# UNIT 5: RATIO, PROPORTION, AND PERCENT WEEK 20: Student Packet

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1 Name Period Date UNIT 5: RATIO, PROPORTION, AND PERCENT WEEK 20: Student Packet 20.1 Solving Proportions 1 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers. Use rates and proportions to solve problems. Use cross multiplication to solve proportions Probability: Flip and Roll Represent the sample space of a probability experiment using lists, outcome grids, and tree diagrams. Represent probabilities as fractions, decimals, and percents. Record and analyze outcomes from a probability experiment Solving Proportions 2 Apply strategies and procedures for solving proportions. Review math concepts from prior lessons. Demonstrate competency in fraction, decimal, and percent equivalences (highlighted review) Week 20 SP

2 FOCUS ON VOCABULARY 20 Match the words to the clues. Words 1. experimental probability Clues a. A measure of the chance of an event occurring. 2. probability experiment b. A probability of something happening that is estimated by an experiment. 3. trial c. Two events in which the first event affects the outcome of the second event. 4. theoretical probability d. Possible results in a probability experiment. 5. outcome e. A set of all possible outcomes in a probability experiment. 6. sample space f. Each performance or repetition of a probability experiment. Week 20 SP0

3 20.1 Solving Proportions 1 SOLVING PROPORTIONS 1 Ready (Summary) We will learn more computational procedures for solving proportions, and we will learn why the cross multiplication property for solving proportions works. Set (Goals) Add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers. Use rates and proportions to solve problems. Use cross multiplication to solve proportions. Go (Warmup) Solve each pencil problem. Show your work. 1. If 5 pencils cost \$0.45, then what is the cost of 4 pencils? 2. How many pencils can be purchased with \$0.51 if the cost of 8 pencils is \$1.36? Find the missing value to make each statement true = = 24 6 Week 20 SP1

4 20.1 Solving Proportions 1 SOME IMPORTANT PROPERTIES Write the rule and give an example for each property of arithmetic or equality. Property Rule Example Symmetric property of equality Multiplication property of equality Multiplication property of 1 Fraction inverse property Numerator equality property Week 20 SP2

5 20.1 Solving Proportions 1 HOW TO FIND x IN A PROPORTION 1. Here is one way to find x in a proportion. For each step, state the reason or property used. Step Statement Reason = 3 x Original problem 2 3 x = 2 10 Fraction inverse property x 2 = x = = 2x 6 2 x = x = x = 15 9 x = How can you get from step #1 to step #6 in one step? a c The cross multiplication property states that if =, then ad = bc ( b 0, d 0). b d a c This can be remembered with the diagram: =. It is another way to solve b d proportions. Use the cross multiplication property to solve for x: 2 x x 5 3. = 4. = Week 20 SP3

6 20.1 Solving Proportions 1 PRACTICE SOLVING PROPORTIONS Write a rate for each problem. Then use the numerator equality property or cross multiplication property to solve each proportion. Problem Rate Proportion 1. If 5 pencils cost \$0.45, then what is the cost of 4 pencils? # of pencils cost 5 pencils 4 pencils = \$0.45 x 2. How many pencils can be purchased with \$0.51 if the cost of 8 pencils is \$1.36? 3. You drive at a rate of 65 miles per hour for 4 hours. How far will you go? 4. If you drive 25 miles at a rate of 50 miles per hour. How long will this take? 5. If the cost of making 1 copy is \$0.055, how much will 10 copies cost? Week 20 SP4

7 20.1 Solving Proportions 1 PAPER PROBLEMS Write a rate for each problem. Then use the numerator equality property or cross multiplication property to solve each proportion. Problem Rate Proportion 1. How much will 50 copies cost if it costs \$4.50 to make 100 copies? 2. If the cost of making 20 copies is \$1.30, how much will 1 copy cost? 3. What will it cost to make 1,000 copies if the cost of 1 copy is \$0.041? 4. If the cost of 100 copies is \$3.10, how many copies can be made for \$155? 5. How many copies can be made for \$30.50 if the cost of 10 copies is \$0.61? Week 20 SP5

8 20.2 Probability: Flip and Roll PROBABILITY: FLIP AND ROLL Ready (Summary) We will explore probability concepts as we flip a coin and roll a number cube. We will learn techniques for organizing the collected data and then analyze the experiment by comparing experimental probabilities to the theoretical probability. Set (Goals) Represent the sample space of a probability experiment using lists, outcome grids, and tree diagrams. Represent probabilities as fractions, decimals, and percents. Record and analyze outcomes from a probability experiment. Go (Warmup) Suppose that slips of paper, each with the name of a student in your class, are placed in a box. Your teacher takes out a slip of paper from the box. Predict the chances of each event by placing them on the line below. A. The name taken from the box is a student in this class. B. The name taken from the box is a girl. C. The name taken from the box is a student wearing ice skates. D. The name taken from the box is your name. 0 0% Will Never Happen 0.5 or % Chance of Happening is the Same as Chance of Not Happening 1 100% Will Always Happen Week 20 SP6

9 20.2 Probability: Flip and Roll FLIP AND ROLL EXPERIMENT You are going to flip a coin and roll a number cube twenty times. You win if the coin shows heads and the number on the cube is divisible by two OR if the coin shows tails and the number on the cube is divisible by three. Otherwise you lose. Trial # Heads or Tails? Number Rolled? Win or Loss? Trial # Heads or Tails? Number Rolled? Win or Loss? Estimate of probability of winning = number of wins number of trials = proportion of wins Estimate of probability of losing = number of losses number of trials = proportion of losses Your Totals As Fraction As Decimal As Percent Class totals Win Loss Which do you think is more accurate: your individual estimates of the probabilities or the class s estimates of the probabilities? Why? Week 20 SP7

10 20.2 Probability: Flip and Roll DISPLAYING THE SAMPLE SPACE Show all the outcomes of the flip and roll experiment in a grid and in a tree diagram. Circle all the outcomes that result in a win. 1. Outcome Grid: H H, T 2. Tree Diagram: coin toss number roll outcome Week 20 SP8

11 20.2 Probability: Flip and Roll CALCULATING THEORETICAL PROBABILITY When all outcomes are equally likely, the probability P of an event E is the ratio: Number of Outcomes in E PE ( ) = Number of Possible Outcomes 1. Use your tree or outcome grid to calculate the theoretical probabilities for the flip and roll experiment. P (Win) P (Loss) As Fraction As Decimal As Percent 2. What was the class estimate of the probability of winning from the previous page? 3. How does the theoretical probability for winning and the estimate from the class experiment compare? 4. How do you think the empirical probability for one million trials would compare to our class estimate? How might it compare to the theoretical probability? Week 20 SP9

12 20.2 Probability: Flip and Roll COLORED MARBLES There are two bags of colored marbles. In the first bag, there are 3 brown, 1 green, and 2 tan. In the second bag, there are 2 brown, 1 red, 2 green, and 1 tan. 1. Make an outcome grid that displays what might happen if you pick one colored marble from the first bag and one colored marble from the second bag. Remember that each marble is unique. Second Bag First Bag 2. How many entries are in the table? 3. Circle all entries where two brown colored marbles are drawn. 4 If you pick one colored marble from the first bag and one colored marble from the second bag, what is the probability that you will pick two brown colored marbles? Week 20 SP10

13 20.3 Solving Proportions 2 SKILL BUILDER 1A Solve each problem two ways. Show your work. Set up a proportion and use the cross multiplication property Another strategy 1. Olivia s favorite shade of purple comes from mixing 2 parts blue with 5 parts red. How many gallons of blue paint should she mix with 8 gallons of red paint to get her favorite shade of purple? 2. While working at the charity car wash, the football team washes vehicles at a ratio of 2 cars to 3 SUVs. If they washed 16 cars, how many SUVs did they wash in all? Week 20 SP11

14 20.3 Solving Proportions 2 SKILL BUILDER 1B Solve each problem two ways. Show your work. Set up a proportion and use the cross multiplication property Another strategy 3. The neighborhood children have a lemonade stand. When making the lemonade, they use 1 gallon of water to 3 cups of lemon juice. How many cups of lemon juice are needed for 10 quarts of water? (Hint: There are 4 cups quart and 4 quarts gallon.) 4. The ratio of boys to girls in Mrs. Chang s class is 3:4. If we know there are 15 boys, how many students are in the class? Week 20 SP12

15 20.3 Solving Proportions 2 SKILL BUILDER 2 Solve each proportion. x 4 1. = = 8 x = x x = = 6 x = 56 x Complete the table. Fraction Decimal Percent % Multiply using an area model Divide using a non-standard strategy Week 20 SP13

16 20.3 Solving Proportions 2 SKILL BUILDER 3A Solve each proportion. x 5 1. = x = x 6 = Complete the table with equivalent values. Fraction Decimal Percent % Compare. Use <, >, or = to complete each statement % 50% 8. 68% % 12 Complete the problem below. 10. There are 24 boys and 18 girls in Mr. Smith s class. What is the ratio of boys to girls? 11. Eight out of 12 people have a personal computer. What is the ratio of people who have personal computers to people who don t have personal computers? Week 20 SP14

17 20.3 Solving Proportions 2 SKILL BUILDER 3B 12. A board game that regularly sells for \$59.95 is on sale for 20% off. What is the sale price? 13. A music store buys a CD for \$8 and marks up the price by 40%. For what amount does the store sell the CD? 14. Find the perimeter and the area of a rectangle with a width of 14 inches and a height of 27 inches. Perimeter = Area = 15. Complete the table below, graph the values, connect the points, and write an equation for the line. There are about 2.2cm inch. Inches (x) x Centimeters (y) 2.2 Rule (in symbols): y = Rule (in words): Week 20 SP15

18 20.3 Solving Proportions 2 TEST PREPARATION 20 Show your work on a separate sheet of paper and choose the best answer. 1. You drive at a rate of 36 miles per hour for 4 hours. How far will you go? A. 144 miles B miles C. 9 miles D. 1 9 mile 2. There are two bags containing colored marbles. One bag contains 1 red, 1 brown and 2 orange marbles. The other bag contains 2 red and 2 brown marbles. If you pick one marble from the first bag and one marble from the second bag, what is the probability of drawing two brown marbles? E. 1 8 F. 1 4 G. 3 8 H If 3 lbs of grapes costs \$6.30, how much would 2 lbs of grapes cost? A. \$12.60 B. \$19.80 C. \$4.20 D. \$ Which of the following is equivalent to 28%? E. 1 4 F G H Which of the following rules or equations converts from dollars (x) to quarters (y)? A. y = 4x B. 1 y = x C. y = x + 4 D. y = x The regular price of a jacket is \$38. It is now on sale at 10% off. What is the new sale price? E. \$3.80 F. \$10 G. \$34.20 H. \$41.80 Week 20 SP16

19 20.3 Solving Proportions 2 KNOWLEDGE CHECK 20 Show your work on a separate sheet of paper and write your answers on this page Solving Proportions 1 Use a proportion to solve each problem. 1. If 8 pencils cost \$2.48, then what is the cost of 5 pencils? 2. How much will 65 copies cost if it costs \$8 for 100 copies? 20.2 Probability: Flip and Roll There are two spinners. One spinner is labeled with numbers 1-6 and the other spinner is labeled letters A-F. You will spin each spinner once A F E B C D 3. Make a list to show all the possible outcomes. 4. What is the probability of spinning an even number and a letter? 20.3 Solving Proportions 2 5. A racecar can travel 2 laps in 5 minutes. How long will it take the racecar to complete 50 laps? 6. Use cross multiplication to solve 5 = 35 7 x. Highlighted Review: Fraction, Decimal, Percent Equivalences 7. Complete the table. Fraction Decimal Percent % Week 20 SP17

20 20.3 Solving Proportions 2 Home-School Connection 20 Here are some questions from this week s lessons to review with your young mathematician. 1. If 4 pencils cost \$0.36, then what is the cost of 7 pencils? Use a proportion to solve the problem. 2. There are two bags containing colored marbles. One bag contains 1 red and 2 orange colored marbles. The other bag contains 1 green and 2 red colored marbles. If you take out one marble from the first bag and one marble from the second bag, what is the probability of drawing two red colored marbles? 3. Use cross multiplication to solve 7 = 42 6 x. Parent (or Guardian) signature Selected California Mathematics Content Standards NS Interpret and use ratios in different contexts (e.g., batting averages, miles per hour) to show the relative sizes of two quantities, using appropriate notations (a/b, a to b, a:b). NS Use proportions to solve problems (e.g., determine the value of N if 4/7 = N/21, find the length of a side of a polygon similar to a known polygon). Use cross-multiplication as a method for solving such problems, understanding it as the multiplication of both sides of an equation by a multiplicative inverse. NS Convert fractions to decimals and percents and use these representations in estimations, computations, and applications. SDP Represent all possible outcomes for compound events in an organized way (e.g., tables, grids, tree diagrams) and express the theoretical probability of each outcome. SDP Represent probabilities as ratios, proportions, decimals between 0 and 1, and percentages between 0 and 100 and verify that the probabilities computed are reasonable; know that if P is the probability of an event, 1-P is the probability of an event not occurring. MR Express the solution clearly and logically by using the appropriate mathematical notation and terms and clear language; support solutions with evidence in both verbal and symbolic work. Week 20 SP18

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