum of each outcome. 298 Chapter Counting Methods and Probability

9 3. Construct a table for this sample space. 4. How many outcomes are there for rolling one number cube? Two number cubes? 5. You roll two number cubes. Use your tree diagram or your table to answer parts (a) through (d). a. What is the probability that the sum is? 12? 2? b. What is the probability that the sum is greater than 8? c. What is the probability that the sum is equal to or less than 5? d. What is the probability that the sum is an even number? Lesson.1 Probability and Sample Spaces 299

10 6. If one event has 4 outcomes and another event has 10 outcomes, how many outcomes are possible for both events?. What is the probability of an event that must occur? That cannot occur? Explain using the definition of probability. Be prepared to share your work with another pair, group, or the entire class. 300 Chapter Counting Methods and Probability

11 .2 Multiple Trials Compound and Conditional Probability Objectives In this lesson you will: Calculate compound probabilities with and without replacement. Calculate conditional probabilities. Key Terms compound probability conditional probability Problem 1 Number Cubes Revisited In the last lesson, you determined the sample space and the probabilities involved in rolling two number cubes. Instead of rolling two cubes at once, we will look at what happens when we roll one, record the result, and then roll the same cube again. 1. Construct a table to show all of the possible outcomes from this experiment. A compound event consists of two or more independent events. Compound probability is the probability of two compound events. Calculating compound probability depends on whether both the events must occur or whether either or both may occur. Lesson.2 Compound and Conditional Probability 301

12 2. Use your sample space from Question 1 and those from the last lesson to answer parts (a) through (j). a. How many different ways can the sum of two rolls be? List them. b. What is the probability of rolling a one on the first roll, P(1)? c. What is the probability of rolling a six on the second roll, P(6)? d. Based on your sample space in Question 1, what is the probability of rolling a one on the first number cube and a six on the second number cube, P(1 and then a 6)? How does this result relate to your answers in parts (b) and (c)? e. What is the probability of rolling an even number on the first roll, P(even)? f. What is the probability of rolling an even number on the second roll, P(even)? g. What is the probability of rolling an even number on the first number cube and an even number on the second number cube, P(even and even)? How does this result relate to your answers in parts (e) and (f)? h. What is the probability of rolling a number less than 3 on the first roll? i. What is the probability of rolling a number greater than 4 on the second roll? 302 Chapter Counting Methods and Probability

13 j. What is the probability of rolling a number less than 3 on the first number cube and a number greater than 4 on the second number cube? How does this result relate to your answers in parts (h) and (i)? 3. In Question 2, you calculated the probability of one event, rolling a 1, and the probability of a second event, rolling a 6. You also calculated the probability of rolling a 1 and a 6 on two number cubes. How are these situations similar? 4. Using your results from Question 2, if the probability of the first of one of two independent events is 1, and the probability of the second of two 2 independent events is 1, what would be the probability of the first event 5 and the second event occurring? 5. Use your sample space in Question 1 to calculate each probability. a. rolling a sum of 5 on the first roll of two number cubes b. rolling a sum of 9 on the second roll of two number cubes c. Using your answers to parts (a) and (b), calculate the probability of rolling two number cubes and getting a sum of 5 and then rolling them again and getting a sum of 9, P(5 and 9). Then calculate the probability of rolling two number cubes and getting a sum of 5 on the first roll or getting a sum of 9 on the second roll, P(5 or 9). 6. In general, if the probability of an independent event A, P(A), is p, and the probability of an independent event B, P(B), is q, then what is the probability of A and B, P(A and B)? Lesson.2 Compound and Conditional Probability 303

14 . In general, if the probability of an independent event A, P(A), is p, and the probability of an independent event B, P(B), is q, then what is the probability of A or B, P(A or B)? Problem 2 Compound Probabilities Calculate each of the following probabilities. 1. Using a standard deck of playing cards, calculate each of the following probabilities with replacement. a. P(ace and 10) b. P(ace or 10) c. P(two diamonds) d. P(any pair) e. P(three of a kind) f. P(three kings) 2. Using a standard deck of playing cards, calculate each of the following probabilities without replacement. a. P(ace and 10) 304 Chapter Counting Methods and Probability

15 b. P(ace or 10) c. P(two diamonds) d. P(any pair) e. P(three of a kind) f. P(three kings) 3. There is a homeowner s association with 25 members. a. A three-member pool committee needs to be established. Calculate the probability that Bill, George, and Rio are selected at random to serve on a committee. b. Calculate the probability that Bill is selected at random to be president, then George to be vice president, and then Rio to be treasurer. c. What is the difference between the situations in parts (a) and (b)? d. Calculate the probability of five particular members being chosen to serve on a five-member committee. Lesson.2 Compound and Conditional Probability 305

16 e. Calculate the probability of a particular member of the homeowner s association being chosen to serve as one of five officers. 4. The menu of a local restaurant allows you to choose from the following: Appetizers: Shrimp, Veggies, Avocado Dip, Soup, Stuffed Mushrooms Salads: Garden, Caesar, Pasta, House Entrées: Steak, Pizza, Ravioli, Meatloaf, Chicken, Flounder, Spaghetti, Pork, Ham, Shrimp Desserts: Ice Cream, Cookies, Fruit, Chocolate Cake, Pie, Cheese Cake, Sorbet a. How many different dinners can a patron order if she must select one item from each category? b. What is the probability that a patron selects chicken? c. What is the probability that a patron selects meatloaf and chocolate cake? d. What is the probability that one patron selects steak or another patron selects pie? e. What is the probability that a patron selects meatloaf? Any entrée except meatloaf? 306 Chapter Counting Methods and Probability

17 f. What is the probability that a patron selects flounder, Caesar salad, and fruit? g. What is the probability that a patron selects pizza, cookies, and any salad except a garden salad? h. What is the probability that a patron selects soup, chicken, any salad, and any dessert? 5. The probability that a basketball player makes a free throw is 60%. a. If he is awarded two free throws, what is the probability that he will make them both? Neither? One? b. If he is awarded three free throws, what is the probability that he will make all three? Two? One? None? Lesson.2 Compound and Conditional Probability 30

18 c. If he is awarded a one and one, meaning if the first is made then he gets a second one, what is the probability that he will make them both? Neither? One? Problem 3 Terra and Jose are partners in math class. They are having a debate about the probability of rolling a total of 8 or more from two number cubes if the first roll is a 5. Terra says that the probability is 2 because once you roll a 5, the second roll 3 can be a 3, 4, 5 or 6. So, the probability is Jose says that the probability is 5 because there are 15 ways to roll a total of 12 8 or more out of a total sample space of 36. So, the probability is Is Terra or Jose correct? Explain. 2. Calculate the probability of rolling a total of 8 in two rolls if you already have a 5 on the first roll. 308 Chapter Counting Methods and Probability

19 3. What is the probability of rolling a total of 8 or more if the first roll is a 2? 3? 4? 4. What is the probability of rolling a total of 8 if the first roll is a 2? 3? 4? 5. How are the situations in Questions 3 and 4 different? 6. Is the probability of rolling a total of 8 the same for any first roll? Lesson.2 Compound and Conditional Probability 309

20 Problem 4 Each probability in Problem 3 is an example of a conditional probability. A conditional probability is the probability of event B happening, given that event A has already occurred. The conditional probability of event B occurring given that event A has already P(A B) occurred is calculated by P(B A), where P(A B) is the probability P(A) that both events occur and P(A) is the probability of event A occurring. For example, calculate the probability of rolling a total of 8 or more if the first roll is a 5. 1 P(A B) 2 P(B A) P(A) Calculate the probability of rolling a total of 8 if the first roll is a 5. 1 P(A B) 1 P(B A) P(A) A Biology teacher gives her students two tests. The probability that a student received a score of 90% or above on both tests is The probability that a student received a score of 90% or above on the first test is 1. What is the probability that a student who received a score of 5 90% or above on the first test also received a score of 90% or above on the second test? 2. The probability of a positive test for a disease and actually having the disease is The probability of a positive test is 1. What is the 3000 probability of actually having the disease given a positive test? 310 Chapter Counting Methods and Probability

21 3. A basketball player makes two out of two free throws 49% of the time. If he makes 0% of his free throws, what is the probability that he will make the second free throw after making the first? Be prepared to share your solutions and methods. Lesson.2 Compound and Conditional Probability 311

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23 .3 Counting Permutations and Combinations Objectives In this lesson you will: Use permutations to calculate the size of sample spaces. Use combinations to calculate the size of sample spaces. Use permutations to calculate probabilities. Use combinations to calculate probabilities. Calculate permutations with repeated elements. Calculate circular permutations. Key Terms factorial permutation combination permutations with repeated elements circular permutation Problem 1 Strings and Factorials Calculating large sample spaces can present several challenges because it is often too time consuming or impractical to list all of the possible outcomes. Even for relatively small numbers of options, listing the sample space can be challenging. 1. Using the first four letters of the alphabet, list all of the three-letter strings, such as DBA, that can be formed without using the same letter twice in one string (without replacement). 2. How many different strings are possible? 3. For each string, how many possible letters could be first? Second? Third? 4. How can your answer to Question 3 help you to calculate the number of possible three-letter strings? Lesson.3 Permutations and Combinations 313

24 5. How many different four-letter strings can be made using any four letters of the alphabet? Explain. 6. If you were able to use the letters more than once (replacement), how many three-letter strings could you list? How many four-letter strings? Explain.. If each letter could only be used once (without replacement), how many 10-letter strings could you list using the first 10 letters of the alphabet? Explain. 8. If you use the entire alphabet, how many three-letter strings can be made if each letter was only used once in each string (without replacement)? Explain. 9. Calculate the number of 26-letter strings possible without replacement. Explain. 10. In general, if there are n letters, how many three-letter lists are possible without repetition? Explain. 11. In general, if there are n letters, how many three-letter lists are possible with repetition? Explain. 314 Chapter Counting Methods and Probability

25 In 1808, Christian Kramp introduced the factorial, which could help you to perform some of the calculations in the previous questions. The factorial of n, a non-negative integer, is n! = n(n 1)(n 2)... (3)(2)(1), the product of all positive integers less than or equal to n. Take Note Graphing calculators have a factorial key.! 12. Calculate the following factorials. a. 5! b.! c. 10! You can simplify fractions involving factorials by dividing out common factors. For instance: 8!! 1 8! 8! 13. Simplify the following fractions. a. 8! 6! b. 11! 9! c.! 4! d.!5! 8!3! Using factorials, rewrite your answers to the following questions. a. Question 4: b. Question : c. Question 8: d. Question 10: Lesson.3 Permutations and Combinations 315

26 Take Note Graphing calculators have a permutations key. npr Problem 2 Permutations An ordered list of items without repetition is called a permutation. In Questions 1 through 4 of Problem 1, the three-letter strings are examples of permutations. There are a number of notations that are used for the permutations of n objects taken r at a time: P P(n, r) P n n! n(n 1)(n 2)... (n r 1) n r r (n r)! 1. Calculate the following permutations. a. 6 P 3 b. 10 P 1 c. 5 P 2 2. Using any 10 letters and the formula for permutations, answer the following. a. How many four-letter strings can there be without repetition? b. How many six-letter strings can there be without repetition? c. How many one-letter strings can there be without repetition? d. How many 10-letter strings can there be without repetition? (Note: In Question 12 of Problem 1, we already determined this answer.) e. What conclusion must you make about the value of 0!? Explain. 316 Chapter Counting Methods and Probability

27 Problem 3 Permutations with Repeated Elements A friend asks for your help with a math problem. The problem asks how many different five-letter strings can be formed from the word START. Your friend thinks that this is a permutation of five letters taken five at a time. So, there are P 5! 120 different 5-letter strings. However, the solution in your friend s math 5 5 book is 60 different 5-letter strings. 1. Explain why the book is correct. 2. List all possible 3-letter strings that can be formed from each. a. ADA b. ABC c. AAA 3. List all possible 4-letter strings that can be formed from TOOT. The permutations from Questions 1 through 3 are permutations with repeated elements. The number of permutations of n objects with k repetitions is n! k!. The number of permutations of n objects with k repetitions of one object and h repetitions of another object is n! k! h!. 4. Use the formula to calculate the permutations for Question Calculate the number of seven-letter strings that can be formed from the word Alabama. Lesson.3 Permutations and Combinations 31

28 Problem 4 Circular Permutations A club consists of four officers: a president (P), a vice-president (VP), a secretary (S), and a treasurer ( T ). 1. List the different ways that the four officers could be seated at a round table P T VP S 2. List the different ways that the officers could be arranged in a line. 3. Which elements from Question 2 are equivalent to the table seating of President, Vice-President, Secretary, Treasurer? 318 Chapter Counting Methods and Probability

29 4. Which elements from Question 2 are equivalent to the table seating of President, Secretary, Vice-President, Treasurer? 5. Which elements from Question 2 are equivalent to the table seating of President, Treasurer, Secretary, Vice-President? 6. Based on Questions 3 through 5, how many equivalent elements are included for each seating arrangement? How does this number appear in the original problem? The seating arrangement problem is a circular permutation. The circular permutation of n objects is (n 1)!.. Calculate the number of table arrangements for each number of officers. a. Five officers b. Six officers c. Ten officers Lesson.3 Permutations and Combinations 319

30 Problem 5 Combinations An unordered collection of items is called a combination. Problem 3 is an example of combinations. Different notations can be used for the combinations of n objects taken r at a time: C C(n, r) C n n r r ( n r ) n! (n r)! r! n(n 1)(n 2)... (n r 1) r (r 1)(r 2)... (2)(1) 1. Calculate the following combinations. Note Graphing calculators have a combinations key. ncr a. 6 C 3 b. 10 C 1 c. ( 3 ) 2. Using an organization of 10 members and the formula for combinations, answer the following. a. How many four-member committees can be chosen? b. How many six-member committees can be chosen? c. How many one-member committees can be chosen? d. How many 10-member committees can be chosen? 320 Chapter Counting Methods and Probability

31 Problem 6 1. State whether each question uses permutations or combinations. Then calculate the answer. a. Using a standard deck of playing cards, how many different five-card hands can be dealt without replacement? b. How many different numbers can be made using any three digits of 12,38? c. How many different ways can you arrange 10 CDs on a shelf? d. A professional basketball team has 12 members, but only five can play at any one time; how many different teams can be assembled? 2. Calculate the following probabilities. a. Using a standard deck of playing cards, what is the probability that a person is dealt a five-card hand containing an ace, a king, a queen, a jack, and a 10? b. Consider the number 12,38. Using any three digits, what is the probability of making a three-digit number whose value is greater than 00? Be prepared to share your work with another pair, group, or the entire class. Lesson.3 Permutations and Combinations 321

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33 .4 Trials Independent Trials Objectives In this lesson you will: Calculate the probability of two trials of two independent events. Calculate the probability of multiple trials of two independent events. Determine the formula for calculating the probability of multiple trials of independent events. Key Term regular tetrahedron Problem 1 Multiple Trials A number cube has four sides painted red (R) and two sides painted blue (B). You roll the number cube twice. 1. List all possible outcomes. 2. Is there an equal probability of each outcome? Explain. The two rolls are independent because what happens on one roll does not affect what happens on the other roll. The outcomes of a roll are mutually exclusive because the outcome can only be red or blue. 3. Calculate the probability of each outcome from Question 1. Lesson.4 Independent Trials 323

34 4. What is the sum of the probabilities from Question 3? 5. How many different ways can you roll two reds? Two blues? One of each color? 6. What is the probability of rolling two reds? Two blues? One of each color?. You roll the same number cube three times. Calculate each probability using exponents. a. P(3R) b. P(2R and B) c. P(R and 2B) d. P(3B) 8. What do you notice about the exponents and number of occurrences of each color from Question? The probability of rolling two reds and a blue can be calculated in two different ways. Calculate the probability of a single outcome. Then multiply this probability by the number of ways that the outcome can occur. Calculate the probability of each outcome. Then add the probabilities. For a small number of trials either method is relatively simple. For a large number of trials the first method usually involves less calculations than the second method. 324 Chapter Counting Methods and Probability

35 9. Complete the table by listing all possible outcomes and the number of ways that each outcome can occur for each number of rolls. Rolls Outcome 1 Outcome 2 Outcome 3 Outcome 4 Outcome 5 Outcome 6 1 1R (1 way) 1B (1 way) 2 2R (1 way) R & B (2 ways) 2B (1 way) The following is a different way to write the number of possible outcomes. Use a pattern to write the next two rows The triangle in Question 10 is called Pascal s Triangle. It can be useful when calculating probabilities when the number of trials is relatively small. For example, calculate the probability of rolling 2 reds and 1 blue when the number cube is rolled three times. To see what happens when the number cube is rolled three times, look in the third row of Pascal s Triangle. The four entries in the third row represent the number of ways to get 3 reds, 2 reds, 1 red, and 0 red, respectively. So, there are 3 ways to get 2 reds and 1 blue. P(2R and 1B) (Number of ways to roll 2 reds and a blue) (Probability of rolling 2 reds and a blue) 3 ( 2 3 ) 2 ( 1 3 ) 4 9 So, the probability of rolling the number cube three times and rolling 2 reds and 1 blue is 4 9. Lesson.4 Independent Trials 325

36 11. Calculate the probability of each outcome using a number cube with 4 red faces and 2 blue faces. a. Rolling 4 reds and 1 blue when the number cube is rolled five times. b. Rolling 3 reds and 3 blues when the number cube is rolled six times. c. Rolling 1 red and 6 blues when the number cube is rolled seven times. Problem 2 A Formula for Multiple Trials Consider the same number cube from Problem 1, consisting of 4 red faces and 2 blue faces. What if you wanted to calculate probabilities for 15 rolls, or 50 rolls, or 500 rolls? Using Pascal s Triangle to calculate the number of ways that an outcome can occur isn t realistic because you would have to write out 15, 50, and 500 rows, respectively. 1. You can use combinations to make the problem easier for large number of trials. For three rolls of the number cube: Rolling three reds is the same as three objects taken three at a time. Rolling two reds and one blue is the same as three objects taken two at a time. Rolling one red and two blues is the same as three objects taken one at time. Rolling three blues is the same as three objects taken zero at a time. a. Calculate the equivalent combinations for each outcome of rolling the number cube three times. b. Compare the combinations from part (a) to the third row of Pascal s Triangle. What do you notice? 326 Chapter Counting Methods and Probability

37 If the probability of event A is p and the probability of event B is 1 p, then the probability of event A occurring r times and event B occurring n r times in n trials is: P(A occuring r times and B occuring n r times) For example, calculate the probability of rolling four reds and one blue in five rolls. n 5r 4p 2 (1 p) P(4A and 1B) 5 C 4 ( 2 3 ) 4 ( 1 3 ) 4 3 P(4R and 1B) 5! 4!1! ( 2 3 ) 4 ( 1 3 ) 5 ( 2 3 ) 4 ( Calculate each probability. 3 ) a. Rolling 3 reds and 3 blues when the number cube is rolled six times. b. Rolling 1 red and 6 blues when the number cube is rolled seven times. c. Rolling 3 reds and blues when the number cube is rolled ten times. d. Rolling 3 reds and 4 blues when the number cube is rolled seven times. 3. A regular tetrahedron is a four-sided solid with each face an equilateral triangle. A regular tetrahedron has three sides painted blue and one side painted red. a. What is the probability of rolling a red? b. What is the probability of rolling a blue? Lesson.4 Independent Trials 32

38 4. Calculate each probability for the regular tetrahedron from Question 3. a. Rolling five blues and two reds in seven rolls. b. Rolling four blues and one red in five rolls. c. Rolling five blues and five reds in ten rolls. Be prepared to share your solutions and methods. 328 Chapter Counting Methods and Probability

39 .5 To Spin or Not to Spin Expected Value Objective In this lesson you will: Calculate the expected value of an event. Key Term expected value Problem 1 First Round You are a contestant on a game show. In the first round, the host gives you \$200. You can choose to keep the money or give the money back and spin the wheel shown. You then win the amount at the top of the wheel when it stops spinning. \$100 \$200 \$100 \$500 \$300 \$100 \$400 \$ Would you choose to keep the \$200 or spin the wheel? Why? Lesson.5 Expected Value 329

40 2. If you spin the wheel, what is the probability that you will win each amount? a. \$100 b. \$200 c. \$300 d. \$400 e. \$ If you spin the wheel, how often would you expect to win each amount? a. \$100 b. \$200 c. \$300 d. \$400 e. \$ Chapter Counting Methods and Probability

41 4. Multiply each amount by the probability of winning that amount. 5. Calculate the sum of the values from Question 4. The sum in Question 5 is the expected value. The expected value is the average value when the number of trials is large. In this problem, the expected value represents the amount that you could expect to receive from a single spin. 6. Based on expected value, should you keep the \$200 or spin the wheel? Explain. Problem 2 Second Round In the second round of the game show you are offered another choice. The host gives you \$300. You can choose to keep the money or give the money back and spin the wheel shown. You then win the amount at the top of the wheel. \$0 \$100 \$200 \$500 \$300 \$400 \$00 \$600 Lesson.5 Expected Value 331

42 1. Calculate the expected value of spinning the wheel. 2. Should you keep the \$300 or spin the wheel? Explain. Be prepared to share your solutions and methods. 332 Chapter Counting Methods and Probability

43 .6 The Theoretical and the Actual Experimental Versus Theoretical Probability Objectives In this lesson you will: Calculate experimental probabilities. Compare experimental and theoretical probabilities. Key Terms theoretical probability experimental probability Problem 1 In each of the activities in this chapter, we have calculated the theoretical probability of the event using the number of desirable outcomes divided by the number of possible outcomes. However, it is common knowledge that if one flips a coin four times, the result will not necessarily be exactly two heads and two tails. 1. Flip a coin four times or flip four coins once, and record your results in the Individual row in the table shown. Repeat this process 10 more times. Outcome 4H 3H1T 2H2T 1H3T 4T Total Flips/Trials Individual Group Class Theoretical Probability Theoretical Result 2. Gather the results from your group, and record them in the Group row. 3. Gather the results from your class, and record them in the Class row. 4. Based on your work earlier in the chapter, record the theoretical probabilities of each outcome. 5. Using the total number of trials for the class, calculate the theoretical number of times each outcome will occur, and record these numbers in the Theoretical Result row. Lesson.6 Experimental Versus Theoretical Probability 333

44 6. How do the theoretical results differ from the actual results obtained from the class? Why? The result obtained from an experiment an event or series of events is called experimental probability, which is the ratio of the number of observed desired results to the total number of trials. Problem 2 1. Roll two number cubes 36 times, and calculate the sum of each roll. Record your results in the Individual row in the table shown. Outcome Total Rolls/Trials Individual Group Class Theoretical Probability Theoretical Result 2. Gather the results from your group, and record them in the Group row. 3. Gather the results from your class, and record them in the Class row. 4. Based on your work earlier in the chapter, record the theoretical probabilities of each outcome. 5. Using the total number of trials for the class, calculate the theoretical number of times each outcome will occur, and record these numbers in the Theoretical Result row. 6. How do the theoretical results differ from the actual result obtained from the class? Why? 334 Chapter Counting Methods and Probability

45 Problem 3 What s in the Bag? Your teacher will provide each group with a numbered paper bag containing some items. DO NOT LOOK IN THE BAGS! 1. Your task is to determine what the items are and how many of each item is in the bag: Take only one item at a time. Record the name of each item in the Name row of the table shown. Place a tally mark in the Tally row. Then replace the item in the bag, and shake the contents. Repeat this process 10 times. (Note that you record the name of the item only the first time it s pulled.) Next, use your tallies to guess the number of each item that is in the bag. Record your guesses in the Group Guess row. Make sure to record the number that is on each bag. Once you have completed this experiment, pass your bag to another group. Bag # Item #1 Item #2 Item #3 Item #4 Item #5 Total Trials Name Tally 10 Group Guess Class Guess Actual Number of Each Item in Bag 2. Repeat the process for another bag. Bag # Item #1 Item #2 Item #3 Item #4 Item #5 Total Trials Name Tally 10 Group Guess Class Guess Actual Number of Each Item in Bag Lesson.6 Experimental Versus Theoretical Probability 335

46 3. Repeat the process for another bag. Bag # Item #1 Item #2 Item #3 Item #4 Item #5 Total Trials Name Tally 10 Group Guess Class Guess Actual Number of Each Item in Bag 4. Repeat the process for another bag. Bag # Item #1 Item #2 Item #3 Item #4 Item #5 Total Trials Name Tally 10 Group Guess Class Guess Actual Number of Each Item in Bag 5. After performing these experiments for the four different bags, discuss your guesses. As a class, guess the number of each item in each bag, and record your results in the Class Guess row. 6. Finally, open the bags, and record the actual contents of each bag in your tables. How close to the actual contents were your group s guesses? The guesses based on the class data? Explain. 336 Chapter Counting Methods and Probability

47 Problem 4 Many uses of probability are based not on theoretical probability, but on experimental probability, which includes some of the situations we examined in Problems 1 through Think about this statement: There is a 40% probability of rain today. What does this statement mean? Why is this statement most likely based on experimental probability? 2. Think about this statement: The probability that a first-year teenage driver will have an accident increases by 20% if there is another teenager in the car. What does this statement mean? Why is this statement most likely based on experimental probability? Be prepared to share your work with another pair, group, or the entire class. Lesson.6 Experimental Versus Theoretical Probability 33

48 338 Chapter Counting Methods and Probability

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