Telecommunication Network The Fundamental

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1 Telecommunication Network The Fundamental Course Number : TTH2A3 CLO : 1 Week : 1

2 Why do we need to take this course?

3 List of countries by number of telephone lines in use Rankings Country or regions Number of telephone lines Worldwide 1.16 billion 1 China United States Germany Japan Russia Brazil France United Kingdom Iran India Indonesia Source: Wikipedia

4 List of countries by number of mobile phones in use Rankings Country or regions Number of mobile phones Population World China India United States Brazil Russia Indonesia Nigeria Bangladesh Pakistan Japan Source: Wikipedia

5 List of countries by number of Internet users Country or area Source: Wikipedia Internet users Rank Percentage Rank China ,2% 82 India ,8% 126 United States ,22% 15 Brazil ,1% 67 Japan ,8% 13 Russia ,3% 46 Nigeria ,1% 95 Germany % 16 Bangladesh ,20% 112 Mexico ,84% 85 United Kingdom ,92% 27 Indonesia ,4% 143 Country or area Percentage Rank Iceland 96,55% 1 Bermuda 95,30% 2 Norway 95,05% 3 Sweden 94,78% 4 Denmark 94,63% 5 Andorra 94,00% 6 Netherlands 93,96% 7 Liechtenstein 93,80% 8 Luxembourg 93,78% 9 Finland 91,51% 10 Indonesia 20,4% 143

6 Indonesia Internet User Profile y.o y.o y.o y.o y.o. SMARTPHONE Source: APJII Survey 2014

7 Why do we need to take this course? Because everything goes toward The Internet, and it starts with what you will learn in this course, like 5G, FTTH, Radio, etc.

8 What is Telecommunication? IEEE Standard Dictionary defines telecommunication as a signal transmission through specific distance. example: telegraph, radio or television. From etymology: Tele = at a distance Communication = information exchange (voice, data, video) Telecommunication: sending information from one point to another through a specific media (cable, optic, radio)

9 Elements of telecommunication Telecommunication consists of 3 elements: 1. Source (Transmitter) 2. Medium 3. Destination (Receiver) medium

10 Telecommunication Network Taxonomy 1. From service type point of view: Voice Fixed: PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) / ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) Mobile (wireless access): PLMN (Public land mobile network) Data (text, image): Internet (LAN, WAN) Value Added Service: IN (universal access number, premium rate service, freephone, credit call) Entertainment: CATV / HFC (hybrid fiber-coax)

11 Telecommunication Network Taxonomy 2. From hierarchy (area level) point of view: Access Backbone (Core + Edge)

12 Telecommunication Network Taxonomy 2. From transfer mode point of view: Circuit switch Packet switch Datagram Virtual circuit Message switch 3. From network element point of view Terminal Access Network Switch (node) Transmission

13 Telecommunication Network Taxonomy 4. From network planning point of view: Numbering Signaling Routing Transmission Charging Security

14 Telecommunication Network Taxonomy 5. From direction way point of view: Simplex: one way (uni-directional), ex. radio, TV Half Duplex: two way (bi-directional) un-simultaneously, ex. CB radio Full Duplex: two way (bi-directional simultaneously, ex. telephone 6. From type of current point of view: Direct Current: Morse Code Alternating Current: (all type of medium can transmit this type of current) radio, cable, fiber optic

15 Basic Concept of Telecommunication Transducer: type of device that can transform energy from one form to another, for example: Microphone: transform voice into electric wave Loudspeaker: transform electric wave into voice

16 Why do we need to push the boundaries of telecommunication? Because: Distance of the two points of telecommunication become farther Energy consumption for transmission become less abundant Everyone wants to be connected anytime anywhere anyway Everyone wants better service In telecommunication research we need to emphasize on: How do we represent information? How do we sent information? How do we restore information?

17 History of telecommunication network 1837: Samuel Morse exhibited a working telegraph system 1876: Alexander Graham Bell, invented the first telephone 1951: first direct long distance dialing 1962: first international satellite telephone call 1980: public service of digital networks 1983: 1G (AMPS), analog mobile phone 1991: 2G (GSM), cellular telephones has become common 1998: 3G 2008: 4G Trend: 1. from wired to wireless, 2. from analog to digital, 3. from voice to data

18 Telecommunication Categories and Development

19 Analog and Digital Time (X-Axis) Continuous Discrete Continuous Amplitude (Y-Axis) Discrete

20 Telephony Milestones 1878: PSTN (Public Switches Telephone Network) installed at New Haven and San Francisco Switch without Switch with Switch

21 Telephony Milestones 1937: Multiplexing was introduced for telecommunication between cities One link carries many telecommunication without Multiplexing with Multiplexing

22 Elements of telecommunication Telecommunication consists of 3 elements: 1. Source (Transmitter) 2. Medium (Communication Network) Transmission System Transmission Media Modulation Multiplexing Switching Signaling 3. Destination (Receiver) medium

23 Communication Network Transmission System: Medium: analog microwave, digital microwave, fiber optic, coaxial cable, copper, terrestrial, and satellite Modulation: AM, FM, BPSK, QAM, PSK, FSK, QPSK Multiplexing: FDM, TDM (PDH dan SDH) Switching analog exchange, digital exchange Signaling R2, CCS7

24 See you on next class

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