POINTING ERROR CORRECTION FOR MEMS LASER COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "POINTING ERROR CORRECTION FOR MEMS LASER COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS"

Transcription

1 POINTING ERROR CORRECTION FOR MEMS LASER COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS Baris Cagdaser, Brian S. Leibowitz, Matt Last, Krishna Ramanathan, Bernhard E. Boser, Kristofer S.J. Pister Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center 497 Cory Hall, University of California, Berkeley CA USA ABSTRACT We propose the use of free-space optical communication for information transmission between small airplanes <m wing span. The transmitter directs a focused laser beam (~ mrad full-width-half-max, FWHM) to the receiver using a 2 degree-of-freedom (DOF) MEMS mirror for pointing. Gyroscopes are used to monitor and compensate for short-term motion of the transmitter. Periodic dithering corrects gyroscope drift and tracks the motion of the receiver. A DOF prototype with commercially available mirrors and gyroscopes shows that the proposed algorithms use less than 4 percent of the available communication bandwidth. KEY WORDS Free space optical communication, gyroscope drift, system architecture.. INTRODUCTION Highly directional laser beams are promising candidates for high-bit rate, interference free, and low power free-space communication. Platforms hosting the optical transceiver determine some important specifications of the system. Sending video images from unmanned micro air vehicles (µav) flying more than 5 km away from the nearest receiver is our main goal. Data rate of the link is > Mbps. Limited resources on the small airplane require minimization of extra power consumption for the benefit of flight range and duration. Fig : Artists conception of information relayed from µav to µav to ground station. Host vehicle dimensions also limit the maximum payload, and require a compact and light transceiver design. We propose the use of MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) based optical transceivers for solving both the power and the payload challenges. Main components of the MEMS transceiver are a laser beam with a steering device, a receiver and a control system employing gyroscopes for maintaining a high accuracy pointing, Fig. 2. The steering device is a 2 degree-of-freedom (DOF) mirror with a diameter < mm. Devices are designed in Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) technology to achieve stiff and flat mirrors with resonance frequencies above khz []. Size of the transmitter, signal strength requirement for the receiver and an eye safe operation translate into a FWHM beam divergence of mrad [2]. Opposite end 2 Receiver LOS () 2 DOF MEMS mirrors and transmitters, (2) Gyroscopes, (3) CMOS receiver, (4) Lens Fig. 2: Main components of a MEMS optical transceiver. For continuous illumination of the opposite end the control system must adjust the laser pointing direction in response to motion of the transmitter and receiver. The motion of the receiver requires only slow updates, except when the transmitter and receiver are very close. In the transmitter, however, even small motion, especially in the elevation and azimuth angles, requires fast correction. Since the transmitter is mounted on a small airplane in the target application, vibrations from the engine or air turbulence produce an error spectrum with significant energy up to 200 Hz. 4 3 Beam heading

2 Assuming there is a link acquired between two µavs, position of the opposite end relative to the center of the transmitted beam provides useful information for detecting the misalignment. The system periodically dithers the transmit direction. Losing the link as a result of dithering indicates the direction of misalignment, and provides a rough estimation of its value. A correction following each detection keeps pointing errors bounded. Periodic application of the dithering method uses some fraction of the time available for the data transfer. As a result of this, we cannot frequently apply dithering and it is effective only for errors growing slowly. For high frequency components of the error spectrum, gyroscope stabilization provides the necessary rejection. Two MEMS gyroscopes [3] incorporated into the controller detect undesired vibrations coupling to azimuth and elevation angles. The controller compensates the mirror position according to the gyroscope measurements. Intersatellite communication systems encounter a similar pointing accuracy requirement. Designs proposed for these systems employ optical antennas with diameters as large as 20 inches [4]. Optical systems with such dimensions need 2 DOF low bandwidth gimbal assemblies for providing the necessary steering, Fig. 3. For rejecting high frequency platform vibrations, they also incorporate gyroscope controlled fast steering mirrors (FSM) into their optical path. Compared to this case, our design has smaller dimensions and power consumption. the beam heading can maintain the link. Dithering, which corrects slowly growing errors, can provide updates needed for tracking the target. Platform vibrations, however, need a correction which is effective at higher frequencies. A conventional solution for this problem is stabilizing the steering device by using gyroscopes. Following sections describe how these two methods are used simultaneously. 2. GYROSCOPE The MEMS transceiver is directly mounted on the host platform. Due to the mechanical coupling, beam steering devices observe the same vibrations as the airplane. Thanks to the amplification of beam width over the distance between the two ends, translational vibrations are not fatal. At 5 km away from the source, a mrad laser beam illuminates an area with a diameter of 5 m. Rotational disturbances, however, directly couple to the steering angle and must be kept smaller than a fraction of the FWHM divergence to avoid an interruption. Platform jitter on a µav can reach up to /- 90 mrad (/- 5 deg). s Gyroscope Errors Gyroscope Disturbance 2 4 Opposite end - MEMS 2 DOF Mirror Desired Position T, LOS 6 3 () 2 DOF Gimbals, (2) Fast steering mirror, (3) Tracking senor, (4) Gyroscopes, (5) Lens, (6) Transmitter Fig 3: Main components of an intersatellite optical communication transceiver. In the following sections details of pointing stabilization in the MEMS system are explained. 5 Laser Beam Transceiver Line of sight Fig. 4: Block diagram of a MEMS optical transceiver. Gyroscopes in the controller measure vibration rate around azimuth and elevation angles. Fig. 4 shows block diagram of the stabilization system for one axis. Since the signal is rotation rate, an integration is necessary for an indirect angular measurement. The system subtracts measured disturbances from the steering angle in order to minimize the effects of platform jitter. The gyroscope output has inherent noise and drift on top of the desired rate signal. Integration causes accumulation of these errors in the beam heading. 2. POINTING STABILIZATION Maintaining the laser link is essential for reliable communication. Two major disturbances in pointing are the motion of the µavs and the vehicle vibration. The first one is a low frequency variation and slowly updating Drift consists of low frequency fluctuations in the sensor offset, and its spectrum has /f characteristics. Hence, low frequency drift has a stronger influence on the steering angle. Drift of the gyroscope used in experiments is shown in Fig. 5. The stabilization system can not reject gyroscope originated errors due to the lack of having closed loop control. The beam heading must be

3 corrected with respect to an external reference. Dithering, which takes the opposite end as a reference, is effective in canceling the gyroscope drift accumulating in the beam heading Gyroscope output, [deg/s] 2.2 DITHERING Fig. 5: Zero input drift of the gyroscope used in tests. Output is sampled at khz and high frequency noise filtered by a 5 th order butterworth filter with Hz cutoff frequency. Using the beam axis as a reference for the error detection requires the link to be already established between the two ends. Dithering is applicable as long as the target is illuminated by the beam. For the sake of simplicity, in the rest of the paper, beam intensity profile is assumed to be flat within the beam divergence and zero otherwise. Diameter of the illuminated region at the target end of the link is proportional to the distance between the two ends. Gyroscope related errors, however, accumulate in the form of undesired angles being added to the beam heading. Therefore, effects of these errors are independent of the distance. The system can maintain communication as long as the pointing is achieved with an error smaller than the beam width. The first phase in a dithering cycle is determining the direction of misalignment. A DOF problem is used for explaining details. As shown in Fig. 6, the laser beam has a divergence of θ beam. Pointing error, θ error, is in the clockwise (cw) direction from the symmetry axis of the laser. This would be the case when the system is experiencing errors steering the beam in the counter clockwise (ccw) direction. In order to find the position of the target, beam heading is increased by θ dither in one of the directions. θ dither determines margins of the region in which correction is necessary. The system applies correction when the target is closer than θ dither to either one of the ends. For instance, in the presence of an error shown in Fig. 6, communication will be interrupted when θ dither in the ccw direction is added to the beam heading. This case is illustrated in Fig. 7.a. Following the interruption, the opposite end broadcasts a signal lost warning. Receiving the warning leads the transmitter to decide on the location of the target, which is in the range [ (θ beam - θ dither), θ beam ]. If no interruption is reported in the first step, then θ dither is added to beam heading in the other direction. An interruption observed in the second step identifies the target location as being in [- θ beam, (-θ beam θ dither )]. Not receiving a signal lost message in either of these steps indicates that the alignment is within [-(θ beam -θ dither ), (θ beam -θ dither )], and no correction is applied. CCW Dithering Signal Lost Intensity q error q dither Intensity q dither -q dither (a) [rad] Beam axis after correction CW Correction Correction needed when the target object is in these regions Fig. 6: A possible scenario for the misalignment. Target is also showed in a simplified intensity plot. (b) q corr Fig. 7: a) Target end during ccw dithering. b) Target end after the correction.

4 In any dithering cycle, if an error is determined, a correction of θ corr is added to the beam heading, in a way that it provides a better pointing, Fig. 7.b. Whenever the system decides to make a correction, the same angle θ corr is applied. As a consequence of this, there is a residual alignment error after the dithering. every 40 ms and each cycle took.5 ms, less than 4 % of the communication bandwidth. The time spent on each dithering cycle was mainly determined by the fastest clock that could be run by Simulink. A dithering angle of 200 µrad with a correction of 50 µrad was used. Considering that the link is active before dithering starts, we may assume the initial error is distributed over (-θ beam, θ beam ). Using θ corr, a transfer function from initial error to residual error can be derived, and distribution of the residual error after the dithering can be calculated. Assuming a uniform distribution for θ error, distribution of the residual error, θ res, and the transfer function from θ error to the θ res are shown in Fig. 8. As a results of the dithering, pointing errors become more concentrated around the beam axis, and eliminated at the ends. q error -q corr q corr q res -q corr Distribution of q res Fig. 9: Cambridge technologies scanner and British Aerospace gyroscope. As seen in Fig. 0.a, without dithering gyroscope related errors became large enough to interrupt the link within 0.3 sec. The main error was a gyroscope output offset that was not completely cancelled. Fig. 0.b shows the received power in the same system when dithering was active. Received Power -( -q corr ) 3. PROTOTYPE SYSTEM Distribution of q error Fig. 8:Initial and residual error distributions and the transfer function from θ error to θ res. A proof-of-concept DOF prototype system was implemented by using a commercially available galvanometric scanner (Cambridge Technologies) and gyroscope (a vibrating structure gyroscope (VSG) of British Aerospace). During the design, MATLAB and Simulink were used for simulations. Setup was directly controlled from simulation models by using the real-time capabilities of Simulink. Fig. 9 shows the scanner and the gyroscope. Received Power Link lost in.3 sec (a) Signal Lost Signal Lost In the tests presented here, no vibration was applied to the steering device. Therefore, system experienced only gyroscope noise and drift. The laser source had a divergence (θ beam ) of 200 µrad. Dithering was applied at (b) Fig. 0: a) No dithering applied. b)the same experiment with dithering.

5 The dithering algorithm was shown to successfully keep the pointing error bounded and maintain the received signal strength above the minimum necessary for communication. 4. CONCLUSION A MEMS free-space laser communication system, which can be fit in a few cubic centimeters, was proposed and the link maintenance problem was addressed. Use of gyroscope stabilization became essential due to the high frequency platform vibrations. However, drift of the gyroscope signal and low frequency target tracking required a second correction method. The dithering method was developed for keeping both gyroscope and motion related errors bounded. As a proof-of-concept we built a DOF prototype system. Results showed that periodic application of dithering can maintain the link in the presence of a gyroscope drift. 5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This research is funded by DARPA and the John and Fannie Hertz Foundation. REFERENCES [] V. Milanovic, M. Last, and K.S.J. Pister, Torsional micromirrors with lateral actuators, Transducers 0- Eurosensors XV conference, Munich, Germany, 200. [2] B. Leibowitz, B.E. Boser, and K.S.J. Pister, CMOS 'smart pixel' for free-space optical communication, Proceedings of the SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 4306A (Electronic Imaging '0), San Jose, CA, USA, 200. [3] X. Jiang, J.I. Seeger, M. Kraft, and B.E Boser, A monolithic surface micromachined Z-axis gyroscope with digital output: Digest of Technical Papers 2000 Symposium on VLSI Circuits, Honolulu, HI, USA, 2000, 6-9. [4] K.J. Held, J.D. Barry, Precision pointing and tracking between satellite-borne optical systems, Optical Engineering, 27 (4), 988,

1.6 Beam Wander vs. Image Jitter

1.6 Beam Wander vs. Image Jitter 8 Chapter 1 1.6 Beam Wander vs. Image Jitter It is common at this point to look at beam wander and image jitter and ask what differentiates them. Consider a cooperative optical communication system that

More information

Control System Design for Tricopter using Filters and PID controller

Control System Design for Tricopter using Filters and PID controller Control System Design for Tricopter using Filters and PID controller Abstract The purpose of this paper is to present the control system design of Tricopter. We have presented the implementation of control

More information

Video Semaphore Decoding for Free-Space Optical Communication

Video Semaphore Decoding for Free-Space Optical Communication Video Semaphore Decoding for Free-Space Optical Communication M Last, B Fisher, C Ezekwe, S Hubert, S Patel, S Hollar, B Leibowitz, KSJ Pister Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center 497 Cory Hall University

More information

Ultrasound Imaging. Phased Arrays. Resolution of Imaging System. Imaging by sound waves. Many of same principles applied to RADAR

Ultrasound Imaging. Phased Arrays. Resolution of Imaging System. Imaging by sound waves. Many of same principles applied to RADAR Ultrasound Imaging Imaging by sound waves Just like SONAR Many of same principles applied to RADAR phased arrays Doppler synthetic apertures Phased Arrays Simulate large optic (antenna) by adjusting timing

More information

A Doubly Decoupled X-axis Vibrating Wheel Gyroscope

A Doubly Decoupled X-axis Vibrating Wheel Gyroscope 19 Xue-Song Liu and Ya-Pu ZHAO* State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing 100190, People s Republic of China Abstract: In this paper, a doubly

More information

High-speed free-space based reconfigurable card-to-card optical interconnects with broadcast capability

High-speed free-space based reconfigurable card-to-card optical interconnects with broadcast capability High-speed free-space based reconfigurable card-to-card optical interconnects with broadcast capability Ke Wang, 1,2,* Ampalavanapillai Nirmalathas, 1,2 Christina Lim, 2 Efstratios Skafidas, 1,2 and Kamal

More information

The VIRGO suspensions

The VIRGO suspensions INSTITUTE OF PHYSICSPUBLISHING Class. Quantum Grav. 19 (2002) 1623 1629 CLASSICAL ANDQUANTUM GRAVITY PII: S0264-9381(02)30082-0 The VIRGO suspensions The VIRGO Collaboration (presented by S Braccini) INFN,

More information

High Performance Advanced MEMS Industrial & Tactical Grade Inertial Measurement Units

High Performance Advanced MEMS Industrial & Tactical Grade Inertial Measurement Units High Performance Advanced MEMS Industrial & Tactical Grade Inertial Measurement Units ITAR-free Small size, low weight, low cost 1 deg/hr Gyro Bias in-run stability Datasheet Rev.2.0 5 μg Accelerometers

More information

ME 434 MEMS Tuning Fork Gyroscope Amanda Bristow Stephen Nary Travis Barton 12/9/10

ME 434 MEMS Tuning Fork Gyroscope Amanda Bristow Stephen Nary Travis Barton 12/9/10 ME 434 MEMS Tuning Fork Gyroscope Amanda Bristow Stephen Nary Travis Barton 12/9/10 1 Abstract MEMS based gyroscopes have gained in popularity for use as rotation rate sensors in commercial products like

More information

Interferometer signal detection system for the VIRGO experiment. VIRGO collaboration

Interferometer signal detection system for the VIRGO experiment. VIRGO collaboration Interferometer signal detection system for the VIRGO experiment VIRGO collaboration presented by Raffaele Flaminio L.A.P.P., Chemin de Bellevue, Annecy-le-Vieux F-74941, France Abstract VIRGO is a laser

More information

Autonomous Cooperative Robots for Space Structure Assembly and Maintenance

Autonomous Cooperative Robots for Space Structure Assembly and Maintenance Proceeding of the 7 th International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Robotics and Automation in Space: i-sairas 2003, NARA, Japan, May 19-23, 2003 Autonomous Cooperative Robots for Space Structure

More information

Using Frequency Diversity to Improve Measurement Speed Roger Dygert MI Technologies, 1125 Satellite Blvd., Suite 100 Suwanee, GA 30024

Using Frequency Diversity to Improve Measurement Speed Roger Dygert MI Technologies, 1125 Satellite Blvd., Suite 100 Suwanee, GA 30024 Using Frequency Diversity to Improve Measurement Speed Roger Dygert MI Technologies, 1125 Satellite Blvd., Suite 1 Suwanee, GA 324 ABSTRACT Conventional antenna measurement systems use a multiplexer or

More information

Synchronization Control Scheme for Hybrid Linear Actuator Based on One Common Position Sensor with Long Travel Range and Nanometer Resolution

Synchronization Control Scheme for Hybrid Linear Actuator Based on One Common Position Sensor with Long Travel Range and Nanometer Resolution Sensors & Transducers 2014 by IFSA Publishing, S. L. http://www.sensorsportal.com Synchronization Control Scheme for Hybrid Linear Actuator Based on One Common Position Sensor with Long Travel Range and

More information

PHINS, An All-In-One Sensor for DP Applications

PHINS, An All-In-One Sensor for DP Applications DYNAMIC POSITIONING CONFERENCE September 28-30, 2004 Sensors PHINS, An All-In-One Sensor for DP Applications Yves PATUREL IXSea (Marly le Roi, France) ABSTRACT DP positioning sensors are mainly GPS receivers

More information

Simulation technique for noise and timing jitter in phase locked loop

Simulation technique for noise and timing jitter in phase locked loop Simulation technique for noise and timing jitter in phase locked loop A.A TELBA, Assistant, EE dept. Fac. of Eng.King Saud University, Atelba@ksu.edu.sa J.M NORA, Associated Professor,University of Bradford,

More information

Multi-Element Array Antennas for Free-Space Optical Communication

Multi-Element Array Antennas for Free-Space Optical Communication Multi-Element Array Antennas for Free-Space Optical Communication Jayasri Akella, Murat Yuksel, Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 0 th

More information

Design and Manufacture of 8.4 m Primary Mirror Segments and Supports for the GMT

Design and Manufacture of 8.4 m Primary Mirror Segments and Supports for the GMT Design and Manufacture of 8.4 m Primary Mirror Segments and Supports for the GMT Introduction The primary mirror for the Giant Magellan telescope is made up an 8.4 meter symmetric central segment surrounded

More information

Vixar High Power Array Technology

Vixar High Power Array Technology Vixar High Power Array Technology I. Introduction VCSELs arrays emitting power ranging from 50mW to 10W have emerged as an important technology for applications within the consumer, industrial, automotive

More information

System Level Simulation of a Digital Accelerometer

System Level Simulation of a Digital Accelerometer System Level Simulation of a Digital Accelerometer M. Kraft*, C. P. Lewis** *University of California, Berkeley Sensors and Actuator Center 497 Cory Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, mkraft@kowloon.eecs.berkeley.edu

More information

Integrated Dual-Axis Gyro IDG-500

Integrated Dual-Axis Gyro IDG-500 Integrated Dual-Axis Gyro FEATURES Integrated X- and Y-axis gyros on a single chip Two separate outputs per axis for standard and high sensitivity: X-/Y-Out Pins: 500 /s full scale range 2.0m/ /s sensitivity

More information

SPHERICAL NEAR-FIELD SELF-COMPARISON MEASUREMENTS

SPHERICAL NEAR-FIELD SELF-COMPARISON MEASUREMENTS SPHERICAL NEAR-FIELD SELF-COMPARISON MEASUREMENTS Greg Hindman, Allen C. Newell Nearfield Systems Inc. 1973 Magellan Dr. Torrance, CA 952 ABSTRACT Spherical near-field measurements require an increased

More information

SIGNAL PROCESSING ALGORITHMS FOR HIGH-PRECISION NAVIGATION AND GUIDANCE FOR UNDERWATER AUTONOMOUS SENSING SYSTEMS

SIGNAL PROCESSING ALGORITHMS FOR HIGH-PRECISION NAVIGATION AND GUIDANCE FOR UNDERWATER AUTONOMOUS SENSING SYSTEMS SIGNAL PROCESSING ALGORITHMS FOR HIGH-PRECISION NAVIGATION AND GUIDANCE FOR UNDERWATER AUTONOMOUS SENSING SYSTEMS Daniel Doonan, Chris Utley, and Hua Lee Imaging Systems Laboratory Department of Electrical

More information

A CubeSat-Based Optical Communication Network for Low Earth Orbit

A CubeSat-Based Optical Communication Network for Low Earth Orbit A CubeSat-Based Optical Communication Network for Low Earth Orbit Richard Welle, Alexander Utter, Todd Rose, Jerry Fuller, Kristin Gates, Benjamin Oakes, and Siegfried Janson The Aerospace Corporation

More information

OBIS CellX. The Universal Light Engine FEATURES

OBIS CellX. The Universal Light Engine FEATURES OBIS CellX The Universal Light Engine OBIS CellX is a multi-wavelength platform for use as the laser excitation Light Engine in applications requiring or laser wavelengths from a single module. CellX delivers

More information

High-speed wavefront control using MEMS micromirrors T. G. Bifano and J. B. Stewart, Boston University [ ] Introduction

High-speed wavefront control using MEMS micromirrors T. G. Bifano and J. B. Stewart, Boston University [ ] Introduction High-speed wavefront control using MEMS micromirrors T. G. Bifano and J. B. Stewart, Boston University [5895-27] Introduction Various deformable mirrors for high-speed wavefront control have been demonstrated

More information

Puntino. Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for optimizing telescopes. The software people for optics

Puntino. Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for optimizing telescopes. The software people for optics Puntino Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for optimizing telescopes 1 1. Optimize telescope performance with a powerful set of tools A finely tuned telescope is the key to obtaining deep, high-quality astronomical

More information

MCRT 84700V Bearingless. Dual Range Digital Torquemeters

MCRT 84700V Bearingless. Dual Range Digital Torquemeters BULLETIN 8707R MCRT 84700V Bearingless Dual Range Digital Torquemeters High Ranges: 500 to 100,000 lbf-in (56.5 Nm to 11,300 Nm); Low Ranges: 100 to 20,000 lbf-in (11.3 to 2,260 Nm) BEST REAL WORLD ACCURACY

More information

Tactical grade MEMS accelerometer

Tactical grade MEMS accelerometer Tactical grade MEMS accelerometer S.Gonseth 1, R.Brisson 1, D Balmain 1, M. Di-Gisi 1 1 SAFRAN COLIBRYS SA Av. des Sciences 13 1400 Yverdons-les-Bains Switzerland Inertial Sensors and Systems 2017 Karlsruhe,

More information

PicoMaster 100. Unprecedented finesse in creating 3D micro structures. UV direct laser writer for maskless lithography

PicoMaster 100. Unprecedented finesse in creating 3D micro structures. UV direct laser writer for maskless lithography UV direct laser writer for maskless lithography Unprecedented finesse in creating 3D micro structures Highest resolution in the market utilizing a 405 nm diode laser Structures as small as 300 nm 375 nm

More information

Chapter 7: The motors of the robot

Chapter 7: The motors of the robot Chapter 7: The motors of the robot Learn about different types of motors Learn to control different kinds of motors using open-loop and closedloop control Learn to use motors in robot building 7.1 Introduction

More information

Kit for building your own THz Time-Domain Spectrometer

Kit for building your own THz Time-Domain Spectrometer Kit for building your own THz Time-Domain Spectrometer 16/06/2016 1 Table of contents 0. Parts for the THz Kit... 3 1. Delay line... 4 2. Pulse generator and lock-in detector... 5 3. THz antennas... 6

More information

Polarization-analyzing CMOS image sensor with embedded wire-grid polarizers

Polarization-analyzing CMOS image sensor with embedded wire-grid polarizers Polarization-analyzing CMOS image sensor with embedded wire-grid polarizers Takashi Tokuda, Hirofumi Yamada, Hiroya Shimohata, Kiyotaka, Sasagawa, and Jun Ohta Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara

More information

Integrated Dual-Axis Gyro IDG-1215

Integrated Dual-Axis Gyro IDG-1215 Integrated Dual-Axis Gyro FEATURES Integrated X- and Y-axis gyros on a single chip ±67 /s full-scale range 15m/ /s sensitivity Integrated amplifiers and low-pass filter Auto Zero function Integrated reset

More information

Sensor set stabilization system for miniature UAV

Sensor set stabilization system for miniature UAV Sensor set stabilization system for miniature UAV Wojciech Komorniczak 1, Tomasz Górski, Adam Kawalec, Jerzy Pietrasiński Military University of Technology, Institute of Radioelectronics, Warsaw, POLAND

More information

Servo Tuning. Dr. Rohan Munasinghe Department. of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering University of Moratuwa. Thanks to Dr.

Servo Tuning. Dr. Rohan Munasinghe Department. of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering University of Moratuwa. Thanks to Dr. Servo Tuning Dr. Rohan Munasinghe Department. of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering University of Moratuwa Thanks to Dr. Jacob Tal Overview Closed Loop Motion Control System Brain Brain Muscle

More information

Multiple Reference Clock Generator

Multiple Reference Clock Generator A White Paper Presented by IPextreme Multiple Reference Clock Generator Digitial IP for Clock Synthesis August 2007 IPextreme, Inc. This paper explains the concept behind the Multiple Reference Clock Generator

More information

MEMS Solutions For VR & AR

MEMS Solutions For VR & AR MEMS Solutions For VR & AR Sensor Expo 2017 San Jose June 28 th 2017 MEMS Sensors & Actuators at ST 2 Motion Environmental Audio Physical change Sense Electro MEMS Mechanical Signal Mechanical Actuate

More information

G. Serra.

G. Serra. G. Serra gserra@oa-cagliari.inaf.it on behalf of Metrology team* *T. Pisanu, S. Poppi, F.Buffa, P. Marongiu, R. Concu, G. Vargiu, P. Bolli, A. Saba, M.Pili, E.Urru Astronomical Observatory of Cagliari

More information

Properties of Structured Light

Properties of Structured Light Properties of Structured Light Gaussian Beams Structured light sources using lasers as the illumination source are governed by theories of Gaussian beams. Unlike incoherent sources, coherent laser sources

More information

THREE DIMENSIONAL FLASH LADAR FOCAL PLANES AND TIME DEPENDENT IMAGING

THREE DIMENSIONAL FLASH LADAR FOCAL PLANES AND TIME DEPENDENT IMAGING THREE DIMENSIONAL FLASH LADAR FOCAL PLANES AND TIME DEPENDENT IMAGING ROGER STETTNER, HOWARD BAILEY AND STEVEN SILVERMAN Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. 305 E. Haley St. Santa Barbara, CA 93103 ASC@advancedscientificconcepts.com

More information

Lab Report 3: Speckle Interferometry LIN PEI-YING, BAIG JOVERIA

Lab Report 3: Speckle Interferometry LIN PEI-YING, BAIG JOVERIA Lab Report 3: Speckle Interferometry LIN PEI-YING, BAIG JOVERIA Abstract: Speckle interferometry (SI) has become a complete technique over the past couple of years and is widely used in many branches of

More information

Construction and signal filtering in Quadrotor

Construction and signal filtering in Quadrotor Construction and signal filtering in Quadrotor Arkadiusz KUBACKI, Piotr OWCZAREK, Adam OWCZARKOWSKI*, Arkadiusz JAKUBOWSKI Institute of Mechanical Technology, *Institute of Control and Information Engineering,

More information

Multi-kW high-brightness fiber coupled diode laser based on two dimensional stacked tailored diode bars

Multi-kW high-brightness fiber coupled diode laser based on two dimensional stacked tailored diode bars Multi-kW high-brightness fiber coupled diode laser based on two dimensional stacked tailored diode bars Andreas Bayer*, Andreas Unger, Bernd Köhler, Matthias Küster, Sascha Dürsch, Heiko Kissel, David

More information

S. HIMMELSTEIN AND COMPANY

S. HIMMELSTEIN AND COMPANY BULLETIN 8801H MCRT 88700V High Capacity, Bearingless Dual Range Digital Torquemeters High Ranges: 300,000 to 4,000,000 lbf-in (33.9 to 452 kn-m)); Low Ranges 60,000 to 800,000 lbf-in (0.678 to 90.4 kn-m)

More information

±300 /sec Yaw Rate Gyro ADXRS620

±300 /sec Yaw Rate Gyro ADXRS620 ±3 /sec Yaw Rate Gyro ADXRS62 FEATURES Complete rate gyroscope on a single chip Z-axis (yaw rate) response High vibration rejection over wide frequency 2 g powered shock survivability Ratiometric to referenced

More information

Active Stabilization of a Mechanical Structure

Active Stabilization of a Mechanical Structure Active Stabilization of a Mechanical Structure L. Brunetti 1, N. Geffroy 1, B. Bolzon 1, A. Jeremie 1, J. Lottin 2, B. Caron 2, R. Oroz 2 1- Laboratoire d Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules LAPP-IN2P3-CNRS-Université

More information

Piezoceramic Ultrasound Transducer Enabling Broadband Transmission for 3D Scene Analysis in Air

Piezoceramic Ultrasound Transducer Enabling Broadband Transmission for 3D Scene Analysis in Air A2.2 Piezoceramic Ultrasound Transducer Enabling Broadband Transmission for 3D Scene Analysis in Air Kellner Johannes, Schweinzer Herbert Institute of Electrical Measurements and Circuit Design, Vienna

More information

Low Vibration, Low Thermal Fluctuation System for Pulse Tube and Gifford- McMahon Cryocoolers

Low Vibration, Low Thermal Fluctuation System for Pulse Tube and Gifford- McMahon Cryocoolers Low Vibration, Low Thermal Fluctuation System for Pulse Tube and Gifford- McMahon Cryocoolers L. Mauritsen, D. Snow, A. Woidtke, M. Chase, and I. Henslee S2 Corporation Bozeman, MT ABSTRACT A compact,

More information

Integrated Dual-Axis Gyro IDG-1004

Integrated Dual-Axis Gyro IDG-1004 Integrated Dual-Axis Gyro NOT RECOMMENDED FOR NEW DESIGNS. PLEASE REFER TO THE IDG-25 FOR A FUTIONALLY- UPGRADED PRODUCT APPLICATIONS GPS Navigation Devices Robotics Electronic Toys Platform Stabilization

More information

How-to guide. Working with a pre-assembled THz system

How-to guide. Working with a pre-assembled THz system How-to guide 15/06/2016 1 Table of contents 0. Preparation / Basics...3 1. Input beam adjustment...4 2. Working with free space antennas...5 3. Working with fiber-coupled antennas...6 4. Contact details...8

More information

Power. Warranty. 30 <1.5 <3% Near TEM ~4.0 one year. 50 <1.5 <5% Near TEM ~4.0 one year

Power. Warranty. 30 <1.5 <3% Near TEM ~4.0 one year. 50 <1.5 <5% Near TEM ~4.0 one year DL CW Blue Violet Laser, 405nm 405 nm Operating longitudinal mode Several Applications: DNA Sequencing Spectrum analysis Optical Instrument Flow Cytometry Interference Measurements Laser lighting show

More information

Application of maximum length sequences to photoacoustic chemical analysis

Application of maximum length sequences to photoacoustic chemical analysis Application of maximum length sequences to photoacoustic chemical analysis Ralph T. Muehleisen and Arash Soleimani Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering Illinois Institute of Technology,

More information

Continuous-Wave (CW) Single-Frequency IR Laser. NPRO 125/126 Series

Continuous-Wave (CW) Single-Frequency IR Laser. NPRO 125/126 Series Continuous-Wave (CW) Single-Frequency IR Laser NPRO 125/126 Series www.lumentum.com Data Sheet The Lumentum NPRO 125/126 diode-pumped lasers produce continuous-wave (CW), singlefrequency output at either

More information

MINIMIZING SELECTIVE AVAILABILITY ERROR ON TOPEX GPS MEASUREMENTS. S. C. Wu*, W. I. Bertiger and J. T. Wu

MINIMIZING SELECTIVE AVAILABILITY ERROR ON TOPEX GPS MEASUREMENTS. S. C. Wu*, W. I. Bertiger and J. T. Wu MINIMIZING SELECTIVE AVAILABILITY ERROR ON TOPEX GPS MEASUREMENTS S. C. Wu*, W. I. Bertiger and J. T. Wu Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 9119 Abstract*

More information

MEMS Lens Scanners for Free-Space Optical Interconnects

MEMS Lens Scanners for Free-Space Optical Interconnects MEMS Lens Scanners for Free-Space Optical Interconnects Jeffrey Chou Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California at Berkeley Technical Report No. UCB/EECS-2011-137 http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/pubs/techrpts/2011/eecs-2011-137.html

More information

The Advantages of Integrated MEMS to Enable the Internet of Moving Things

The Advantages of Integrated MEMS to Enable the Internet of Moving Things The Advantages of Integrated MEMS to Enable the Internet of Moving Things January 2018 The availability of contextual information regarding motion is transforming several consumer device applications.

More information

Open Access The Application of Digital Image Processing Method in Range Finding by Camera

Open Access The Application of Digital Image Processing Method in Range Finding by Camera Send Orders for Reprints to reprints@benthamscience.ae 60 The Open Automation and Control Systems Journal, 2015, 7, 60-66 Open Access The Application of Digital Image Processing Method in Range Finding

More information

Wavelength Stabilization of HPDL Array Fast-Axis Collimation Optic with integrated VHG

Wavelength Stabilization of HPDL Array Fast-Axis Collimation Optic with integrated VHG Wavelength Stabilization of HPDL Array Fast-Axis Collimation Optic with integrated VHG C. Schnitzler a, S. Hambuecker a, O. Ruebenach a, V. Sinhoff a, G. Steckman b, L. West b, C. Wessling c, D. Hoffmann

More information

Wireless Sensor System for Airborne Applications

Wireless Sensor System for Airborne Applications Wireless Sensor System for Airborne Applications Steve Pellarin and Hy Grossman Teletronics Technology Corporation Steven Musteric 46 th Test Systems Squadron Eglin Air Force Base, FL Abstract Adding an

More information

Nanometer-level repeatable metrology using the Nanoruler

Nanometer-level repeatable metrology using the Nanoruler Nanometer-level repeatable metrology using the Nanoruler Paul T. Konkola, a) Carl G. Chen, Ralf K. Heilmann, Chulmin Joo, Juan C. Montoya, Chih-Hao Chang, and Mark L. Schattenburg Massachusetts Institute

More information

Heuristic Drift Reduction for Gyroscopes in Vehicle Tracking Applications

Heuristic Drift Reduction for Gyroscopes in Vehicle Tracking Applications White Paper Heuristic Drift Reduction for Gyroscopes in Vehicle Tracking Applications by Johann Borenstein Last revised: 12/6/27 ABSTRACT The present invention pertains to the reduction of measurement

More information

Vibration-compensated interferometer for measuring cryogenic mirrors

Vibration-compensated interferometer for measuring cryogenic mirrors Vibration-compensated interferometer for measuring cryogenic mirrors Chunyu Zhao and James H. Burge Optical Sciences Center, University of Arizona, 1630 E. University Blvd, Tucson, AZ 85721 Abstract An

More information

DLR s Optical Communications Program for 2018 and beyond. Dr. Sandro Scalise Institute of Communications and Navigation

DLR s Optical Communications Program for 2018 and beyond. Dr. Sandro Scalise Institute of Communications and Navigation DLR.de Chart 1 DLR s Optical Communications Program for 2018 and beyond Dr. Sandro Scalise Institute of Communications and Navigation DLR.de Chart 3 Relevant Scenarios Unidirectional Links Main application

More information

ERS KEY FEATURES BEAM DIAGNOSTICS MAIN FUNCTIONS AVAILABLE MODEL. CMOS Beam Profiling Camera. 1 USB 3.0 for the Fastest Transfer Rates

ERS KEY FEATURES BEAM DIAGNOSTICS MAIN FUNCTIONS AVAILABLE MODEL. CMOS Beam Profiling Camera. 1 USB 3.0 for the Fastest Transfer Rates POWER DETECTORS ENERGY DETECTORS MONITORS SPECIAL PRODUCTS OEM DETECTORS THZ DETECTORS PHOTO DETECTORS HIGH POWER DETECTORS CAMERA PROFIL- CMOS Beam Profiling Camera KEY FEATURES ERS 1 USB 3.0 for the

More information

Minnesat: GPS Attitude Determination Experiments Onboard a Nanosatellite

Minnesat: GPS Attitude Determination Experiments Onboard a Nanosatellite SSC06-VII-7 : GPS Attitude Determination Experiments Onboard a Nanosatellite Vibhor L., Demoz Gebre-Egziabher, William L. Garrard, Jason J. Mintz, Jason V. Andersen, Ella S. Field, Vincent Jusuf, Abdul

More information

WHITE PAPER. Hybrid Beamforming for Massive MIMO Phased Array Systems

WHITE PAPER. Hybrid Beamforming for Massive MIMO Phased Array Systems WHITE PAPER Hybrid Beamforming for Massive MIMO Phased Array Systems Introduction This paper demonstrates how you can use MATLAB and Simulink features and toolboxes to: 1. Design and synthesize complex

More information

Wavelength Control and Locking with Sub-MHz Precision

Wavelength Control and Locking with Sub-MHz Precision Wavelength Control and Locking with Sub-MHz Precision A PZT actuator on one of the resonator mirrors enables the Verdi output wavelength to be rapidly tuned over a range of several GHz or tightly locked

More information

Quartz Lock Loop (QLL) For Robust GNSS Operation in High Vibration Environments

Quartz Lock Loop (QLL) For Robust GNSS Operation in High Vibration Environments Quartz Lock Loop (QLL) For Robust GNSS Operation in High Vibration Environments A Topcon white paper written by Doug Langen Topcon Positioning Systems, Inc. 7400 National Drive Livermore, CA 94550 USA

More information

A HIGH PRECISION QUARTZ OSCILLATOR WITH PERFORMANCE COMPARABLE TO RUBIDIUM OSCILLATORS IN MANY RESPECTS

A HIGH PRECISION QUARTZ OSCILLATOR WITH PERFORMANCE COMPARABLE TO RUBIDIUM OSCILLATORS IN MANY RESPECTS A HIGH PRECISION QUARTZ OSCILLATOR WITH PERFORMANCE COMPARABLE TO RUBIDIUM OSCILLATORS IN MANY RESPECTS Manish Vaish MTI-Milliren Technologies, Inc. Two New Pasture Road Newburyport, MA 195 Abstract An

More information

Accelerometer-Assisted Tracking and Pointing for Deep Space Optical Communications: Concept, Analysis, and Implementations

Accelerometer-Assisted Tracking and Pointing for Deep Space Optical Communications: Concept, Analysis, and Implementations Accepted for publication in 2001 IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, Montana. 1/7/ Accelerometer-Assisted Tracking and Pointing for Deep Space Optical Communications: Concept, Analysis, and Implementations

More information

Back-Reflected Light and the Reduction of Nonreciprocal Phase Noise in the Fiber Back-Link on LISA

Back-Reflected Light and the Reduction of Nonreciprocal Phase Noise in the Fiber Back-Link on LISA Back-Reflected Light and the Reduction of Nonreciprocal Phase Noise in the Fiber Back-Link on LISA Aaron Specter The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a joint ESA NASA project with the aim of

More information

Smart antenna technology

Smart antenna technology Smart antenna technology In mobile communication systems, capacity and performance are usually limited by two major impairments. They are multipath and co-channel interference [5]. Multipath is a condition

More information

A machine vision system for scanner-based laser welding of polymers

A machine vision system for scanner-based laser welding of polymers A machine vision system for scanner-based laser welding of polymers Zelmar Echegoyen Fernando Liébana Laser Polymer Welding Recent results and future prospects for industrial applications in a European

More information

Extended Kalman Filtering

Extended Kalman Filtering Extended Kalman Filtering Andre Cornman, Darren Mei Stanford EE 267, Virtual Reality, Course Report, Instructors: Gordon Wetzstein and Robert Konrad Abstract When working with virtual reality, one of the

More information

FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM 3 to 5V (ADC REF) ST2 ST1 TEMP V RATIO ADXRS k SELF-TEST. 25 C AC AMP MECHANICAL SENSOR

FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM 3 to 5V (ADC REF) ST2 ST1 TEMP V RATIO ADXRS k SELF-TEST. 25 C AC AMP MECHANICAL SENSOR 08820-001 FEATURES Complete rate gyroscope on a single chip Z-axis (yaw rate) response 20 /hour bias stability 0.02 / second angle random walk High vibration rejection over wide frequency 10,000 g powered

More information

Process Leak Detection Diagnostic with Intelligent Differential Pressure Transmitter

Process Leak Detection Diagnostic with Intelligent Differential Pressure Transmitter August 2008 Page 1 Process Leak Detection Diagnostic with Intelligent Differential Pressure Transmitter The use of impulse lines, manifolds and bleed valves in measurement instrumentation process connections

More information

Reference Diagram IDG-300. Coriolis Sense. Low-Pass Sensor. Coriolis Sense. Demodulator Y-RATE OUT YAGC R LPY C LPy ±10% EEPROM TRIM.

Reference Diagram IDG-300. Coriolis Sense. Low-Pass Sensor. Coriolis Sense. Demodulator Y-RATE OUT YAGC R LPY C LPy ±10% EEPROM TRIM. FEATURES Integrated X- and Y-axis gyro on a single chip Factory trimmed full scale range of ±500 /sec Integrated low-pass filters High vibration rejection over a wide frequency range High cross-axis isolation

More information

AMIPAS. Advanced Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmosphere Sounding. Concepts and Technology for Future Atmospheric Chemistry Sensors

AMIPAS. Advanced Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmosphere Sounding. Concepts and Technology for Future Atmospheric Chemistry Sensors Earth Observation, Navigation & Science Concepts and Technology for Future Atmospheric Chemistry Sensors AMIPAS Advanced Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmosphere Sounding Markus Melf, Winfried Posselt,

More information

A Telemetry Antenna System for Unmanned Air Vehicles

A Telemetry Antenna System for Unmanned Air Vehicles Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, Cambridge, USA, July 8, 00 6 A Telemetry Antenna System for Unmanned Air Vehicles M. Dogan, and F. Ustuner TUBITAK, UEKAE, Kocaeli, Turkey Sabanci

More information

The VIRGO injection system

The VIRGO injection system INSTITUTE OF PHYSICSPUBLISHING Class. Quantum Grav. 19 (2002) 1829 1833 CLASSICAL ANDQUANTUM GRAVITY PII: S0264-9381(02)29349-1 The VIRGO injection system F Bondu, A Brillet, F Cleva, H Heitmann, M Loupias,

More information

Optical Delay Line Application Note

Optical Delay Line Application Note 1 Optical Delay Line Application Note 1.1 General Optical delay lines system (ODL), incorporates a high performance lasers such as DFBs, optical modulators for high operation frequencies, photodiodes,

More information

Micro-Opto-Mechanical Disk for Inertia Sensing

Micro-Opto-Mechanical Disk for Inertia Sensing PHOTONIC SENSORS / Vol. 6, No. 1, 2016: 78 84 Micro-Opto-Mechanical Disk for Inertia Sensing Ghada H. DUSHAQ *, Tadesse MULUGETA, and Mahmoud RASRAS Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science,

More information

39N6E KASTA-2E2 Low-Altitude 3D All-Round Surveillance Radar

39N6E KASTA-2E2 Low-Altitude 3D All-Round Surveillance Radar 39N6E KASTA-2E2 Low-Altitude 3D All-Round Surveillance Radar The Kasta-2E2 low-altitude 3D all-round surveillance radar is designed to control airspace and to perform automatic detection, range/azimuth/altitude

More information

HALS-H1 Ground Surveillance & Targeting Helicopter

HALS-H1 Ground Surveillance & Targeting Helicopter ARATOS-SWISS Homeland Security AG & SMA PROGRESS, LLC HALS-H1 Ground Surveillance & Targeting Helicopter Defense, Emergency, Homeland Security (Border Patrol, Pipeline Monitoring)... Automatic detection

More information

Overview of the inter-orbit and orbit-to-ground laser communication demonstration by OICETS

Overview of the inter-orbit and orbit-to-ground laser communication demonstration by OICETS Overview of the inter-orbit and orbit-to-ground laser communication demonstration by OICETS Takashi Jono *a, Yoshihisa Takayama a, Koichi Shiratama b, Ichiro Mase b, Benoit Demelenne c, Zoran Sodnik d,

More information

Photoelectric Sensors Technical Guide

Photoelectric Sensors Technical Guide Explanation of Terms Photoelectric Technical Guide Item Explanatory diagram Meaning distance Set range/ range Directional angle Through-beam Retro-reflective Diffuse-reflective Limited-reflective Mark

More information

Optical Remote Sensing with Coherent Doppler Lidar

Optical Remote Sensing with Coherent Doppler Lidar Optical Remote Sensing with Coherent Doppler Lidar Part 1: Background and Doppler Lidar Hardware Mike Hardesty 1, Sara Tucker 2, Alan Brewer 1 1 CIRES-NOAA Atmospheric Remote Sensing Group Earth System

More information

Continuous Wave (CW) Single-Frequency IR Laser NPRO 125/126 Series

Continuous Wave (CW) Single-Frequency IR Laser NPRO 125/126 Series COMMERCIAL LASERS Continuous Wave (CW) Single-Frequency IR Laser NPRO 125/126 Series Key Features 1319 or 1064 nm outputs available Fiber-coupled output Proven nonplanar ring oscillator (NPRO) design Superior

More information

Agilent 5527A/B-2 Achieving Maximum Accuracy and Repeatability

Agilent 5527A/B-2 Achieving Maximum Accuracy and Repeatability Agilent 5527A/B-2 Achieving Maximum Accuracy and Repeatability Product Note With the Agilent 5527A/B Laser Position Transducer System 2 Purpose of this Product Note The ability to model the performance

More information

APPLICATION NOTE. Computer Controlled Variable Attenuator for Lasers. Technology and Applications Center Newport Corporation

APPLICATION NOTE. Computer Controlled Variable Attenuator for Lasers. Technology and Applications Center Newport Corporation APPLICATION NOTE Computer Controlled Variable Attenuator for Lasers 31 Technology and Applications Center Newport Corporation Computer Controlled Variable Attenuator for Lasers This application note describes

More information

Response spectrum Time history Power Spectral Density, PSD

Response spectrum Time history Power Spectral Density, PSD A description is given of one way to implement an earthquake test where the test severities are specified by time histories. The test is done by using a biaxial computer aided servohydraulic test rig.

More information

Technical Synopsis and Discussion of:

Technical Synopsis and Discussion of: OPTI-521, Fall 2008 E.D. Fasse, Page 1 Technical Synopsis and Discussion of: Optical Alignment of a Pupil Imaging Spectrometer by Stephen Horchem and Richard Kohrman Proc. of SPIE Vol. 1167, Precision

More information

LWIR NUC Using an Uncooled Microbolometer Camera

LWIR NUC Using an Uncooled Microbolometer Camera LWIR NUC Using an Uncooled Microbolometer Camera Joe LaVeigne a, Greg Franks a, Kevin Sparkman a, Marcus Prewarski a, Brian Nehring a, Steve McHugh a a Santa Barbara Infrared, Inc., 30 S. Calle Cesar Chavez,

More information

CATEGORY 7 - NAVIGATION AND AVIONICS A. SYSTEMS, EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS

CATEGORY 7 - NAVIGATION AND AVIONICS A. SYSTEMS, EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Commerce Control List Supplement No. 1 to Part 774 Category 7 page 1 CATEGORY 7 - NAVIGATION AND AVIONICS A. SYSTEMS, EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS N.B.1: For automatic pilots for underwater vehicles, see Category

More information

Antenna Measurements using Modulated Signals

Antenna Measurements using Modulated Signals Antenna Measurements using Modulated Signals Roger Dygert MI Technologies, 1125 Satellite Boulevard, Suite 100 Suwanee, GA 30024-4629 Abstract Antenna test engineers are faced with testing increasingly

More information

inter.noise 2000 The 29th International Congress and Exhibition on Noise Control Engineering August 2000, Nice, FRANCE

inter.noise 2000 The 29th International Congress and Exhibition on Noise Control Engineering August 2000, Nice, FRANCE Copyright SFA - InterNoise 2000 1 inter.noise 2000 The 29th International Congress and Exhibition on Noise Control Engineering 27-30 August 2000, Nice, FRANCE I-INCE Classification: 7.2 MICROPHONE ARRAY

More information

3-Axis gyroscope ~ Airtrix A733-G. User Instructions

3-Axis gyroscope ~ Airtrix A733-G. User Instructions 3-Axis gyroscope ~ Airtrix A733-G User Instructions 1. Foreword: The Airtrix series A733-G is a very high performance 3-axis gyro. It is developed for the RC model airplanes. The following players will

More information