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1 ISSN X Volume No. 36 Issue No. 6 September 2012 ` 50/- Technical Trends Applications of Digital Image Watermarking in Industries 5 Article Social Media - Marketers New Playing Field 15 Technical Trends A Conspectus of Soft Data Mining in Bioinformatics 8 Article GSM - R (Global System for Mobile Communication - Railway) 18 Technical Trends Medical Tourism - a Business & Technology Perspective 11 Article The Evolution of COBIT 21 CSI Communications September 2012 A

2 ReaderSpeak() Prof. DVR Vithal (Fellow CSI) writes - Dear Mr President: Compliments on the Golden Jubilee initiative - History of CSI. We take pride in that History of computing in India is largely History of CSI. Do launch Hall of Fame and Prajna Awards (prestigious like Turing awards). Suggest an update in each issue of the Communications on history articles/material received with appeal to do more and enthuse others too to send. It is but apt that first tranche is from Kolkata. Congratulations to the Editorial Team. With warm regards Prof Vithal Mr. MD Agrawal (Past President) writes - I was in Delhi, met Dr Subramanium, Ex Dy Director General of NIC. He was appreciating our CSIC. md Prof. R T Goswami (Director, Birla Institute of Technology Mesra, Kolkata Campus) writes - design and arranging order is really very good. Tamal Prof. Phalguni Mukherjee (CSI Region II Student Coordinator) writes Dear All, Received the August issue of Communication yesterday. An excellent piece of work is done by Debasish. Thanks to DP Sinha also. Many unknown things can be known from this issue. In fact, it is a rare collection for CSI lovers. Once again congratulation to Debasish and his team for bringing out this novel idea. Best wishes, Phalguni Mukherjee Prof. Punam Kumar Saha (Associate Professor, University of Iowa, USA) writes: Great! Fantastic. Punam Mr. Ramanuj Bhattacharya, Chicago, USA (Contributor in Computing in Kolkata - Strolling Down Memory Lane in CSIC August 2012 issue) writes: Great job. I have received the printed copy as well. Best wishes, Ramanuj Prof. Sarmistha Neogy (Chairperson, IEEE Computer Society Chapter of IEEE Kolkata Section) writes: great job!! CSI Communications - Call for Articles for forthcoming issues The cover themes for forthcoming issues of CSI Communications are: October Cyber Music November Embedded Systems December Intelligent Systems January Enterprise 2.0 February Programming Language Paradigms March e-libraries (Future topics will be announced on an ongoing basis) The Editorial Board of CSI Communications is looking for high-quality technical articles for different columns pertaining to the above themes or emerging and current interests. The articles should cover all aspects of computing, information, and communication technologies that should be of interest to readers at large and member fraternity of CSI and around. The articles may be long ( words) or short ( words) authored in as the original text (plagiarism is strictly prohibited). The articles shall be peer reviewed by experts decided by the Editorial board and the selected ones shall be published. Both theoretical- and practice-based articles are welcome. The articles and contributions may be submitted in the following categories: Cover Story, Research Front, Technical Trends, and Article. CIOs/Senior IT/IS personnel/consultants of the companies managing technologies/projects related to the cover themes are welcome to contribute under the CIO (Managing Technology) section. Similarly, HR Senior Managers/Personnel/Consultants are invited to contribute under HR section. Also, Letters to the Editors, questions to be answered in Ask an Expert, your experience to share some Programming Tips under the Practitioner Workbench: Programming.Tips() are welcome. How to submit the contributions: The articles may be sent to the CSI Editorial Board via Article Submission guidelines: All manuscripts should be written at the level of the general audience of varied level of members. Equations and mathematical expressions within articles are not recommended, however, if absolutely necessary, should be minimum. List of references is preferred. List not more than 10 references at the end of your manuscript. Please don t include any embedded reference numbers within the text of your article. If you would to like to refer, you may state names in the text and provide full reference at the end. The reference must state the names of the authors, title, publisher s name, complete publication reference with month and year. Web URLs should be there for website references with accessed date. Figures and Images used should be limited to maximum of three (only high-resolution images need to be sent, and the image needs to be sent separately as well). Only MS-Word and PDF submissions are allowed. Include a brief biography of four to six lines for each author with author picture (high resolution). Editors will edit the contents as felt necessary. Authors of selected articles will be notified by the editorial board and copyright transfer form needs to be filled up by the authors. Only original contributions are requested and no plagiarism is allowed. Please note that months for various cover themes are tentative and may change depending on prevailing circumstances. (Issued on behalf of the Editors of CSI Communications)

3 CSI Communications Contents Volume No. 36 Issue No. 6 September 2012 Editorial Board Chief Editor Dr. R M Sonar Editors Dr. Debasish Jana Dr. Achuthsankar Nair Resident Editor Mrs. Jayshree Dhere Advisors Dr. T V Gopal Mr. H R Mohan Technical Trends Applications of Digital Image Watermarking in Industries Baisa L Gunjal and Dr. Suresh N Mali A Conspectus of Soft Data Mining in Bioinformatics Satya Ranjan Dash and Satchidananda Dehuri Medical Tourism - a Business & Technology Perspective Radha M De and Diptiman Dasgupta Practitioner Workbench Programming.Tips()» Fun with Diophantine Equations in C Wallace Jacob Programming.Learn ( Python )» CGI Python Umesh P CIO Perspective Managing Technology» Business Information Systems: Changing Roles of CIOs Dr. R M Sonar Published by Executive Secretary Mr. Suchit Gogwekar For Computer Society of India Design, Print and Dispatch by CyberMedia Services Limited Articles Social Media - Marketers New Playing Field Dr. Anil Vaidya GSM - R (Global System for Mobile Communication - Railway) Prof. (Dr.) V Purnachandra Rao The Evolution of COBIT Avinash W Kadam HR Shared Services Organization Dr. Manish Godse Security Corner Information Security» Electronic Evidence & Cyber Law Adv. Prashant Mali IT Act 2000» Prof. IT Law in Conversation with Mr. IT Executive: Issue No. 6 Mr. Subramaniam Vutha Please note: CSI Communications is published by Computer Society of India, a non-profit organization. Views and opinions expressed in the CSI Communications are those of individual authors, contributors and advertisers and they may differ from policies and official statements of CSI. These should not be construed as legal or professional advice. The CSI, the publisher, the editors and the contributors are not responsible for any decisions taken by readers on the basis of these views and opinions. Although every care is being taken to ensure genuineness of the writings in this publication, CSI Communications does not attest to the originality of the respective authors content CSI. All rights reserved. Instructors are permitted to photocopy isolated articles for non-commercial classroom use without fee. For any other copying, reprint or republication, permission must be obtained in writing from the Society. Copying for other than personal use or internal reference, or of articles or columns not owned by the Society without explicit permission of the Society or the copyright owner is strictly prohibited. PLUS IT.Yesterday(): Ferranti (ICT) SIRIUS Computer at NAL, Bangalore ( ) Dr. R Srinivasan 33 Brain Teaser Dr. Debasish Jana 35 Ask an Expert Dr. Debasish Jana 36 Happenings@ICT: ICT News Briefs in August 2012 H R Mohan 37 On the Shelf! Book Review Dr. Suneeta Sane 38 CSI Report Anirban Basu 39 CSI News 44 Published by Suchit Gogwekar for Computer Society of India at Unit No. 3, 4th Floor, Samruddhi Venture Park, MIDC, Andheri (E), Mumbai Tel. : Fax : Printed at GP Offset Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai CSI Communications September

4 Know Your CSI Executive Committee ( /14)» President Vice-President Hon. Secretary Mr. Satish Babu Prof. S V Raghavan Mr. S Ramanathan Hon. Treasurer Immd. Past President Mr. V L Mehta Mr. M D Agrawal Nomination Committee ( ) Dr. D D Sarma Mr. Bipin V Mehta Mr. Subimal Kundu Regional Vice-Presidents Region - I Region - II Region - III Region - IV Mr. R K Vyas Prof. Dipti Prasad Mukherjee Mr. Anil Srivastava Mr. Sanjeev Kumar Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Assam, Bihar, West Bengal, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, North Eastern States Rajasthan and other areas Orissa and other areas in Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal and and other areas in in Western India Central & South other areas in Northern India. East & North East India Eastern India Region - V Region - VI Region - VII Region - VIII Prof. D B V Sarma Mr. C G Sahasrabudhe Mr. Ramasamy S Mr. Pramit Makoday Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh Maharashtra and Goa Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry, International Members Andaman and Nicobar, Kerala, Lakshadweep Division Chairpersons, National Student Coordinator & Publication Committee Chairman Division-I : Hardware ( ) Division-II : Software ( ) Division-III : Applications ( ) National Student Coordinator Dr. C R Chakravarthy Dr. T V Gopal Dr. Debesh Das Mr. Ranga Raj Gopal Division-IV : Communications Division-V : Education and Research Publication Committee ( ) ( ) Chairman Mr. Sanjay Mohapatra Chairman Division V Prof. R K Shyamsundar To be announced Important links on CSI website» Structure & Organisation National, Regional & State Students Coordinators Statutory Committees Collaborations Join Now - Renew Membership Member Eligibility Member Benefits Subscription Fees Forms Download BABA Scheme Publications CSI Communications* Adhyayan* R & D Projects Technical Papers Tutorials Course Curriculum Training Program (CSI Education Products) Travel support for International Conference enewsletter* Current Issue Archives Policy Guidelines Events President s Desk * Access is for CSI members only. Important Contact Details» For queries, correspondence regarding Membership, contact ExecCom Transacts News & Announcements archive CSI Divisions and their respective web links Division-Hardware Division Software Division Application Division Communications Division Education and Research List of SIGs and their respective web links SIG-Artificial Intelligence SIG-eGovernance SIG-FOSS SIG-Software Engineering SIG-DATA SIG-Distributed Systems SIG-Humane Computing SIG-Information Security SIG-Web 2.0 and SNS SIG-BVIT SIG-WNs SIG-Green IT SIG-HPC SIG-TSSR Other Links - Forums Blogs Communities* CSI Chapters Calendar of Events CSI Communications September

5 President s Message Satish Babu From : Subject : President s Desk Date : 1st September, 2012 Dear Members I compose this issue of the President's Message from Kuala Lumpur, where I'm representing CSI and SEARCC at the Global Conference on Computing Ethics (GCCE 2012), organized by the Malaysian National Computer Confederation (MNCC). As I reflect upon the relevance of Computing Ethics in India as well as around the world, I see several emerging areas, some of which I will share with you. Computing Ethics today has gone beyond its original definition, which was largely restricted to the computational role in areas such as scientific or business computing. Today, ICTs have become the most widely, diversely, and flexibly used technologies in the history of humankind. Networks whether computer, human, or social now span the world, posing a number of challenges to the established ways of communicating, learning, working, playing, or living. In many countries, including our own, the IT Industry has become not only a large employer of the best talent, but also the most prolific innovator of all time. On the flip side, issues of inappropriate use of ICTs ranging from unsafe content, cyber crime, cyber terrorism or cyber war, also threaten established structures of the economy, society, and polity. Computing Ethics have to be seen through this prism of what ICT/IT represents today. When examined this way, computing ethics covers a fairly large area of intellectual content, including the traditional ethics and morality, law, politics, and business & social use of technology. One of the most important roles of CSI's mandate as a national computer society is in inculcating ethics amongst computing professionals. An important concept in this regard is that of a voluntary Code of Ethics (CoE) for members, which CSI did have from its early days. However, the explosive growth of the IT Industry in the last two decades may perhaps necessitate taking a new look at our CoE, and if necessary, enhancing its contemporary relevance. We also need to actively disseminate the CoE to our members, especially students, so that we bring up the next generations of IT professionals with a firm ethical base from which to operate as professionals. This will have lasting strategic benefits, and would be one of the most effective ways how CSI can contribute to our nation. Another role that CSI can play at the social level is in developing and maintaining a set of guidelines for the use of computers in society. In India, there is some amount of confusion within different stakeholders particularly amongst parents and teachers on the one hand, and youth and students on the other on matters such as use of technology, online content monitoring, and child safety. CSI, as a users' organization, certainly can and should play a role developing such guidelines. At another level, there is also currently a national and international debate between different top-level stakeholders such as Governments, Content Providers, Business, and Civil Society on matters relating to content control vis-à-vis concerns such as national security and internal harmony. This is a matter that perhaps is difficult to settle for all times, and may need an ongoing negotiating mechanism at the national level. If such a mechanism is created, CSI, as a neutral, multistakeholder entity, can certainly play a role in it. In some countries, new national bodies are being proposed to play the role of the maintainer and disseminator of a national Voluntary Code of Conduct, but we have to choose our own model as appropriate. Some of the conflict that we see today in this debate on contentious areas such as censorship has an ethical dimension as well. We do have examples of ethically superior models such as Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) in the purely technological realms of software creation, distribution, and ownership. It is interesting to observe that FOSS has been developed by practitioners engineers, technologists, and programmers themselves. However, no similar models exist for the national-level governance of technology. Given that these are technologies of the 21st Century, and that the traditional systems are trying to govern them using laws of the 20th and 19th centuries, and given further that there is a trans-generational disparity between the users (mostly the youth) and the administrators (typically the older generation), some of this conflict is inevitable. It is time for the international community to consider framing of an entirely new legal framework for the governance of technology, perhaps modeled after the 1948 landmark legal instrument, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), which boldly proclaimed a new and unprecedented vision and philosophy for humankind. A similar bold, innovative, coherent, and forwardlooking techno-legal framework may be necessary to govern ICTs, given their unique nature. The development of such a framework must be through an inclusive process with wide consultations between all relevant stakeholders. CSI, as a Civil Society organization representing several communities such as students, academia, researchers, and users, must gear itself up to participate in these processes and help achieve this vision. With best wishes, Satish Babu President CSI Communications September

6 Editorial Rajendra M Sonar, Achuthsankar S Nair, Debasish Jana and Jayshree Dhere Editors Dear Fellow CSI Members, We welcome our readers to this September 2012 issue. In this issue we were supposed to cover a theme called Multimedia Mining. However, we did not receive enough contributions on the suggested topic and so decided to go for a general topic of IT applications to give justice to the type of articles received by contributors. We are also skipping some of the sections like research front. The technical trend section has three articles: first one by Prof. Gunjal and Dr. Suresh N Mali on Applications of Digital Image Watermarking in Industries. The article focuses on applications in IP protection, health care, Criminal photograph authentication and transmission, Secured e-voting systems required for elections, Remote Education and Insurance. Many firms are increasingly looking towards social media as one of the channels to reach to large number of customers. The second article is on Soft Data Mining in Bioinformatics by Satya Ranjan Dash and Satchidananda Dehuri of School of Computer Application, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar; while third article under technology management series is by Radha M Dey and Diptiman Dasgupta of IBM, wherein they discuss Medical Tourism: its lifecycle, Business Opportunities and Ecosystem, Role of Information Technology and also cover information about Electronic Medical Records. Many firms are increasingly looking towards social media as one of the channels to reach to large number of customers. Dr. Anil Vaidya, who has been a regular contributor to CSI-C covers this subject and discusses how social Media has become New Playing Field for marketing people. Prof. (Dr.) V Purnachandra Rao of Institute of Signal Engineering & Telecommunications (IRISET), Secunderabad writes about what is GSM-R: Global System for Mobile Communication- Railway and illustrates its architecture. Avinash W Kadam, Advisor, ISACA s India Task Force has contributed an article about The Evolution of COBIT (Control Objectives for Information and Related Technologies) Framework, which is helping organizations worldwide to implement IT Governance. He talks about various versions of COBIT and COBIT 5 in more details and will be contributing more articles in future on this subject. The Evolution of COBIT (Control Objectives for Information and Related Technologies) Framework, which is helping organizations worldwide to implement IT Governance. Prof. Wallace Jacob has been contributing in Practitioner Workbench column under section Programming.Tips(), and in this issue his contribution is about fun with Diophantine Equations in C. Diophantine Equation is indeterminate polynomial equation that allows the variables to be integers only. The other section called Programming. Learn("Python") under Practitioner Workbench covers guidelines on CGI (common gateway interface) using Python. In his series of articles on business information systems, Dr. R M Sonar this time focuses on how roles, functions and responsibilities of CIOs are changing with evolution in technology. In the Information Security section of the Security Corner column, Adv. Prashant Mali writes about Electronic Evidence & Cyber Law. Another section called IT Act 2000 under Security Corner is enriched with a writeup byadv. Subramaniam Vutha, where he focuses on electronic signatures and explains how they are used in e-commerce to authenticate the parties involved through a Q&A style. Dr. Manish Godse, in HR column introduces the readers to shared services: how they are implemented, driving factors, role of ICT and outsourcing of such services. As suggested by Dr DVR Vithal, we have started a new column called IT.Yesterday() in this issue... You all are welcome to contribute your experiences of yesteryears of computing and of CSI for this column. As suggested by Dr DVR Vithal, we have started a new column called IT.Yesterday() in this issue. This time Dr. R Srinivasan takes the readers to 1960s by explaining elements, features, working and architecture of Ferranti (ICT) SIRIUS Computer at National Aerospace Laboratories. You all are welcome to contribute your experiences of yesteryears of computing and of CSI for this column. As usual there are other regular features such as Brain Teaser, Ask an Expert, On the Shelf and Happenings@ICT. CSI Reports and CSI News section provide event details of various regions, SIGs, chapters and student branches. There are many different announcements of various types of CSI awards. We have also compiled some of the feedback received from distinguished readers for your information under ReaderSpeak() on backside of front cover. Please note that we welcome your feedback, contributions and suggestions at With warm regards, Rajendra M Sonar, Achuthsankar S Nair, Debasish Jana and Jayshree Dhere Editors CSI Communications September

7 Technical Trends Digital watermarking has been a popular topic for both researches and applications in the last decade. With rapid development in multimedia technology and vast Internet use, it has become a common practice to create copy, transmit, and distribute digital data. Obviously, it leads to unauthorized replication problem. The digital watermarking system is an effective technique for protecting the copyright of the digital production and the data safety maintenance. Fig. 1 shows generalized concept of image watermarking. Image watermarking can assure the integrality and the reliability of the digital information by examining and analyzing the watermarking [4]. Consequently, it becomes an available method for intellectual property protection and digital multimedia anticounterfeiting techniques. This article focuses on fundamentals of digital image watermarking and its applications in industry. Fig. 1: Generalized concept of image watermarking Image Watermarking Classification As shown in Fig. 2, Watermarking algorithms can be classified on several criteria [1,7]. According to Embedding Domain: i) Spatial domain, ii) Frequency/transform domain, and iii) Temporal domain According to Extractor: i) Blind and ii) Nonblind According to Human Perception: i) Visible and ii) Nonvisible - a) Robust and b) Fragile According to Application: i) Source-based and ii) Application-based Fig. 2: General classification of watermarking In spatial domain, watermark is embedded by directly modifying pixel values of cover Baisa L Gunjal* and Dr. Suresh N Mali** * Assistant professor, Amrutvahini College of Engineering Sangamner, A nagar, MS ** Principal, Singhgad Institute of Technology and Science, Narhe, Pune, India Applications of Digital Image Watermarking in Industries image as shown in Fig. 2. Least Significant Bit (LSB) insertion is example of spatial domain watermarking. These algorithms are simple in implementation [8,13]. But problems with such algorithms are: low watermark information hiding capacity, less security; hence anybody can detect such algorithms. Original Image Watermarked_Image Watermark Extracted_Watermark Fig. 3: Spatial domain watermarking In frequency domain, the watermark is inserted into transformed coefficients of image giving more informationhiding capacity and more robustness against watermarking attacks because information can be spread out to entire image [1]. Watermarking using Discrete Wavelet Transform, Discrete Cosine Transform, and CDMA-based Spread Spectrum Watermarking are examples of Transform Domain Watermarking. Any digital image watermarking method has two main counterparts: embedding algorithm and extraction algorithm [5]. Embedding algorithm is step-by-step process of inserting watermark logo into original cover image to form watermarked image. Extraction algorithm is just reverse process to extract embedded watermark from watermarked image. Cover Image Watermark N Level DWT/2D DCT N Level DWT/2D DCT E M B E D D I N G Inverse DWT (IDWT)/Inverse 2D DCT Watermarked Image Fig. 4: Transform domain image watermark embedding Fig. 4 shows sample schematic embedding algorithm in transform domain. Here, frequency domain like Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) or Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) etc. are used as embedding domain [2,12]. In the following section various applications of digital image watermarking in industry are discussed. Image Watermarking Applications Media Requirements There are requirements for watermarking system for different media types [10]. a) Image watermarking; b) Document watermarking; c) Graphics watermarking; d) Audio watermarking; and e) Video watermarking. In the following section example applications where digital image watermarking well fits to provide security protection. Image copyright communication for right management and protection Providing copyright to digital images by hiding rightful information is main aim of digital image watermarking. Microsoft is one of the many content owners to embed digital watermarks in images as a means to communicate and protect image copyrights [10]. This ensures that image users or licensees are acting in compliance with guidelines and allows legal departments to effectively communicate and enforce image copyrights. Image watermarking applications in health care Telemedicine combines Medical Information System with Information Technology that includes use of computers to receive, store, and distribute medical information over long distances. Telemedicine can be divided into number of medical-related technologies using computers for health care like teleradiology, telepathy, telecare, telesurgery, teleneurology etc. [8] In number of medical applications, medical images require special safety and confidentiality, because critical judgment is done on the information provided by medical images. Critically ill or injured patients can be treated locally by effective and secured communication between CSI Communications September

8 remote hospitals and distant specialists. Exchange of medical images between hospitals located in different geographical locations is a common practice nowadays as shown in Fig. 5. Hence, healthcare industry demands secure, robust, and more information-hiding techniques promising strict secured authentication and communication through Internet or mobile phones. Conventional watermarking systems embed the hidden information in the entire image. This is not acceptable for sensitive imagery like medical images. PHYSICIAN Diagnosis Based Image Hospital Logo or Patients Record Medical Image Through Internet Mobile Phones Fig. 5: Need for security in telemedicine A medical image contains Region of Interest (ROI) and Non Region of Interest (RONI). ROI is sensitive region of medical image using which doctors do exact diagnosis and decide treatment accordingly [8]. Fig. 6: Selecting ROI for image under diagnosis: selecting ROI directly and selecting using tool Use of classical watermarking techniques may create the distortion in ROI and consequently the diagnosis value of image may be lost. Hence, only RONI should be used for watermark embedding. The ROI of image can be selected interactively from medical image. Excluding such selected region, the watermark is embedded. Fig. 6 shows separation of ROI in Matlab from given image under diagnosis. The physician can use different options to select ROI interactively. Fig. 7 shows some of the options including: rectangular, ellipse-shaped, polygon with n number of vertices, or selection with free hand. Thus, ROI and RONI of image needs to be separated before watermark embedding. The watermark is embedded with pixels of RONI and watermarked image is constructed. Fig. 7: Selecting ROI for medical image Criminal photograph authentication and transmission Most of the crime investigations are based on database submitted to crime branches from remote locations via Internet or mobile phones. When some unwanted crime happens, the criminal(s) photograph is constructed according to preliminary information collected from eyewitnesses where actual incident happens. This sensitive criminal image data needs to be transmitted across network through the Internet or mobile phone. Transmission of such image data demands high and guaranteed security. Secured e-voting systems required for elections With rapid growth of computer network, Internet has reached to common villagers of country and worldwide as well. Due to widespread use of the Internet with information and communication technologies in order to get their inevitable benefits like accuracy, speed, cost saving etc. more secure transactions such as shopping, banking, submitting tax returns are done online. Obviously, electronic voting is a possible alternative for conducting elections by maintaining security in election process [6,9]. Several institutions and companies have proposed Internet as a medium for remote electronic voting, either as an alternative or replacement for traditional poll and paper ballot systems [9]. Though recently electronic voting machines (EVMs) has replaced traditional ballot papers and boxes of conventional voting system, fraud voting and other illegal practices on polling booth like violence, voting by poll workers for absent voters etc. are challenges for election commissions of a given country. The electronic election allows voters to vote over the Internet without geographical restrictions. The mobility, democracy, and privacy are important criteria in evaluating electronic voting schemes [12]. The system should be capable of handling electronic ballots with multiple scopes at the same time, e.g. presidential, municipal, parliamentary, amongst others [4]. It has been always a challenging task for the election commission to conduct free and fair polls in any country. Crores of rupees or dollars are spent by democratic countries for the secure and smooth conduct of the election process. Current research focuses on designing and building voting protocols that can support the voting process, while implementing the security mechanisms required for preventing fraud and protecting voters privacy [2]. Digital copyright protection system based on mobile agent Mobile agent technology and digital watermark technology compensate each other and play a very important role in the industrial applications. The integration of the mobile agent technology and watermark technology has been intensively investigated in recent years. The detail architecture can be found in Quan and Hong (2008) [11]. Remote education Distance education is gaining popularity in rural areas of developing countries due to the shortage of teachers. In order to support a variety of curriculum for different states in a diverse country like India along with various languages, there is a need for intelligent technologies to create a CSI Communications September

9 deployable remote education solution. The main challenge in the distance education solution is the dissemination of content and teacher-student interaction [3]. The secured transmission of image data is part of distant learning. Image watermarking is solution for providing security in this regard. Health and car insurance companies Health and car insurance companies nowadays use image processing [3]. Health insurance companies usually store the scanned copies of the medical images of their clients. The database may require processing and transmitting to central administrative offices. The car companies image databases are referred for insurance-related decision making in case of damage to vehicles during accidents. The digital image watermarking protection is provided to such image database. Conclusion Thus, digital image watermarking has many applications in industry ranging from copyright protection, telemedicine, criminal photograph authentication, worldwide voting systems, copyright protection system based on mobile agent, remote education, and health and car insurance. In summary, digital image watermarking can be used in any area where there is need to protect image data. Acknowledgments This work is funded by the Board of Colleges and University Development (BCUD), University of Pune with File Ref. No.-BCUD /OSD/390, dated 25/10/2010. We are thankful to BCUD, Pune for providing this research grant. We are also thankful to Amrutvahini College of Engineering, Sangamner, A nagar and Singhgad Institute of Technology and Science, Narhe, Pune for technical support during this work. References [1] Abu-Errub, A, and Al-Haj, A, (2008). Optimi-zed DWT-based image watermarking. First International Conference on Applications of Digital Information and Web Technologies, IEEE, 4-6. [2] Burrus, C S, et al. (1998). Introduction to Wavelets and Wavelet Transformation, Prentice Hall, ISBN: [3] Chattopadhyay, T, et al. (2012). Applications of Image Processing in Industries. Computer Society of India Communications (CSIC), 36(4), [4] Chun-Ta Li, et al. (2009). A Verifiable Electronic Voting Scheme over the Internet. Sixth IEEE International Conference on Information Technology: New Generations, ITNG '09, [5] Kasmani, S A and Naghsh-Nilchi, A (2008). "A New Robust Digital Image Watermarking Technique Based On Joint DWT-DCT Transformation. Convergence and Hybrid Information Technology, 2008, 2, [6] Khasawneh, M, et al. (2008). A biometric-secure e-voting system for election processes. 5th IEEE International Symposium on Mechatronics and Its Applications, ISMA, 1-8. [7] Kougianos, E, et al. (2008). Hardware Assisted Watermarking for Multimedia. Elsevier Journal on Computer and Electrical, 35(7), [8] Kundu, M K and Das, S (2010). Lossless ROI Medical Image Watermarking Technique with Enhanced Security and High Payload Embedding. International conference on Pattern Recognition, [9] Menon, T, et al. (2009). ID Based Signature Schemes for Electronic Voting. Second IEEE International Conference on Computer and Electrical Engineering, ICCEE '09, [10] Podilchuk, C I and Delp, E J (2001). Digital Watermarking algorithms and applications. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, [11] Quan, L and Hong, L (2008). A new architecture for digital copyright protection system based on mobile agent. 3rd IEEE Conference Industrial Electronics and Applications, [12] Soman, K P and Ramchandran, K I (2008). Insight into Wavelets: From Theory to Practice, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall of India. [13] Sun, G and Yu, Y (2007). DWT Based Watermarking Algorithm of Color Images. Second IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Application, n About the Authors Baisa L Gunjal has completed M.Tech in I.T. and presently working as assistant Professor in Amrutvahini College of Engineering Sangamner, A nagar, MS. She has 14 years teaching experience and she is coordinator of seven postgraduate courses running in her college. She is also working on research project funded by BCUD, University of Pune and having more than 15 International publications including IEEE Explorer, IET-UK libraries etc. She is also CSI Student branch coordinator at AVCOE Sangamner and CSI Member. Dr. Suresh N Mali is Principal, Singhgad Institute of Technology and Science, Narhe, Pune, India. He has written 3 technical books and published 25 papers in various national and international journals and various conferences. He is Member of expert Committee of AICTE, New Delhi to visit at various newly opened institutes of western region on behalf of AICTE, BOS member for Computer Engineering at University of Pune, MS, India and worked as Member of Local Inquiry Committee on behalf of University of Pune. His research interests are information security, data hiding, signal processing, digital multimedia communications and Steganography. CSI Communications September

10 Technical Trends Satya Ranjan Dash* and Satchidananda Dehuri** * School of Computer Application, KIIT University, Patia, Bhubaneswar ** Department of Information and Communication Technology, Fakir Mohan University, Vyasa Vihar, Balasore , Odisha. A Conspectus of Soft Data Mining in Bioinformatics Abstract: This article discusses a conspectus of soft data mining and its challenges in bioinformatics. In addition, we are redefining the boundary of soft computing (boundary means components exclusively contributing to soft computing for handling a wider domain of problems) and in the sequel redefining the term soft data mining. Keywords: Soft set, Soft Computing, Data Mining, Bioinformatics Introduction Last few decades witnessed the individual and combined efforts of data mining and soft computing in the realm of bioinformatics [10]. Data mining [5] can be regarded as an algorithmic process that takes sample as an input and yield patterns such as classification rules, association rules, or clustering as an output. The different soft computing methodologies are highlighted along with a newly introduced paradigm such as soft set theory [11]. The definition of soft computing is redefined by including the paradigm of soft set theory. Individually or in integrated mode, soft computing tools are turning out to be an efficient and robust candidate for performing data mining tasks. Soft data mining used in bioinformatics related tasks like protein structure prediction and analysis of DNA, gene sequence analysis, gene mapping, ribonucleic acid and protein, molecular docking with ligand design etc. are highlighted along with their basic features. The basic material of this article is divided into three subsections. The first subsection discusses the idea of soft computing. The underlying idea of data mining and bioinformatics are discussed in the following subsections, respectively. Soft computing Soft computing [19] is a consortium of methodologies (e.g. fuzzy logic, neural networks, and evolutionary algorithms) that works together and provides, in one form or another, flexible information processing capabilities for handling real-life problems. With an aim to exploit the tolerance for imprecision, uncertainty, approximate reasoning, and partial truth, soft computing achieves tractability, robustness, low-cost solution, and close similitude with humanlike decision-making. Normally, fuzzy set theory is appropriate for handling the issues related to understandability of patterns in an incomplete/noisy data. Artificial neural networks are nonparametric, adaptive by learning, robust, and exhibit good generalization capabilities in data-rich environments. The exploitation and exploration capabilities of evolutionary algorithms attract researchers to use them for potentially huge search spaces and navigating them, looking for optimal combinations of things. Let us discuss two more paradigms which are enforcing us to redefine the boundary of soft computing. Rough set theory was developed by Zdzislaw Pawlak [15] and used for classificatory analysis of data tables. An important use of rough set theory in data mining has been in generating rules for classification. These rules maps to different important regions of the feature space which ultimately represent clusters [6]. In last decade, rough set theory has been considered as a component of soft computing which in various synergistic combinations with fuzzy system, neural networks, and evolutionary algorithms, provides a robust framework to achieve tractability, robustness, lowcost solution, and closely resembles with human-like decision making [14]. For Rough set Soft set Soft Computing Fig. 1: Soft computing and its basic constituents example, synergistic integration of neural network and rough set helps in extracting rudimentary domain knowledge in the form of rules for describing different concepts/classes, and then encoding them as parameter of neural network; thereby constituting the initial knowledgebase network for efficient learning. Fig. 1 illustrates the constituents of soft computing developed over the years. Soft set theory [11] introduced by Molodtsov in 1999, is a new method for dealing with uncertain data. The advantage of soft set theory is that it is free from the inadequacy of the parameterization tools, unlike in the theories of fuzzy set [19], probability, and interval mathematics [18]. A general mathematical tool - soft set theory offer solutions for dealing with uncertain, fuzzy, not clearly defined objects [8]. In soft set theory, membership is decided by adequate parameters, rough set theory employs equivalence classes, whereas fuzzy set theory depends upon grade of membership. Although three theories are quite distinct yet deal with vagueness. Joint application of these theories may result in a fruitful way [2,7]. With this discussion, we argue that soft set theory may be treated as another constituent of soft computing. Fig. 1 demonstrates its stand in soft computing paradigm. Fuzzy theory Neural network Evolutionary algorithm Redefined by S K Pal et al. Redefined by Dehuri et al. CSI Communications September

11 Data mining Data mining [5] involves the use of semiautomatic data analysis tool by harnessing the best attribute of soft computing methodologies to discover novel, valid, and interesting patterns, along with a relationship in large data sets. Data mining is an iterative process within which progress is defined by discovery, through either automatic, semiautomatic, or manual methods. Data mining is useful in an explanatory analysis scenario in which there are no predetermined notions about what will constitute an interesting outcome. Data mining is the search for novel, useful, and nontrivial information in large gamut of data. Prediction and description are considered as two primary goals of data mining. Predictive data mining, which produces the model of the system described by the given data set and descriptive data mining, which produces new, nontrivial information based on the available data set. The goal of prediction and description are achieved through data mining tasks: 1. Classification: discovery of a predictive learning function that classifies a data item into one of several predefined classes. 2. Discovering association rules: it aims to extract interesting correlations, frequent patterns, associations or casual structures among sets of items in the transaction databases or other data repositories and describes association relationship among different attributes. 3. Clustering: a common descriptive task in which one seeks to identify a finite set of categories or clusters. Data mining has its origin in various disciplines, like statistics, soft computing [10], multiobjective optimization [3], database management system, pattern recognition [13], machine learning [9] etc. Statistics has its roots in mathematics, and therefore that something is sensible on theoretical grounds before testing it in practice. Data mining from pattern recognition point of view along with a relevance of soft computing is a topic of interest in many researchers in last two decades. In data mining the aforesaid tasks like classification, association rule mining, and clustering may be treated as multiobjective problems rather than a uniobjective, therefore a new paradigm was started by Ghosh et al. [3] i.e., multiobjective optimization for knowledge discovery. Machine learning has willingness to test something out to see how it performs [16]. Bioinformatics Bioinformatics [1] is the science of storing, extracting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting biological data. Its importance has increased with the technology of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequencing, microarrays, as well as the widespread understanding that genes and proteins interactions. This in turn renders high performance data analysis algorithms central to various bioinformatic tasks. There are a lot of patterns in biology which are not understood and data mining helps to discover novel and hopefully useful information. Data mining is used in the prediction of gene relations in a genome, gene expression analysis, protein-ligand docking, and the prediction of protein folding resulting from changes in the DNA [10]. The diverse range of rapidly expanding databases produced by modern molecular biology has ignited a need for more accurate classification and prediction algorithms. The accuracy of classification algorithms can be affected by a large variety of factors, some of which may be considered to be generic to any data mining algorithm and applicable to research in other application domains. Data Mining in Bioinformatics Molecular biology laboratories have gathered a very huge amount of data in sequence and functional genome projects [1]. It is a difficult task to analyze these data manually. Therefore, sophisticated semiautomatic computing techniques are necessary to extract new, meaningful, and useful information from these data. Past few years, data mining techniques have been successfully applied in such analysis. A few examples of these applications are analysis of gene expression data, recognition of genes in DNA sequences, and protein structure prediction. Usually, biological data needs to be preprocessed before they can be used in a data mining algorithm. There are a lot of patterns in biology which are not understood and data mining helps to discover novel and hopefully useful information. Data mining is used in the prediction of gene relations in a genome, understanding of relations for region activation in the brain, and the prediction of protein folding resulting from changes in the DNA. Sequence analysis is a major area in bioinformatics encompassing the techniques for studying the biological sequences, DNA, RNA, and proteins, on the linear structure level. The focus of this area is generally on the identification of intramolecular similarities, which boils down to detecting repeated segments within a given sequence, while identifying intermolecular similarities amounts to spotting common segments among two or multiple sequences. From a data mining point of view, sequence analysis is nothing but string- or pattern-mining specific to biological strings. Gene sequences isolated from diseased and healthy tissues can be compared to identify critical differences between the two classes of genes. Such features can be used for classifying biodata and predicting behaviors. A lot of methods developed for biodata classification [10]. One of the most important search problems in biodata analysis is similarity search and comparison among biosequences and structures. For example, gene sequences isolated from diseased and healthy tissues can be compared to identify critical differences between the two classes of genes. This can be done by first retrieving the gene sequences from the two tissue classes, and then finding and comparing the frequently occurring patterns of each class. Since biodata usually contains noise or nonperfect matches, it is important to develop effective sequential or structural pattern-mining algorithms in the noisy environment, such as that recently reported in Pal (2004) [14]. The amino acid sequence of a protein (primary structure) can be easily determined from the sequence on the gene that codes for it. In most of the cases, this primary structure uniquely determines a structure in its native environment. Knowledge of this structure is vital in understanding the function of the protein. For lack of better terms, structural information is usually classified as secondary, tertiary, and quaternary. CSI Communications September

12 Protein structure prediction is one of the most important for drug design and the design of novel enzymes. Recently, many studies have focused on the comparison of one gene to another. However, most diseases are not triggered by a single gene but by a combination of genes acting together. Association and correlation analysis methods can be used to help determine the kinds of genes or proteins that are likely to co-occur in target samples. Such analysis would facilitate the discovery of groups of genes or proteins and the study of interactions and relationships among them. Data Mining approaches seem ideally suited for bioinformatics, since it is datarich, but lacks a comprehensive theory of life s organization at the molecular level. The extensive databases of biological information create both challenges and opportunities for the development of novel knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) methods. Mining biological data helps to extract useful knowledge from massive datasets gathered in biology. Soft Data Mining in Bioinformatics Recall that data mining is one of the core stages of KDD which is responsible for mining valid, novel, potentially useful, and ultimately understandable patterns in data. Therefore as it stands now, data mining can be viewed as applying soft computing techniques in the context of voluminous, possibly heterogeneous data sets. Hence data mining with synergistic integration of soft computing can be regarded as soft data mining. Its application in biological dataset is really worthy to uncover interesting and novel knowledge. Hence, soft data mining in bioinformatics recently is being treated as a hot and challenging area of research. In this article, we are not only introducing soft data mining in bioinformatics but also giving pointers for other likelihood groups to carry out more and more research. Fig. 2 is illustrates the constituents and overall activities needed to carry out under the umbrella of soft data mining in bioinformatics. Without deviating from the focus of this article, let us discuss the newly introduced component of soft computing, which in turn with the synergistic integration of other constituents of soft computing and data mining can be very helpful for solving the bioinformatics problem. Soft set theory [11], proposed by Molodtsov, is a new general method for dealing with uncertain data. Soft sets are called (binary, basic, elementary) neighborhood systems. As for standard soft set, it may be redefined as the classification of objects in two distinct classes, thus it is confirming that soft set can deal with a Boolean-valued information system. The advantages of soft set theory are that it is free from the inadequacy of the parameterization tools, unlike in the theories of fuzzy set [19], probability, and interval mathematics. Recently, research on soft set theory has been active, and great progress has been achieved, including the works of using fundamental soft set theory, soft set theory in abstract algebra, and soft set theory for data analysis, particularly in decision making [20]. In soft set theory membership is decided by adequate parameters, rough set theory employs equivalence classes, whereas fuzzy set theory depends upon grade of membership. Although three Rough set Soft set Soft computing Soft data mining Fuzzy theory Neural network Evolutionary algorithm Fig. 2: Soft data mining in bioinformatics theories are quite distinct yet they all deal with vagueness. Hence, their combined application may result in a fruitful way. The relationship between fuzzy set theory and rough set theory has been established in Gorzalzany (1987) [4]. While all these theories are well-known and often useful approaches to describing uncertainty, each of these theories has its inherent difficulties as pointed out by Molodtsov [12]. We can put the soft set approach of the Association Rule Mining [17] and other mining techniques along with soft computing approaches to achieve faster time to capture the rules. With this approach, we believe that some applications using soft set theory for mining various levels of association rules and decision support systems from biological database will be easier. Soft computing methodologies (involving fuzzy sets, neural networks, genetic algorithms, rough set, and soft sets) can be widely used in the data Soft Data Mining Bioinformation Data mining Bioinformatics (Biological data) Gene expression data analysis Protein prediction structure Protein ligand docking Prediction of RNA/DNA structure Continued on Page 17 CSI Communications September

13 Technical Trends Radha M De* and Diptiman Dasgupta** *IBM Advisory Accredited IT Specialist **Lead Architect - Travel & Transportation, IBM Global Delivery Medical Tourism - a Business & Technology Perspective History & Concept Several thousands of years ago, pilgrims and patients from all over Mediterranean used to gather at Epidaurus, in ancient Greece, to collect blessings for good health from Asklepios, the Healing God. In Roman Britain, ailing people used to take waters in a shrine bath for good health, which they continued till 2000 years. Wealthy Europeans in the 18th century used to travel to Nile from Germany for Spa. These are all forms of Medical Tourism and these all have prevailed from the ages when people used to believe that ill-health is the consequence and verdict of god for sinful acts in life. So, traveling in foreign countries for medical care can be termed as Medical Tourism in short. Experts also believe that there must be some positive swing in economic growth for countries which are facilitating medical tourism. In 1980s and 1990s health care costs rose high in several countries like USA and patients started haunting cheaper destinations at offshore for cost-effective medical treatment. A new term surfaced toothtourism that led Americans traveling to Central American countries like Costa Rica for dental care, for which they won t get any insurance coverage in their homeland. Slowly countries like Cuba, Mexico, Thailand, and India also emerged with their fabulous offers to make the Medical Tourism industry as an enormous sector. A statistics says Cuban government had welcomed 2000 medical tourists in as early as Bumrangrad International Hospital in Bangkok is probably the best known place for medical tourists to boast patients from over 190 countries. Joint Commission International, a non-profit organization that certifies the safety and record of hospitals, has accredited some 200 foreign medical facilities, mainly in Spain, Brazil, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates. Indian landscape for Medical Tourism is also quite green and this is poised to be the next success story for India after Information Technology segment. Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM) foresees a growth in Medical Tourism to touch Rs. 10, 800 crore by Present Scenario Earlier only wealthy patients in developing countries used to travel to developed countries for high-quality medical care, while now the exodus happens in reverse direction. A growing number of less affluent patients from developed countries are traveling to regions once characterized as third world. Some of the latest statistics states that an estimated 5,00,000 Americans went abroad for treatment, out of which majority traveled to Mexico and other Latin American countries. Rest all chose Singapore, India, and Thailand. In the year 2006, medical tourism industry was about $60 billion USD worldwide, while McKinsey and Company estimates the growth to touch $100 billion USD by end of Start Contact a Doctor In Medical Tourist Spot Contact a Doctor in Medical Tourist Spot N Problem Resolved Y Terminate Patient has been diagnosed a disease Reach a Medical Tourist Agent Exchange Medical Information (EMR) Have a Problem/Query Consult foreign Doctor Remotely Lifecycle of Medical Tourism The very first step for medical tourism starts when a patient seeking medical treatment overseas either contacts a medical tourism operator or directly contacts any hospital s international liaison office for admission. Many international level hospitals have their specially trained staffs to entertain foreign patients. The patients provide their current medical reports, either to a consultant at medical tourism company or a doctor from the hospital, who later on provides feedback on their medical condition, recommended treatment, and cost and duration of the treatment. Then either the medical operator or the hospital's international patient department provides information about whether a visa is necessary and instructions on procuring a visa. Sometimes this requires an invitation Patient reaches local doctor for treatment Treatment takes time & Money Make Appointment with Doctor Travel Back Home & Follow Up Fig. 1: Medical tourism - business process N Complete Treatment with Local Doctor Travel Medical Tourist Spot for Treatment Complete Treatment & Take Vacation CSI Communications September

14 letter from the hospital, depending on the country. The patient then travels to the hospital to undertake the procedure, usually coordinated by an on-the-ground case executive assigned to the patient. Often the patient will tour the country before or after the procedure is completed. Medical Tourism - Business Opportunities and Ecosystem Medical tourism can provide great business opportunities by collaborative effort of multiple service providers to the tourists. While hospitals and treatment can be primary purpose for the patients, specialized medical tour operators can provide all required services and can become one stop service providers to these medical tourists. They can provide information about hospitals, book the same for patients, arrange or support visa processing, provide additional support on tourism after treatment, and also help to contact necessary insurance companies in need. So following are few key entities which can collaborate effectively to provide all necessary services to the medical tourists. Medical tour operators: Medical tour operators can play a very important role who can be one stop service providers to the customers. They should have an integrated set of applications linked with hospitals, insurance providers, doctors Hotels Friendly & economic Stay Pharmacies & Blood Banks Medicine support Medical Tour Operators One stop service providers Medical Tourism Ecosystem Medical Tourists Travel Insurance Travel Coverage Fig. 2: Medical tourism - ecosystem and pharmacies or blood banks. So through this application, tour operators can book a hospital for the medical tourist, they can search the best doctors in related areas, get ranking from socially connected people, they can fix an appointment based on availability and also book hotels and fix travel itineraries for the medical tourists. During treatment these applications should provide facilities to collaborate with pharmacies in need of rare medicine. They should also be able to talk to insurance providers for supporting patients in that area. Community of doctors: There should be a community of doctors on related specialization areas. Today, if we visit the website of any hospital then we see only the specializations and set of doctors who are associated with that hospital but need of the day is really a set of specialized doctors connected over social networking platform through specialized group formation and who can collaborate on demand in need of a specific discussion or decision. So this kind of advanced medical tourism applications should provide that facility of collaboration with specialized doctors regarding appointment & discussion. There should also be facilities for discussion among the patients and doctors on need, should have options to provide feedback by patients, and discuss with other similar patients. Community of Doctors Socially Connected Specialized Hospital Specialized Treatments Medical Insurance Companies Medical Insurance Support Specialized hospitals: Ideally there should be a set of hospitals connected with this application and provide necessary services. These hospitals can register for these offerings to these providers. Today if we visit travel operators sites it gives us lowest cost airfares but this similar facilities can be enhanced with hospitals too. Medical tour operators or medical tourists can provide their requirement and can search for best possible hospitals with lowest per day expenditure and tourists can book the same. Medical insurance & travel insurance providers: Insurance providers can also register for their offers. Like hospital search patients can go for best insurance providers that match their requirement and buy the same instantly. Hotels: Hotels can also play a great role in this ecosystem. They can also register with their offers & promotions and like hospital search, tour operators & tourists can search for best possible deals. Pharmacies & blood banks: Pharmacies & blood banks can also play a great role in this ecosystem by providing necessary lifesaving drugs or rare group blood. Today we need to visit all the stores individually to search for life-saving drugs. It also takes ample time to visit multiple blood banks in search for rare group blood. But if these pharmacies & blood banks also join in the ecosystem then these applications will have the real value. Role of Information Technology in Medical Tourism Technology reached big time in medical tourism and evolving rapidly to provide the best of breed facilities for medical practitioners across the world. Web 2.0, Cloud Computing, Mobile Technology etc. are making its way deep into the world of medical research. Geographical barriers are going to blur when an Australian doctor takes lesson on some typical surgeries from his American friend using web 2.0-based video conferences. 24X7 medical facilities are now available on toll-free telephone lines, Internet connections, while international credit cards, instant banking facilities, easy loan sanction, web-based payment gateways, health CSI Communications September

15 insurance made medical tourists life much easier. So if look at these aspects, three broad technology areas can work hand-in-hand in building an effective medical tourism solution. One is surely cloud because medical information details like EMR can be made available across worldwide for each patient through low-cost solutions in cloud. There can be cloud-based offerings which can host medical records of the patients with minimum fees annually and all medical tourism solution providers and doctors can access the same records with the access information. Whenever there is any test in any part of the world these medical reports can be updated. We also see scope of some analytics to analyze records of patients test reports. Now social collaboration & networking will also play a major role. Doctors, patients, tour operators, and hospitals all these key entities in this ecosystem should be wellconnected through social networking. Doctors can take suggestions from other doctors, while patients should be able to find other patients and know their feedback on similar areas. So all these kind of collaboration is possible through social networking. Regarding mobility it is crucial to provide services on the move. A patient is a dynamic element in this journey and he should be able to access any information any time through mobile devices, they should be able to reserve a hotel or fix an appointment with a doctor or book a hospital bed with their smart phones. Now let us discuss EMR and two broad areas of technology applications like Cloud & Mobility around health tourism. What is electronic medical records (EMR) Changing ways for disseminating information using Information Technology has propelled the medical world for a slow transition from paper-based medical records maintenance to Electronic Medical Records (EMR) management. EMR contains things like Clinical Notes, Medical Administration Record, Result Review, Discharge Summary etc. Health Information Technology (HIT) suggests EMR implementation and networking would save around $81 billion USD per annum. Some of the major benefits of EMR can include following: 1. Replace paper-based medical records, which are incomplete mostly, hard to read and hard to find, with a robust set of information that brings advantage of easy retrieval, available anytime and anywhere. 2. Easy for automating, structuring, and streamlining clinical workflow 3. Providing integrated support for wide varieties of caring activities like decision support, monitoring, electronic prescribing, laboratory ordering etc. 4. Maintain data set and data trail needed for medical audit and quality assurance, epidemiological monitoring, disease surveillance etc. 5. Support for continuing medical learning 6. Analytics & trend analysis of medical reports EMR along with other information technology support can make the world smaller for patients seeking consultancy from foreign doctors. But the success of this depends totally on the implementation of EMR and other facilities in all hospitals and healthcare facilities. On top of that, EMR can alleviate medication errors and need for repeated diagnosis and testing to harness the power of healthcare systems. Still the healthcare industry is one of the lowest adopter of Information Technology, where one out of four physicians use some type of EMR and lesser than one in ten uses it comprehensively. So, it s definitely a matter of massive investment to convert healthcare industry to a paperless one. EMR on Cloud Cloud computing has rocked the world in recent times, which allows users to pay monthly subscription cost to access their system hosted in cloud. This removes the need for managing expensive infrastructure of its own to carry the hosting cost of running system. Software as a Service (SaaS) is a product, which some of the big companies are facilitating across the world to their clients for about a decade. There are quite a number of cloud-based EMR: No upfront software license purchase cost No hardware purchase to maintain Better overall support, including disaster recovery Strong security and data protection mechanisms, compliance to HIPPA regulations Accessibility of physicians on the move across the world On other hand, there are some potential downsides to cloud based EMR: Latency or lag times Lack of robust and reliable Internet facility in rural areas Bandwidth limitations Constrained back-up and data accessibility But still private cloud-based EMR solutions do provide flexibility and scalability. Role of SmartPhone Smartphones and Cloud jointly can redefine the healthcare infrastructure. This will show how EMR management is becoming easier since EMR turns like a credit card. How Cloud can uphold the power of content management for millions of patients to help the access of same anywhere, anytime, and to facilitate physicians to take care of their patients. Medical Tourism gets a huge boost by adopting the EMR for international patients. We will also discuss some architecture of innovative EMR solutions in smartphones. Cloud is adding its power with smartphone to enhance the power of computing and remove the bottleneck of latency. Now EMR accessible from smartphone would be a new era buzz. So, if a cloud is imagined with a federation of EMR, which is accessible from Cloud Phones, then it would be a revolution in medical healthcare industry. Data Mining and EMR Data mining puts a deeper impression in healthcare sector. Continuous effort on collecting data from different sources like medical journals, live case studies etc. can help create a huge repository of disease-diagnosis system. When EMR is being supplied as raw data to identify the problem or disease of the person EMR belong and at the same time there should be a system to personalize the need for medical tourism by advising the possible medical tourist spots for cost effective and budget treatment of the detected disease. People can carry their own medical records on their smartphone, which will CSI Communications September

16 Fig. 3: Medical rule engine manifests detected disease information & suggested medical tourist destination remain encrypted for security and requires a password to access. The application generates a one-time password that has to match with a server to unlock the app. Low-bandwidth data remains in the phone itself, like immunization, allergy records etc. While more data intensive information, e.g. X-Ray, CT-Scan are stored in server for on-demand access. Further Innovation & Way Ahead Now Information Technology can provide a great contribution here. Intelligent decision making systems have already been deployed in various efforts to drill down raw Electronic Health Records (EHR) to find pattern for individual patient or some sample population to help detect disease or any potential threat of diseases. DataMining systems can come in place to create a global repository in Medical Cloud-based infrastructure to serve it as Business Process as a Service (BPaaS) to medical world and individuals. This in turn would help Medical Tourism Industry inside a country or globally by advising patients to take best possible and costeffective treatment of affected disease anywhere in the world. An integrated system can come in place to glue the thread between globally accredited hospitals, clinics, medical research universities to share knowledge for the wellbeing of mankind. Various tourism organizations and insurance companies can join into this federation of human welfare to complete the circle of helping people by making them as part of this association. While Medical Cloud will assist in detecting disease and will suggest the best spot with budget-based treatment in any country and globally, at the same time social networks & communities can always provide instant consultancies and suggestions. Pharmacies can also join in it to complete the circle, by making a voluntary contribution of delivering any medicine needed to save a life at anytime and anywhere in the world. Global helplines will also remain available in multilingual format to help people across the world for any immediate crisis management across the globe. Bibliography Definition & Concept of Medical tourism [1] information/health-tourismdefinition/ [2] Health_tourism_a_boon_or_a_curse Growth in Medical tourism [3] article/0,8599, ,00.html Technology & Concept [4] technology-in-medical-tourism/ Web based EMR [5] software-articles/web-based-cloudemr-a-new-dimension-added-tomedical-science html EMR on Cloud [6] blog/2011/05/pros-cons-cloudbased-web-based-emr-systems.html [7] news/2012/01/18/carecloudenters-electronic-health-recordmarket-unveils-complete-onc-atcbmeaningful-use-certification/ Data Mining on EMR [8] emr-data-mining-combats-diseasespread/ [9] org/januaryfebruary-2012/507- intelligent-decision-support-inhealthcare n About the Authors Radha M De is IBM Advisory Accredited IT Specialist and is currently working as Technical Lead in projects under shipping industry. He has around 13 years of experience in IT industry and dealt with design, implementation in several critical applications, including smart phone applications. He has published one mobile solution framework in in recent time. He has publishing in IBM Academy of Technology. Diptiman Dasgupta is the Lead Architect for Travel & Transportation Industry in IBM Global Delivery and is a member of IBM Academy of Technology (AoT). He is an IBM Certified Senior IT Architect and Open Group Master Certified IT Architect in the area of Enterprise Integration (EI). He has 15+ years of experience in design and development, architecting, providing technical strategy, solutions for creating and leveraging assets in client solution, as well as providing technical leadership to the organization. CSI Communications September

17 Article Dr. Anil Vaidya Adjunct Professor S. P. Jain Institute of Management & Research Social Media - Marketers New Playing Field The previous article Digital world beckons marketers visited the advertising opportunities in the new digital media. Of the Digital World options the social media have evoked great interest in the recent past. This article focuses on social media platforms. It provides learning from real life experiences of running campaigns on two popular platforms and brings out the possible ways to reach customers. Introduction The rise of social media has been phenomenal, mainly fueled by Facebook though there are others in the game as well. From a small start in the Harvard campus in 2003, Facebook became a very popular social networking site with 900 million worldwide subscribers. Facebook has 169 million US users, 51 million in India, and 45 million in Brazil [5]. Many companies have taken to Facebook for developing their own pages. One finds on Facebook an array of firms in a variety of businesses such as Coca-Cola, Ford Motors, Sears, General Motors, Airbus, and Sony. Not to be left behind are computer firms such as HP, Dell, Lenovo, and Acer; telecom companies such as At&T, Verizon, Singtel; and even the rivals/competitors/partners such as Yahoo, Microsoft, Amazon, LinkedIn; and Google. Individuals follow suit with their fan following. Twitter has been a popular vehicle for politicians, social workers, singers, actors who love to be in the forefront with their tweets. Twitter is a real-time information network that allows 140 character tweets to be sent out. It hits 400 million tweets per day (June 2012) with 170 million registered users. Priyanka Chopra, Sachin Tendulkar, and Shashi Tharoor are some of the leading Indian tweeters with followers exceeding a million each. LinkedIn focuses on creating networks of professionals and has reached 160 million subscribers by June The numbers of Facebook and LinkedIn users enthuse marketers who see a huge advertising opportunity on these platforms. Google attempted to build its own social network platform Google+ though comparatively smaller numbers so far, 400 thousand as in June Spread of Social Media and the Spend on Advertisements The spread of social media and the interest of users has been interesting. It is visible in the statistics of followers of celebrities on two social media networks viz. Twitter and Facebook, Facebook offers an opportunity to create pages on its own site with a chance to gather a fan base in Facebook terminology while Twitter assists in building followers, some examples in Table 1: Twitter followers Facebook fans Shakira Barack Obama Charlie Sheen 7 2 Britney Spears Winfrey Oprah 12 7 All numbers in millions - as of June 30, 2012 Table 1: Twitter and Facebook following It is also important to realize that while the organizations create pages on Facebook and have fans they do not appear to be posting much. On the other hand, activities on twitter seem to be higher for celebrities, probably because of increasing spread of twitter on mobiles. SEOmoz lists top three social media sites as Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn, in that order [11] measured by popularity and effectiveness for marketing. Marketers have been putting their bets on social media to further their brand image. In terms of dollar spend social media ad spend is expected to be $4.7 billion in 2012 rising to $8.3 billion in 2015 according to BIA/Kelsey report [6]. Advertising on Facebook Companies create their pages on Facebook for various intermediate objectives, though the ultimate goal may be increasing sales. Such intermediate objectives may be cocreating products, enhancing brand image, getting feedback etc. With 45 million Indians on Facebook, TripAdvisor thinks there are new opportunities. Social media has changed the way one should look at customers and allows companies to focus on them. Creating an app on Facebook helps to analyze and understand what people like [3]. TripAdvisor on Facebook is an example of Online Travel Agency (OTA) that provides personalized planning. According to Ibibo CEO Social media ads give us the advantage of context-based socially relevant advertising [5]. Firm comscore researched the effect of Facebook pages on marketing. It suggests that marketing on the world's most populous online social network can help increase sales [7]. The report indicates that fans or friends of fans are likely to buy more than the general visitors to the sites. comscore study findings [9] : 1. Inc saw that their Facebook page fans spent twice on their ecommerce site than an average Internet user. However, the friends spent only 8% more. 2. On the other hand, the Starbucks fans on their Facebook page and their friends spent 38% more at Starbucks than those who were not exposed to Facebook messaging. 3. comscore report concluded that being a fan of a brand on Facebook causes people to purchase that brand more frequently. A scan of Facebook pages reveals an interesting aspect. 'Gap' has its own page on Facebook with 2.5 million fans (June 2012). In addition one may find a Gap ad displayed on other company page such as 'Coca-Cola' page, almost nested advertising. Gap ad displayed on Coca- Cola page enables Gap to reach some more of the 42 million Coca-Cola fans. Further, the cover page of a company may display banner ads of various companies like Coti, Honda, Cursormania and so on. Such ads carry a footnote "ads not by Facebook", explanation of which is found on Facebook under Adware. Facebook offers to show ads at a price charged based on clicks or impressions. An advertiser may want to pay for CPM CSI Communications September

18 (per thousand impressions) or by CPC (cost per click), i.e. advertiser may pay for number of times ad has been shown or on number of times a viewer has clicked on the ad. Following are the two of the major ways advertising is done on Facebook: 1. Ads - Ads are paid advertisements by business to be shown to the visitors. The ads may ask them to take certain action like clicking or accessing a particular page. 2. Sponsored stories - Sponsored stories are posts from friends or pages that the advertisers sponsor to be shown to reinforce the positive messages by paying for them. Some Learning from Advertising on Social Media It is important to know the differences among various social media platforms in terms of effectiveness, reach etc. To shed light on specific gains, identical campaigns were launched on Facebook and LinkedIn. As campaigns progressed and the results started coming in, necessary changes were made in both the campaigns. Changes were targeted towards improving the impressions, click-through-rate, and generating leads. Ultimately, the campaigns became platform-specific. Here are some of the deeper learnings from the experience: 1. Audience behavior - Facebook audience is generally online during offoffice hours; LinkedIn audience visits pages during office hours. 2. Content - To get noticed, ads on LinkedIn should be professional with business content, on Facebook they need to have social content. 3. Keywords - Embedding specific keywords in ad copy on LinkedIn gets more attention, e.g. keywords such as expert, international. 4. Bid - Bid if kept low gets little attention - it is not displayed giving very low impressions - the display is decided through auction - one who bids higher gets more impressions. 5. Targeting - Select specific viewers (e.g. by geography, seniority etc.) to meet the campaign goal. 6. Campaign goal - The campaign need to have a goal that can be measured by the actions taken by the viewers, e.g. leads generated, clicks on specific link etc. 7. Choosing geography - Number of active users differ significantly by geography, e.g. one finds higher impressions in North America than in Asia. Consequently, click-through-rate (CTR) may vary. 8. CTR - Overall average click-throughrate on LinkedIn happens to be around 0.025%, an advertiser is happy to get 0.1% for his campaign. 9. Campaign - It is useful to have multiple ads in a single campaign. Regular monitoring and altering parameters as required helps to achieve campaign objectives. 10. Cost - Cost of running campaign on Facebook and LinkedIn differs considerably. It is important to closely monitor daily spend and alter budget as required. Various elements of advertising campaign are depicted in Fig. 1. Number of impressions, clicks, and other measures are used to gauge the campaign success in view of goals set. comscore study (2012) on Facebook identifies importance of time spent by the viewer. The real challenge is in connecting the campaign success to increasing sales of products and services, linking the viewers actions. Mobile Networks Social networking on mobile is accelerating in India as the handsets get less expensive and mobile services operators offer better deals like pay-per-day. On LinkedIn, 14 million users (of total 150 million) are from India, 7 million users login via mobile; globally million log via mobile [10]. Bid Price, cost Timing Ad release, duration Campaign: Contents Message, punch line Multiple ads, multiple social sites, cellphones Target Segments, geography Advertising on social networks on mobiles is the next big opportunity for marketers, though so far estimate of the ad revenue from mobiles is reported to be low of $1.6 billion in According to a study by WeAreSocial, 40% of users log on the social network via mobile. There are instances where the restaurants, retail stores, and other businesses attract customers offering special deals to local residents. There are some who have reported excellent results. Twitter ad on mobile helped P F Chang s China Bistro and CloudOn exemplify that the mobile Twitter ads produce good results [8]. However, there are others who experienced not so encouraging results. In a way the results of mobile ads are somewhat mixed, some positive others disappointing. It is useful to know the expert opinion that the deep discounts offered in a low-margin business through daily deals sites may not the best way to do the business [1]. Social Media Performance - Successes and Ad Business Wall Street Journal reported news on Netflix that shows an interesting deployment of Facebook page by Netflix. It says Netflix shares jumped 13% post an update on Facebook page [2]. The update was on the improving streaming business of the company. CloudOn is a Twitter believer, its ads helped generate 10,000 downloads of its document-software app [8]. Outcome CTR, impressions, reach Fig.1: Social media - advertising Campaign Campaign Goal: Branding co-creation, feedback and improvement, know prospective customers CSI Communications September

19 Social media companies such as Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter rarely used to make their revenue from advertising and other revenue streams public, though after going public they are more transparent. Twitter declines to disclose its ad revenue but is estimated to be around $139 million in 2011 [8]. On account of its IPO, Facebook declared its financial data. Its ad revenue for 2011 was $3.1 billion almost 90% of total revenue, with $1.21 as average revenue per user in first quarter of The stock price recorded on June 12, 2012, was $27.40 with market capitalization of $74 billion, though the price bounced back to $32-33 level. The stock debuted at $38 and had opened above $42 on the day of listing on NASDAQ on May 18, In India, social media advertising spend is Rs. 94 crore of total Rs. 25,600 crore ad market. Much of this Rs. 94 crore went to Facebook. LinkedIn made $522 million in 2011, most of it coming from advertising, and had a stock price around $106 in June Concluding Remarks - RoI on Social Media Marketing Return on investment in marketing on social media may not be always in dollars Continued from Page 10 mining step of the overall KDD process. Hence, analyzing large biological data sets requires making sense of the data by inferring structure or generalizations from the data. Therefore, we see a great potential to increase the interaction among soft computing, data mining, and bioinformatics. Conclusions Bioinformatics, soft computing, and data mining are developing as an interdisciplinary science. Data mining approaches seem ideally suited for bioinformatics, since bioinformatics is data-rich but lacks a comprehensive theory of life s organization at the molecular level. However, data mining in bioinformatics is hampered by many problems like intractability, local optimality, vagueness etc. Therefore, the joint application of soft computing and data mining is realized as an important tool for circumventing the aforesaid issues. References [1] Baldi, P and Brunak, S (2001). Bioinformatics: The Machine Learning Approach, 2nd Edition, MIT Press. [2] Dubois, D and Prade, H (1990). Rough fuzzy sets and fuzzy rough sets. International Journal of General Systems, but also in the change in consumer behavior tied to particular media application [4]. It is more appropriate to measure the behavior changes as the social media helps people to connect, comment, and create. It spreads the word, creates perceptions, and impacts the brands positively or negatively. Advertising on social media need to be seen as more as connecting to people, it provides another channel to listen to the customers. Advertiser choosing to respond evokes more positive feelings. Masses have taken to social networking and will continue to do so. Marketers have to be on forefront making the most of the opportunity. References [1] Bertini, M, et al. (2012). Do Social deal sites really work? Harvard Business Review, May [2] Digits (2012). Netflix shares surge 13% after CEO boast. The Wall Street Journal, July 6, 2012: B7. [3] ET Q&A (2012). Social media has transformed online travel planning. The Economic Times, May 3, [4] Hoffman, D and Fodor, M (2010). Can you measure the ROI of your 17, [3] Ghosh, A, et al. (Eds.) (2008). Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms for Knowledge Discovery from Databases, Springer. [4] Gorzalzany, M B (1987). A method of inference in approximate reasoning based on interval-valued fuzzy sets Fuzzy Sets Syst., 21, [5] Han, J and Kamber, M (2006). Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques, Morgan Kaufmann. [6] Herawan, T, et al. (2010). A rough set approach for selecting clustering attribute. Knowledge-Based Systems, 23(3), [7] Maji, P K, et al.( 2001). Fuzzy soft sets, J. Fuzzy Math, 9(3), [8] Maji, P K, et al. (2002). An application of soft sets in a decision making problem. Computers and Mathematics with Applications, 44, [9] Mitchell, T M (1999). Machine learning and data mining Commun. ACM, 42(11). [10] Mitra, S and Acharya, T (2003). Data Mining: Multimedia, Soft Computing, and Bioinformatics, John Wiley & Sons. [11] Molodtsov, D (1999). Soft set theory - first results. Computers and Mathematics with Applications, 37, [12] Molodtsov, D (2004). The Theory of Soft Sets (in Russian), URSS Publishers, Moscow. social media marketing? MIT Sloan Management Review, 52(1). [5] Julka, H (2012). India s one of the key growth markets: FB. The Economic Times, May 17, [6] MarketingProfs (2012). Social media ad spend to reach $8.3 billion by 2015 MarketingProfs accessed on June 17, 2012 from com/charts/2011/4977/social-mediaad-spend-to-reach-83-billion-by-2015 [7] Ortutay, B (2012). Facebook posts drive sales traffic, ComScore study suggests accessed on June 13, business/ci_ /facebookposts-drive-sales-traffic-comscorestudy-suggests [8] Ovide, S (2012). Twitter s mobile ads begin to click. The Wall Street Journal, June 29, 2012: B6. [9] Raice, S (2012). Facebook combats criticism over ads. The Wall Street Journal, June 13, [10] Sachitanand, R (2012). Social media in your pocket. The Economic Times, April 24, [11] SEOmoz (2011). Social Media Marketing Guide SEQmoz accessed on June 25, 2012 from n [13] Pal, S K and Pal, A (Eds.) (2002). Pattern Recognition: From Classical to Modern Approaches, World Scientific Press, Singapore. [14] Pal, S K (2004). Soft data mining, computational theory of perceptions, and rough-fuzzy approach. Information Sciences, 163, [15] Pawlak, Z (1991). Rough Sets: Theoretical Aspects of Reasoning about Data, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. [16] Witten, I H, et al. (2011). Data Mining: Practical Machine Learning Tools and Techniques, 3rd Edition, Morgan Kaufmann. [17] Yang, J, et al. (2002). Mining long sequential patterns in a noisy environment. SIGMOD 02, [18] Yang, X B, et al. (2009). Combination of interval-valued fuzzy set and soft set. Computers and Mathematics with Applications, 58, [19] Zadeh, L A (1965). Fuzzy set. Information and Control, 8, [20] Zou, Y and Xiao, Z (2008). Data analysis approaches of soft sets under incomplete information. Knowledge Based Systems, 21, n CSI Communications September

20 Article Prof. (Dr.) V Purnachandra Rao Ex. Director/Indian Railways Institute of Signal Engineering & Telecommunications (IRISET)-Secunderabad GSM - R (Global System for Mobile Communication - Railway) GSM technology has been adopted for specific railway use and development of this application commenced around This has now been standardized by the U.I.C. (French acronym for International Union of Railways) and is widely used among the European Railways. About 38 countries including India have now working GSM-R networks. Indian Railways have installed GSM-R over five zones in the Northern and Eastern regions on 2,431 km of track - commissioned between 2005 and Why GSM-R? European Railways chose the wireless network of GSM-R as the maintenance of cables or overhead lines had become costlier. Moreover, emergency communication becomes easier and far more prompt against cable communication which has sockets placed at fixed intervals. For Indian Railways additional benefit arises with the elimination of the frequent need to replace stolen cable specially in the eastern regions, also avoid infrastructure for radio patching covering breaks in cable. The savings in lifecycle costs by replacing cable are so enormous that there was no need to perform a cost benefit analysis. GSM-R enables voice/ MS-Mobile Station NSS-Network Switching Subsystem HLR-Home Location Register EN-External Networks BSS-Base Station Subsystem MSC-Mobile Switching Centre VLR-Visitor Location Register PRN-Private Railway Network BSC-Base Station Controller OMS-Operation and Maintainance System GCR-Group Call Register ON-Other Networks BTS-Base Transceiver System IN-Intelligent Network VMS-Voice Mail Service SMS-Short Message Service PSTN-Public Switched Telephone Network data communication between train controller, drivers/guards of trains, and station masters within the controlled area. Also communications among running staff of different trains, trackside staff, shunting staff etc. are envisaged. GSM-R has other additional facilities incorporated such as voice broadcast call - to convey recorded announcements or orders to all users in a particular region; voice group call - to allow a supervisor to speak to a particular group of professionals, say, maintainers or shunting staff and receive feedback only one at a time; emergency call - any user, specially, the driver can call all the drivers of trains in his area, also the controller, by pressing a `red`button, all phones have `red` buttons for the purpose of emergency calls; functional addressing -instead of ringing the full mobile number (11-15 digits here), a short code, say, the number of the train or engine can be dialed (prefixed by a digit for the function) to reach the desired functionary faster; location dependant addressing - the driver can reach the controller or station master of the region he is in, by either pressing a button or dialing a short code (e.g. UKrail has prescribed a yellow button); and multilevel precedence or preemption - there are seven priority levels depending on the status of user and the user with higher priority can preempt an ongoing call of a lesser priority user-emergency call having the highest priority. The above features are termed Advanced Speech Call Items (ASCIs or ASCs), and these require translation to the appropriate mobile telephone numbers of users which is done by the Intelligent Network (IN) provided at the Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) with the help of concerned registers (HLR, GCR). At present, the ASC mechanism has been suspended on Indian Railways (IR) due to misuse by some operators which led to blocking of the network and will be recommissioned on the release of explicit instructions for use by the various operators to avoid future blocking. Also GSM-R is applicable to high speeds upto 500km/hr of trains. Other Uses as on European Railways (ER) In addition to transmission of voice/ data among various railway staff, the CSI Communications September

21 GSM-R enables voice/data communication between train controller, drivers/guards of trains, and station masters within the controlled area. Also communications among running staff of different trains, trackside staff, shunting staff etc. are envisaged. ER use this system for transmitting data for train control as well. This was conceived as a standard originally for EIRENE (European Integrated Railway Radio Enhanced Network) and part of a plan for ERTMS (European Railway Train Management System) for automatically controlling the train by transmitting data on train speeds and receiving data from transponders placed on track. Also passenger communication is available wherein the ordinary passenger gets information on follow-on connections - onward reservation details, hotel/taxi/ bus reservations, newspaper and other texts via FAX and Internet access etc. These facilities are not used in India at present. It is however reported that some station masters on North Central Railway have used voice to convey signal aspects to drivers in times of fog in winter to avoid detentions, with the exchange of private numbers (colonial practice akin to variable PIN codes) and recording in voice recorder for authenticity. GSM-R is now compulsory for all new installations on ER. GSM-R architecture simplified: A simplified architecture of GSM-R is illustrated. GSM-R is a cellular mobile network with the cells placed along the track and the base towers at the stations, the distance between base stations can be a maximum of 15 km but normally it is km. The BTSs are two per station covering two overlapping cells and placed in a multiloop structure with 4 BTSs per BSC serving the needs of redundancy. The network is very similar to a public mobile cellular network but designed to cater for railway use such as the Advanced Speech Calls. For this an Intelligent Network (IN) with special databases is provided to translate the special codes like functional numbers to individual mobile phone numbers. IN is assisted by the data in the HLR and GCR. The system is designed for a C/I (Carrier to Interference) ratio of greater than 15dB and should serve in dense forests, long tunnels, deep cuttings, gorges etc. Frequencies around 900 Mhz band are used and it is a Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) system using Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) modulation. The paths linking BTSs, BSCs, and MSC are covered by optic fibre cable. A typical general purpose handset and a typical emergency call are illustrated. The controllers and engine drivers work with fixed terminals and trackside personnel are supplied with rugged handsets (operational purpose), general purpose (light weight) handsets are given to all other train running staff. Network suppliers: There are three network suppliers or operators in the global arena - Nortel (taken over by Kapsch), Nokia-Siemens, and Huawei. The ones installed in India are either from Nortel or Nokia-Siemens. The first GSM-R in India was installed on Eastern Railway in 2005, earlier than the first system in Europe, i.e. Netherlands which was commissioned in Feedback: The feedback on the GSM-R systems installed on IR has been generally positive. There are pending demands from running staff for possession of additional handsets. Cases have been reported where failures of electric locomotives have been diagnosed faster with the help of loco controllers who could speak to the staff at site. Detentions could be avoided for trains in foggy conditions by transmission of signaling information.s ome problems due to nonairconditioning of BTSs in hightemperature zones in summer may have to be remedied in due course. Need for indigenous development: With the GSM networks covering almost the whole of the country and mobile communication becoming an essential part of daily life and business, we cannot depend on imported equipments for GSM-R is a cellular mobile network with the cells placed along the track and the base towers at the stations, the distance between base stations can be a maximum of 15 km but normally it is km. long. There is need to develop indigenous equipments by reverse engineering in the fields of semiconductor, computer, and wireless technologies, just as the Japanese, South Koreans, and Chinese have done. Next step is research & development to further upgrade the technology. Future development: Some developments to update the technology to 4G are being considered in Europe and China, say, by adopting LTE/SAE,Wi-Max etc. Bibliography [1] GSM-R/ [2] [3] [4] [5] n About the Author Prof. (Dr.) V Purnachandra Rao has served the Indian Railways for 34 years in various capacities from Asst. Engineer to Chief Engineer (signal & telecom) and retired as Director/Indian Railways Institute of Signal Engineering & Telecommunications-Secunderabad. He obtained his Ph.D. from Anna University in Application of microprocessors to Electronic Interlocking during service and after retirement worked as Professor & Head/CSE & ECE deptts. as well as Principal in privately managed Engg. Colleges. At present he is a Professor (Emeritus) at an Engg. College in Chennai teaching electronics & computer engg. subjects. He is a life member of CSI. CSI Communications September

22 Bridge the Information Gap IT Audit, Assurance, Control, Governance, Risk and Security New for India! For more information on our latest white paper Securing Sensitive Personal Data or Information: Using COBIT 5 for India s IT Act please visit the following link CSI Communications September

23 Article Avinash W Kadam Advisor, ISACA s India Task Force The Evolution of COBIT ISACA is synonymous with trust and value. The association of 100,000 constituents in 180 countries helps IT professionals achieve trust in, and value from, their information systems. One way it does this through the COBIT framework. Now in version 5, COBIT has helped enterprises worldwide understand and implement IT governance. There is still a general apprehension about terms like Governance and Management among technical persons. These terms are regarded as a lot of jargon with little practical use by the IT people. However, in this article we will demystify those terms and explain how COBIT 5 can add significant business value through effective enterprise governance and management of IT. It will also discuss the practical aspects of COBIT that make it a compelling framework to be used. ISACA was born as EDP Auditors Association (EDPAA) in the 1960s. Data processing in those days was restricted to manually entering data such as payroll information, bills and invoices, and processing them into pay rolls, financial statements, and inventory records with the help of electronic data processing equipment in an EDP department. The internal workings of EDP machines, the programs, and the computation were a black box to others in the organization. This is when the need of EDP auditors was felt. They could check if all the computational rules were being correctly applied and ensure that the output from the EDP department was trustworthy. The importance of EDP auditors kept growing - and so did the complexity of the computer programs and technology. Somewhere there was a realization that the EDP department not only processed data, but also played a much bigger role in the organization, and the name changed to Information Systems Department. Keeping up with the trend, EDPAA became the Information Systems Audit and Control Association - and as its member base expanded, the association became known by its acronym only: ISACA. A great benefit of ISACA membership is the collaboration of members in the development and creation of best practices. COBIT is one such development. Now known as COBIT only, it was initially called Control Objectives for Information and related Technology, and version one was released nearly two decades ago. At that time, its audience was mainly auditors. What is a control objective? Before we answer that, let us first examine what a control is. It is similar to a brake pedal in an automobile. Just as a brake is used to prevent an accident, a control is used to prevent a catastrophe. It is a safeguard against possible mishaps. A control objective is the objective to be achieved by applying the control. Prevention of an accident or a catastrophe is the control objective here. In information systems, auditors will be concerned whether the right control objectives were selected and the right controls were applied. A control objective is a statement of desired result or purpose to be achieved by implementing control procedures in a particular IT activity and the controls will be the policies, procedures, practices and organizational structure to provide reasonable assurance that business objectives will be achieved and undesirable events will be prevented or detected and corrected. The first edition of COBIT was replaced by version 2, which included many control practices and control activities relevant to IT controls. It still was a document by IT auditors and for IT auditors. The big change came with the publication of COBIT Third Edition, with its business objective orientation. At this time, COBIT was termed an IT management framework. The third edition identified that an organization needs IT not just for information processing, but also to achieve business objectives. The business objectives could be achieved by having the right type of information that the business needs. What is the right type of information? It is the information that meets criteria such as effectiveness, efficiency, confidentiality, integrity, availability, compliance, and reliability. What you need to achieve this quality of information? The right IT resources. What are the IT resources? People, application systems, technology, facilities, and data constitute the resources. How do you put all these together as a well directed machinery to meet business objectives? Here, ISACA came out with the concept of IT governance, which was governance over information technology and its processes with the business goal of adding value, while balancing risk vs. return. So, if you have to invest in a firewall, IT governance will require you to ensure that this investment in information technology will meet the business goal of securing the confidentiality of the information, while balancing the risk against the return. COBIT Third Edition attracted many IT professionals who could identify the utility of talking business language while explaining the need for better IT implementation. When addressing senior management, it is a must to speak in business language and not get into IT jargon. Especially when the organization is planning to invest millions of dollars, there has to be a good business justification. COBIT Third Edition could build the bridge between technical people and business people by allowing them to speak the same language. COBIT Third Edition also published detailed management guidelines and identified critical success factors, key goal indicators, key performance indicators and maturity models, high-level control objectives, and detailed control objectives. It divided all the control objectives in four toplevel domains and mapped the processes with information criteria and IT resources. With so much emphasis on IT governance, it was only logical that COBIT 4.0, introduced in 2005, was positioned as an IT governance framework. It elaborated the principles of COBIT Third Edition into greater details and supplemented the efforts with publications like Val IT and Risk IT. COBIT 4.1 set the industry standard for IT governance. Apart from the ISACA-developed frameworks, there are a number of highly successful standards adopted by the industry. The standards from the ISO27000 series are almost mandatory for information security implementation. The ITIL framework is highly regarded when implementing IT services. The PMBOK is very popular among the CSI Communications September

24 project management professionals. But none of these provides a framework that can be called an enterprise governance framework. All of these standards are excellent in a particular niche area which they serve very well. But they do not keep an enterprise-wide view. ISACA identified this as a challenge when creating COBIT 5. The targets before the COBIT 5 development team were: To tie together and reinforce ISACA knowledge assets with COBIT5. Provide a renewed governance and management framework for enterprise information and related technology. Align with other major frameworks and standards in the marketplace, including ITIL, ISO standards etc. The COBIT 5 team has done an admirable job of meeting all these challenges. COBIT 5 not only knits all the ISACA frameworks together, but also simplifies them. It also helps in identifying the areas where other standards and frameworks should be used as they are more appropriate to meet the specific requirements. To begin with, COBIT 5 has clearly defined the governance and management roles. The governance job is to set the direction in which the organization should move and keep it on the set path. This can be done only by understanding the needs of all the stakeholders, i.e. all those who are keenly interested in the organization. The people who govern are those who evaluate, direct, and monitor if the organization is making progress in the set direction. The management task is to plan, build, run and monitor activities in alignment with the direction set by the governance body to achieve the enterprise objectives. The governance function is the responsibility of the board of directors and its chairman. They decide the right priorities and right direction for the organization. Management function is the responsibility of the management team under the leadership of the Chief Executive Officer. His/her responsibility is to put the appropriate plans in action to achieve the goals set by the governance body. An example could be a ship. The ship is managed by a hierarchy of sailors, which can be compared to a hierarchy of management of a company. However, a captain governs the ship. Just as it is the captain s job to set the ship in the right direction, it is the governance function s job to set the right direction. You can probably spot the similarity in the destiny of many ships and companies that sank to the bottom because of bad governance. Another new feature in COBIT 5 is a goals cascade. The stakeholders of an enterprise are propelled into some action because of various challenges they may face. These could be because of environmental change, such as a new privacy law, or a technological evolution, such as the explosion of online activities and e-commerce opportunities. These stakeholder drivers make the stakeholders needs very prominent. The enterprise governance objectives need to be set to meet the stakeholders needs. The governance objectives would have to ensure that the stakeholders get the benefits with an optimum level of resources and an exposure to the optimum level of risk. If the stakeholders are concerned about the e-commerce challenges, the governance objectives will be to lead the organization toward investment in the right technology that provides the best returns with optimum risk, neither too much, nor too little. From the identified stakeholder needs, the goals cascade gives us mapping tables to identify which enterprise goals need to be selected, what the supporting IT-related goals are, and which enabler goals will help in achieving the enterprise objectives. COBIT 5 has identified seven enablers that are factors that, individually and collectively, influence whether something will work - in this case governance and management over enterprise IT. The seven enablers are taken from the COBIT 5 publication: 1. Principles, policies, and frameworks are the vehicles to translate the desired behaviour into practical guidance for day-to-day management. 2. Processes describe an organized set of practices and activities to achieve certain objectives and produce a set of outputs in support of achieving overall IT-related goals. 3. Organisational structures are the key decision-making entities in an enterprise. 4. Culture, ethics, and behaviour of individuals and of the enterprise are very often underestimated as a success factor in governance and management activities, but they set the tone of the organisation. 5. Information is pervasive throughout any organisation and includes all information produced and used by the enterprise. Information is required for keeping the organization running and well governed, but at the operational level, information is very often the key product of the enterprise itself. 6. Services, infrastructure, and applications include the infrastructure, technology, and applications that provide the enterprise with information technology processing and services. 7. People, skills, and competencies are linked to the staff and are required for successful completion of all activities and for making correct decisions and taking corrective actions. The second enabler, processes, has identified the IT processes required to achieve the enterprise goals. The IT processes are selected based on the ITrelated goals, which were identified as a part of the goals cascade. You can see that everything gets linked through the goals cascade. There are 37 IT processes, of which 5 are governance processes and 32 are management processes. COBIT 5 makes it easy to locate the right process that will help us to achieve the IT-related goals through some well-designed tables. There are four publications related to COBIT 5 which you should download from COBIT 5 will be referred to often in business circles for all enterprise governance needs. I encourage you to download it today so you can join the conversation. Avinash Kadam, CISA, CISM, CGEIT, CRISC, CISSP, CSSLP, CBCP, is currently advisor to the ISACA's India Task Force. He is also a past international vice president of the association. He can be contacted via Opinion expressed in the blog are his personal opinions and do not necessarily reflect the views of ISACA. Reference To download COBIT 5, COBIT 5: Enabling Processes, COBIT 5 Implementation or COBIT 5 for Information Security, visit n CSI Communications September

25 Practitioner Workbench Wallace Jacob Sr. Asst. Prof. at Tolani Maritime Institute Programming.Tips()» Fun with Diophantine Equations in C PERSPECTIVE: Programming can be helpful in everyday life. I would like to illustrate the aforementioned viewpoint via a simple example. Once while reading a book on puzzles, I came across the following question: Question. Five pirates steal a trunk containing gold coins. They are quite tired so they decide to divide the gold coins among themselves the next day. During the night one of the pirates decides to take a few gold coins for himself. He divides the gold coins into five equal parts and finds that one coin is still left. He decides to keep one pile for himself. He keeps the extra gold coin in his pile and keeps the remaining four piles back into the trunk. One by one all the pirates carry out the same procedure. Each pirate divides the coins into file piles, and finds one extra coin left over. He keeps one pile along with the extra gold coin for himself and keeps the remaining piles back into the trunk. What is the smallest number of coins that could have been in the trunk initially? Solution. Let the total number of coins in the trunk = n. From the question n = 5a + 1, where a is the number of coins in a pile, (i) 4a = 5b + 1, where b is the number of coins in a pile formed after the first pirate has taken his share, (ii) 4b = 5c + 1, where c is the number of coins in a pile formed after the second pirate has taken his share, (iii) 4c = 5d + 1, where d is the number of coins in a pile formed after the third pirate has taken his share, (iv) 4d = 5e + 1, where e is the number of coins in a pile formed after the fourth pirate has taken his share (v) From (i), n + 4 = 5a + 5. Thus n + 4 = 5(a + 1). From (ii), 4a + 4 = 5b + 5. Thus 4(a + 1) = 5(b + 1). From (iii), 4b + 4 = 5c + 5. Thus 4(b + 1) = 5(c + 1). From (iv), 4c + 4 = 5d + 5. Thus 4(c + 1) = 5(d + 1). From (v), 4d + 4 = 5e + 5. Thus 4(d + 1) = 5(e + 1). But this point proved to be a dead-end as I could not solve five equations, containing six unknowns. The above system of equations are actually classified as Diophantine equations. It is exactly at this point that I felt a program could be used for finding the answer. The logic is quite simple and that is to divide the coins into five piles with each pile containing the same number of coins and there should be one surplus coin. The program along with the sample output is presented below: #include<stdio.h> main() { int pirate1, pirate2, pirate3, pirate4, pirate5, t, casecount=0; for(pirate1 = 11; pirate1 < 20000; pirate1++) { if((pirate1%5)==1) { t=(pirate1-1)/5; pirate2=pirate1-t-1; if((pirate2%5)==1) { t = (pirate2-1)/5; pirate3=pirate2-t-1; if((pirate3%5)==1) { t = (pirate3-1)/5; pirate4=pirate3-t-1; if((pirate4%5)==1) { t = (pirate4-1)/5; pirate5=pirate4-t-1; { if((pirate5%5)==1) { casecount++; printf("\ncase %d", casecount); printf("\ntotal no. of coins found by the first pirate= %d, Coins in a heap = %d", pirate1, (pirate1-1)/5); printf("\ntotal no. of coins found by the second pirate= %d, Coins in a heap = %d", pirate2, (pirate2-1)/5); printf("\ntotal no. of coins found by the third pirate= %d, Coins in a heap = %d", pirate3, (pirate3-1)/5); printf("\ntotal no. of coins found by the fourth pirate= %d, Coins in a heap = %d", pirate4, (pirate4-1)/5); printf("\ntotal no. of coins found by the fifth pirate= %d, Coins in a heap = %d\n\n", pirate5, (pirate5-1)/5); } } } } } } } return 0; } OUTPUT: Case 1 Total no. of coins found by the first pirate= 3121, Coins in a heap = 624 Total no. of coins found by the second pirate= 2496, Coins in a heap = 499 Total no. of coins found by the third pirate= 1996, Coins in a heap = 399 Total no. of coins found by the fourth pirate= 1596, Coins in a heap = 319 Total no. of coins found by the fifth pirate= 1276, Coins in a heap = 255 Case 2 Total no. of coins found by the first pirate= 6246, Coins in a heap = 1249 Total no. of coins found by the second pirate= 4996, Coins in a heap = 999 Total no. of coins found by the third pirate= 3996, Coins in a heap = 799 Total no. of coins found by the fourth pirate= 3196, Coins in a heap = 639 Total no. of coins found by the fifth pirate= 2556, Coins in a heap = 511 Case 3 Total no. of coins found by the first pirate= 9371, Coins in a heap = 1874 Total no. of coins found by the second pirate= 7496, Coins in a heap = 1499 Total no. of coins found by the third pirate= 5996, Coins in a heap = 1199 Total no. of coins found by the fourth pirate= 4796, Coins in a heap = 959 Total no. of coins found by the fifth pirate= 3836, Coins in a heap = 767 Case 4 Total no. of coins found by the first pirate= 12496, Coins in a heap = 2499 Total no. of coins found by the second pirate= 9996, Coins in a heap = 1999 Total no. of coins found by the third pirate= 7996, Coins in a heap = 1599 Total no. of coins found by the fourth pirate= 6396, Coins in a heap = 1279 Total no. of coins found by the fifth pirate= 5116, Coins in a heap = 1023 Case 5 Total no. of coins found by the first pirate= 15621, Coins in a heap = 3124 Total no. of coins found by the second pirate= 12496, Coins in a heap = 2499 Total no. of coins found by the third pirate= 9996, Coins in a heap = 1999 Total no. of coins found by the fourth pirate= 7996, Coins in a heap = 1599 Total no. of coins found by the fifth pirate= 6396, Coins in a heap = 1279 Case 6 Total no. of coins found by the first pirate= 18746, Coins in a heap = 3749 Total no. of coins found by the second pirate= 14996, Coins in a heap = 2999 Total no. of coins found by the third pirate= 11996, Coins in a heap = 2399 Total no. of coins found by the fourth pirate= 9596, Coins in a heap = 1919 Total no. of coins found by the fifth pirate= 7676, Coins in a heap = 1535 There were 3121 coins in the heap. Five heaps can be constructed from 3121 coins with each heap containing 624 coins and there will be one extra coin. After removing one heap and the extra coin, 2496 coins will be left. Five heaps can be constructed from 2496 coins with each heap containing 499 coins and again there will be one extra coin. After removing one heap and the extra coin, 1996 coins will be left. Five heaps containing 399 coins can be constructed from 1996 coins and there will be one extra coin. After removing one heap and the extra coin, 1596 coins will be left. Five heaps containing 319 coins can be constructed from 1596 coins and there will be one extra coin. After removing one heap and the extra coin 1276 coins will be left. After 3121 coins, the next possibilities are 6246, 9371, 12496, 15621, 18746,... Finding the solution using a program was relatively easier. CSI Communications September

26 Practitioner Workbench Umesh P Programming.Learn ( Python )» CGI Python Let s have a look at the following situations - (1) you need to create a registration form for some event or a seminar. When a user enters his/her personal details and affiliation, it should be processed and the user should be greeted with a welcome message demanding registration fee. (It can also be saved into a database, which will be discussed in coming issue) and (2) A user enters his/her annual income and other details, then perform some statistical calculation using scipy or numpy module and shows the amount to be paid as tax in an html page. The above two cases can be addressed by using CGI programming using Python. In this session we will discuss CGI programming using Python. The Common Gateway Interface (CGI) is the standard method to communicate with programs or script using html interface. There are three parts in this - first is an html page which will pass the data from the client side. Second is web server software, that delivers pages to client on the request using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol and third one is programming language, like C, Perl, PHP Java, or Visual Basic, python using which, scripts can be written for specific purposes. The prominence of CGI program is, user can write programs in the favorite platform and it can be used for webpage development, which will interact with the user dynamically. Unlike other programming languages, Python CGI programming is very easy. To try a CGI program you need to install web server which helps to access files through http through Internet or in the same computer which we are using. Here we can use Apache server, which was very instrumental in the revolution of World Wide Web and is commonly used. Apache server supports most of the languages like PHP, Perl, and Python. You can download Apache server from as per your operating system. Now install Apache server in your PC. To check whether the installation of Apache server is successful, open the browser and type local host. If the browser displays It works! then you are ready for action. Almost all Linux platforms supports CGI programming and has preconfigured directory called CGI directory usually named as cgi bin. For Linux users, this directory can be found at /var/www/cgi-bin. Now the first step is to make the web server to execute the python scripts. This can be done by in the AddHandler block (line 393) of httpd.conf file (this can be found at the path /var/www in linux). preceding to the line AddHandler cgi-script.cgi Windows users can locate conf folder in the directory where you installed Apache. Inside conf folder you can find httpd.conf file. That is, finally the AddHandler line will be AddHandler Yes!!! Now your webserver is equipped to do CGI programming using Python. In the server side, to show the path of the python executable installed, specify the path of the python.exe in the first line of the python file. For this, code is as follows: #!C:/Python27/python.exe (for Windows- If Python is installed in C:/Python27) #!/usr/bin/python (for Linux) Now write the following python program and save it in cgi-bin directory. #!D:/Python27/python.exe print "Content-type:text/html\r\n\r\n" print '<html>' print '<head>' print '<h1>i begin my CGI journey in Python</h1>' print '</head>' print '</html>' Program 1: In browser, type - This will give you the following output: Department of Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, University of Kerala Here we have received output in browser by running a python script. Or in other words, we can say that we have printed html page using python language. In some cases we need to process or save data entered through html form as for registration forms and verification of address. Let us make an html page through which you can enter your name and python scripts to process the name and display hello your name. For this we need to create an html page by specifying the root and name of the python file located at cgi-bin. HTML code <html> <body> <form method="post" action=""> <p>please Enter Your Name: <input type="text" name="firstname"> <p>click here to submit form: <input type="submit"> </form> </body> </html> Program 2: form.html Here we have made an html page which consists of one text box and a submit button. Here the name entered in the text box is stored in the variable firstname. When you submit the value this will be passed to the python file - located in cgi-bin. Now we need to write Python program to receive the variable sent from the html page, and to process and print into another html page. Fig. 2: Result obtained when GET method is used - see url Python code #!D:\Python27\python import cgi def main(): print "Content-type: text/html\n" form = cgi.fieldstorage() # parse query print "<h1>hello", form["firstname"].value, "</h1>" main() Program 3: In the program, first line describes the path of the python executable. The CGI program starts by importing cgi module. Content-type describes the format of the file being returned by the python program. Here we have used Content-type as html (Content-type: text/html). Now to parse the query, the total content is transferred to the variable - form. Each value stored in the variable form is obtained by using the code form["the name of input initiated in the html"].value Methods of sending browser information to the web server are GET and POST. In GET method, data is encoded into a URL, so that we can see the variables passing to the program. In POST method, data is encoded as messages inside the body. POST method can be used for sending data of large size, or sending passwords etc. Fig. 1: Output of CGI program Fig. 3: Result obtained when POST method is used - see url CSI Communications September

27 CIO Perspective Dr. R M Sonar Chief Editor, CSI Communications Managing Technology» Business Information Systems: Changing Roles of CIOs IT and Business: Relationship There have been many discussions on relationship between technology and business. Such as whether business drives technology or technology drives business. Aligning IT strategies with business strategies has been one of the long debated and deliberated topics. Bring in efficiencies, facilitate innovations, and offer competitive advantage As shown in Fig. 1, technology brings in innovations in businesses and the way businesses are done. It can offer new business models. For example, web technologies facilitated various e-commerce business models and serviceoriented architecture (SOA) makes it possible for many businesses to integrate various services such as payment, logistics etc. as virtual components in their overall IT systems using web services. Technologies like extranet allowed businesses to expand their reach to their stakeholders such as dealers and service centers to be part of their network and have common IT setup. On the other hand, businesses are driving the kind of technologies required. For example, low-cost leadership makes the firm to invest in technologies that bring in substantial operational efficiencies. A good case, Air Deccan [1], one of the low-cost airline operators, could manage its low-cost leadership by bringing in savings in tune of 20% on their distribution cost. It gained operational efficiencies and access to larger customer base using the right IT strategies and technologies that suited to its business model. Its operations are limited to domestic market and flights are from point-to-point, this reduces its dependence on global flight reservations databases such as GDSs like Galileo and Amadeus and also there is no need to share revenue. Having its own Technology airline reservation systems, made sense. Capt. Gopinath was convinced that Internet delivery system is the most important ingredient for a low-cost airline, however he pointedly stated: I m not in favour of technology for technology s sake. Solutions that our IT team delivers must be hightech, but low-cost. Similarly Air Deccan Impact Business Fig. 1: Technology and business: relationship opted for outsourcing model for software to reduce the cost. Sometimes it is win-win proposition. Business drives technology and technology enables more business. As social networking is more popular amongst the young generation, many firms are offering social networking features as part of their service such as telecom operators to reach these customers. They facilitate Facebook, Linkedin, Twitter, and Youtube interfaces from mobile phones. It means if the firm s focussed customer base is young customers, they must choose social networking Human centric Network centric Computer centric Employees within function/ department Mainframes All employees of the organization Functional and monolithic Stand alone PCs Business drives and aligns IT strategies with business strategies Employees, individual customers, players in ecosystem Enterprise level Computer networks (C/S computing) technologies (IT strategies aligned with business ones) to attract and retain them, while at the same time social networking (IT brings in business advantages) may facilitate more business using referrals, word-of-mouth marketing, personalization and contextual advertisements, crossselling opportunities etc. Change in Technologies and Roles of CIOs As the technology and the way businesses are done are changing rapidly, the IT skills and resources required are also changing at fast pace. As discussed in earlier article on information systems [2], the technology has evolved from mainframes, PCs and network based computing to cloud computing. The Internet, ecommerce, enterprise systems (ERP, CRM, ERP, KM), business intelligence and analytics, mobility and emergence of various delivery channels like smart devices, mobile computing, SOA (service-oriented technologies), web 2.0 technologies, and big data are influencing the functions and roles of CIOs. Technologies have become more standard, open, collaborative, mobile and social, making CIOs to get rid of stand alone, proprietary, and complex IT systems. However, as shown in Fig. 2, the endusers of the systems are no more limited to within the firm but outside the firm. Integrated and extended (inclusive) Internet and intranet technologies Accessible to everybody, people can connect, express and share Collective and collaborative Web 2.0 and semantic web technologies Fig. 2: Evolution of technology and end users Ubiquitous and social Smart, ubiquitous and sensor based devices, mashable apps CSI Communications September

28 IT Manager IT Knowledge Internal focus Automation Complexity increases while implementing such systems since end-users are not only internal employees but also customers, employees of partners (such as franchises, dealers, service centers) in the business ecosystem. This needs IT people to consider the requirements and perspectives of all kinds of end-users. For example, Internet allowed banks to extend their services to customers through net banking. In such scenario, even if back-end systems of the bank are robust but if net-banking interfaces provided to the customers are not userfriendly or interactive, it will definitely have adverse impact. Although employee hours of working may be limited 8-10 hours, but customers expect such systems to be available and accessible 24 hours/7 days a week. This means systems must be developed and deployed to be available and run continuously. On social media it becomes even more complex as people can express and share their experiences. If people are not happy with the systems, their unhappiness is not only limited to themselves but they express and share that with others. This can greatly impact the firm s image. 1 Governance of the IT function 2 Operating the core infrastructure and related services 3 Managing the applications portfolio supporting business processes 4 Recruiting and managing IT skills, expertise, and people 5 Developing and retaining IT project management skills 6 Managing the suppliers of IT services and products 7 Measuring and managing the company s IT investments Table 1: Manager of IT resources and operations [3] It is no more a decision of build or buy but also of whether to rent or subscribe. When it comes to rent or subscribe, CIOs IT leader and strategist Knowledge about business and value Understand market and leverage ecosystem Innovation and competitive advantage Fig. 3: Evolution of CIO s role need to spend less time on building and understanding systems and make them more business-savvy than technology savvy. They can leverage on partnership with vendors, low-cost technologies, and reusable applications available in the ecosystem including that of open source, which delivers benefits quickly such as get more customers, retain them, understand customer needs etc. Policy and standards for business applications are managed by people who reside in business. Pace of technology change has increased dramatically and business change is bringing CIO and CEO together. Fig. 3 shows how roles of CIOs are evolving. Their roles are changing from merely data processing managers, IT service providers to innovators and agents of change. They cannot be just specialists. Technology is just an enabler, the firm has to adopt and use it beneficially. Adoption can depend upon many factors such as culture, people, and processes. CIOs have evolved to understand both technology and business value of it. CIOs are emerging from the downturn with more responsibility and a louder voice in their organizations. Business priorities are based on various factors. Business value can help them to understand how to attract new customers, how to retain them, how to bring in cost optimization to bring profits etc. They have to constantly innovate to bring competitive advantages to the firm and improve the bottom line. Being part of CXOs, CIOs focus are: a) efficiencies and cost optimization; b) business growth; c) innovation; d) relationship management with partners and vendors; e) managing governance, compliance, risk and service level agreements; and f) talent management etc. Depending upon the business, their priorities and weights may change. However, compared to other CxOs, the CIO has to be both a technologist and a business manager. There are many crucial roles and responsibilities the CIO plays apart from the housekeeping or providing IT services and operations. Today s CIO is: a) well informed and educated: about market happenings, new technologies and technology trends, and best practices and how to leverage, b) one who understands the business and business value of IT, and c) innovative and agent of change. Table 1 and 2 show how roles of CIOs are evolving from IT managers to IT leaders. Changing Business and Technology Priorities of CIOs Technology priorities of CIOs may be influenced based on current trends in the market, best industry practices, maturity and acceptance of technologies, availability of skilled manpower etc. For example, currently BI/BA, cloud outsourcing, mobility, and social media have been on priority list of CIOs. BI/BA systems have been and will be on priority, since many firms have automated their core business processes and looking forward to make sense (and get insights out) of data generated by transaction systems to serve the customer better, conceptualize Role Description 1 Chief architect Designs future possibilities for the business 2 Change leader Orchestrates resources to achieve optimal implementation of the future 3 Product developer Helps define the company s place in the emerging digital economy 4 Technology Embeds IT into the business strategy provocateur 5 Coach Teaches people to acquire the skill sets they will need for the future 6 Chief operating strategist Invents the future with senior management Table 2: Leadership roles [4] CSI Communications September

29 1 Enhancing security and content management tools 2 Strengthening application infrastructure 3 Developing network infrastructure and e-enablement Table 3: 2002 Priorities of CIO [5] new products and services, see cross-selling opportunities etc. Priorities are important that have win-win proposition to the customer and to the firm. From Table 3 [5] and Table 4 [6,7], it is clear, that over the years, not only technology priorities have changed as new technologies came in and existing strengthened but also the business priorities have also changed. For example, mobile technologies and cloud computing did not exist in priority list in 2005 but in 2012 they were amongst top priorities. The reason may be mobile and cloud technologies were relatively new and not that accepted in Risk of testing new technologies can be higher as technologies might not have matured or how the customers would accept them is not known. However, some firms venture into such new technologies, for example, Deutsche Lufthansa AG [8]. In 2000, it formed strategic partnership with Vodafone and began to analyze the potential of mobile technologies to support existing processes and services as well as ideas for new improved processes and services. They initiated the project called mobile services as a part of large CRM project. There was greater risk in such projects as the technology was relatively new and they had no idea how customers would accept it. The project goals were business drivers, viz.: a) information supply to customers had to be improved; b) handling procedures had to be redesigned to improve efficiency in terms of both customers and Lufthansa; c) improving the exploitation of cross-selling potential especially encouraging customers to spend more of their bonus miles; and d) innovative image of Lufthansa had to be stressed demonstrating the company s capability to design new and innovative solutions for its customers and bringing them to the market. The project was completed in 2005 and provided various mobile services: mobile check-in, flight related information (change in flight schedules, change in gates etc.), arrival and departure information, flight plan, miles and more balance, Lufthansa contact information and price information service etc. The priorities of some technologies changed from 2005 to 2012, for example server virtualization priority was the last one. However, it became important in 2012 because technologies are expanded to desktops, storage and might have been matured. Also such technologies reduce support and maintenance cost. ERPs and upgrades, which were on higher priority list in 2005 are on lower priority in Priority for some of the technologies remained more or less the same, e.g. BI/BA. Business priorities Technologies priorities # Business process improvement Increasing enterprise growth Security enhancement tools Mobile technologies 2 Security breaches and disruptions 3 Enterprise-wide operating costs 4 Supporting competitive advantage Attracting and retaining customers Business Intelligence applications Analytics and business intelligence Reducing enterprise costs Mobile workforce enablement Cloud computing (SaaS, PaaS, IaaS) Managing and delivering operational results 5 Data protection and privacy Creating new products and services (i.e. innovation) 6 The need for revenue growth Attracting and retaining the workforce 7 Using intelligence in products and services Improving efficiency 8 Focus on internal controls Improving governance, compliance, risk, and security Workflow management, deployment and integration Enterprise resource planning (ERP) upgrades Storage Management Voice and data integration over IP Customer relationship management (CRM) 9 Shortage of business skills Increasing productivity Business process integration tools 10 Faster innovation and cycle times Improving marketing and sales effectiveness Server virtualization Table 4: Changing top business and technology priorities for CIOs [6,7] Virtualization desktop, server and storage Collaboration technologies (e.g. workflow management, team collaboration) Legacy application modernization, upgrade or replacement IT management technologies (e.g. program, project management, governance, change management) Security technologies (e.g. access control, authentication) Customer relationship management applications Enterprise resource applications (e.g. finance, HR) CSI Communications September

30 50% of CIOs sit on the board or executive management team, up 8% from % of CIOs report having more strategic responsibility, the highest proportion so far. 37% of CIOs have a global role, up by 5% from % of CIOs report to the CEO, up from 3% in % of CIOs report to the senior finance executive. On business priorities side (Table 3 and 4), there is clear shift from managing and improving internal IT processes and services to more business-focussed priorities such as growth, attracting, and retaining customers, reducing costs, managing and delivering operational results, improve efficiency and productivity, compliance, risk and security etc. Table 5 shows survey done by Harvey Nash, where it shows how CIOs are coming closer to business responsibilities and playing strategic roles rather than just managing the technologies and services. Some of the Challenges and Issues Faced by CIOs from Various IT Case Studies First and foremost challenge is to make wise investment in IT systems. Systems bought today may become obsolete down the line. Justifying RoI on IT projects especially if projects involve lot of intangible benefits. As the business grows, the IT systems if not properly designed, developed, and implemented may face issues such as scalability. Managing and retaining IT talent and skills. Opting for open source is more challenging for the CIO unless the firm has good team of IT specialists who understand the open source technologies. Other challenges typically faced by firms like banks are - the IT professionals: a) lack soft skills; b) look for career prospects to grow on ladder; c) do not want always to be specialists but over a period of time want leadership positions; d) demand pay packages that are higher than other employees; and e) want to work on different types of projects or new technologies to enhance their skills and on what market demands. For new project if initiated from IT department, buy-in process inside the organization is always a challenge. It is a tough task as people prefer traditional way of doing things and do not want to change. It changes roles and responsibilities which Table 5: CIO s growing influence and responsibility [9] people are not happy with. It does matter whether initiative is coming from user department or from IT department. The buy-in process can be faster if IT project requirement itself is initiated by user department (means they feel need for the same) or CIO partners with end-users, educate them, understand their problems, and helps them to address those. When IT projects span across the business partners such as extranet, the partners need to accept the system. However, in any case top management system support is absolutely necessary. Enforcing various IT policies (including access and usage policies) across the organizations. Security policies may require employees to go through more checks and controls. There is always trade-off between flexibility and more security. Senior executives want more autonomy when it comes to procuring IT and are reluctant to follow strict security norms. Long-term projects sometimes face issues as management change, people change, perspective change that can lead to failure of projects. Bottom Line As technologies evolve, so does the functions, roles, and responsibilities of CIOs. Since technologies are changing at rapid pace CIOs have to constantly reinvent and align with these changes. They cannot stop at any point otherwise others will move ahead and gain competitive advantage. There is lot of debate on whether CIO should have good business knowledge or he should be only a technology specialist. There is a trade off. The firm may have IT function headed by a person, who understands the business well and knows how to get it done by IT people. Having business and technology knowledge is great but may not be always possible. However, emergence of new technologies, open standards, open architectures, open source, new ecosystems facilitated by cloud computing platforms such as, social networking websites like, many new players in business ecosystem such as independent software vendors who develop and share small applications on smart devices, ubiquitous computing etc.; relieve CIOs from being specialists. His or her skills will be how he or she manages relationships and service level agreements with players in the ecosystem, leverages on such ecosystems, exploits everything for better business value, and develops capabilities to configure systems dynamically based on business demands and so on. References [1] Vijay Ramachandran, Air Deccan s Cost Optimization: A case study on Mobility in Services, CIO World, 1(2), December 1, 2005 available at [2] R M Sonar. Business Information Systems: The Changing Landscape, Computer Society of India Communication, 35(11), February 2012 [3] Current and Future Challenges: The Chief Information Officer. Accessed in August com/resources/cio%20current%20 and%20future%20challenges.pdf [4] Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC). (1996). Six IS Leadership Roles in P. Gottschalk (2000) Information Systems Executives: The Changing Role of New IS/ IT Leaders. Informing Science Journal, Vol. 3, Issue 2. [5] Gartner Survey: CIO Priorities in Accessed in August 2012, resources/104300/104395/top_cio_ priorities_in_2002_a_ pdf [6] Gartner Survey: CIO Priorities in 2005: Accessed in August 2012: survey%20of%201,300%20cios%20 shows%20it%20budgets%20to%20 increase%20by%20...pdf [7] Gartner Survey: Top 10 CIO Technology Priorities vs Top 10 Business Priorities: Accessed in August gartner-top-10-cio-technology-prioritiesvs-top-10-business-priorities/ [8] Laudon, Kenneth. C, and Laudon, Jane. P. Management information systems: Managing the digital firm, Pearson Education, [9] Harvey-Nash CIO Survey Accessed August news/ /cio-roles-dividedbetween-innovators-and-housekeepersfinds-harvey-nash-survey n CSI Communications September

31 HR Dr. Manish Godse Research Analyst, Infosys Limited Shared Services Organization Introduction Organization is a group of people working with definite objectives for business. The objectives of organization derive strategy to perform tasks so that business can be successful. The task defines jobs and skills required for human resources. The organization needs human resources with varied skills which are complementary to each other. These human resources need to be organized to achieve organizational objectives. Organizing involves dividing human resources into various functions according to their jobs and skills. Defining and delegating authority within and among functions is also important while organizing the functions. Traditional functions are Human Resources, Sales and Marketing, Accounts and Finance, and Purchase. Within last two decades Supply Chain, Information Technology, and Environmental/ Sustainability have emerged as new functions in organizations. Along with these functions, there are always few more functions which are very industry specific, e.g. manufacturing industry may have functions such as Engineering, Maintenance, Design, Development and Research. Moreover, an organization may require few more functions that are specific to the organization. Each organization has to have an organization structure. However, having responsive organization structure which will commit to performance and quality is a big challenge for HR managers. This challenge has become two-fold because organizations are facing cost pressure, global scale, and slowing economies. This has generated need for one more function known as Shared Services Function. The organization which has aligned their organization structure to pave the culture of sharing is known as Shared Services Organization. Concept of Shared Services Shared Services function (SS) is a subset of existing business functions which is concentrated into a new, semiautonomous business unit that has a management structure designed to promote efficiency, value generation, cost savings, and improved service for the internal as well as external customers of the parent corporation [1]. Shared services act as a horizontal function serving to other functions of parent organization. Each function has to standardize and share their services with SS. In shared services model, SS function has to consolidate the services and serve centrally to all customers of organization in the form which is very useful to users/ customers. SS is a consolidation of services and not centralization of services as control of services remain with their respective functions [1,7]. Implementing Shared Services Shared services have been adopted since 1980s and GE is supposed to be the first organization to implement SS successfully. Compared to earlier years, adoption of SS is on the rise in last two years. Major implementations are observed in US and UK as compared to organizations in the rest of world [3,4]. Because of SS model, core functions can focus on their core competencies whereas SS can focus on customer service and provide best service level. In SS model, functions have to decide services under SS. Necessary functionality of services under SS are also finalized by their respective functions. However, SS can gather customer feedback for functionality of services and shares with their functions so that functionality of services can be improved. Service level agreements (SLAs) and its escalation is responsibility of SS. Shared services act as separate function of organization. The purpose of this function is cost saving and better service, hence designing of SS structure is very crucial. While designing SS organization, it is important to consider the following points: SS is developed as cost benefit center; hence return on investment should be achieved in shorter span. Thus, there should be control on number of resources used in SS. Processes have to be standardized and then should be shared with SS. Technology should be adopted as much as possible so that number of resources can be controlled. The necessary knowledge and training should be provided to employees of SS. This will help them to resolve all queries at their level; hence core functions don t have to be involved in answering user queries. Proper documentation and powerful self-help has to be developed in order to reduce number of queries to executives of SS. SLAs have to be developed and followed. The above mentioned points help in analyzing resources required and escalation policies. The job roles and workflow can also be designed. It will also support in delegation of authority and decision making process. Shared services need standardized processes for fast and smooth implementation. Centralized firms are better placed to move quickly to efficient shared services. While decentralized firms face some issues in implementation because of nonstandardized processes across divisions [6]. Levering full benefit of shared services is difficult unless [2] : There is strong commitment from leadership. Involvement of stakeholders and employees. Strong change management to impart culture of shared organization. Effective corporate governance. Driving Factors of SS Cost is always a major driving factor for developing SS organization. The other driving factors are: Standardized processes across organization to increase operating performance and eliminate duplicate processes. Provide better service and experience to customer by definite SLAs because of standardization. Impart culture of sharing and innovation in organization. The benefits of SS can be realized if it is implemented effectively and well accepted across organization. Role of ICT in SS Information and communication technology (ICT) has a major role to play in implementing and serving SS. ICT involves facilitating automation and reducing time to service. Thus, less human resources as well as man-hours are required to provide any service. This reduces cost and increases service level. Adoption of ICT helps in reducing infrastructure and scaling Continued on Page 32 CSI Communications September

32 Security Corner Adv. Prashant Mali [BSc (Physics), MSc (Comp Science), LLB] Cyber Law Expert Information Security» Electronic Evidence & Cyber Law Digital evidence or electronic evidence is any probative information stored or transmitted in digital form that a party to a court case may use at trial. Before accepting digital evidence a court will determine if the evidence is relevant, whether it is authentic, if it is hearsay and whether a copy is acceptable or the original is required. e-evidence can be found in s, digital photographs, ATM transaction logs, word processing, documents, instant message histories, files saved from accounting programs, spreadsheets, Internet browser histories databases, contents of computer memory, computer backups, computer printouts, Global Positioning System tracks, logs from a hotel s electronic door locks, and digital video or audio files. Digital evidence tends to be more voluminous, more difficult to destroy, easily modified, easily duplicated, potentially more expressive, and more readily available. Computer forensics is a branch of forensic science pertaining to legal evidence found in computers and digital storage mediums. Computer forensics is also known as digital forensics. The goal of computer forensics is to explain the current state of a digital artifact. The term digital artifact can include: a computer system storage medium (hard disk or CD-ROM), an electronic document (e.g. an message or JPEG image), or even a sequence of packets moving over a computer network. Digital evidence is information of probative value that is stored or transmitted in binary form. Evidence is not only limited to that found on computers but may also extend to include evidence on digital devices such as telecommunication or electronic multimedia devices. The Information Technology Act, 2000 and its amendment are based on the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) model Law on Electronic Commerce. An amendment to the Indian Evidence Act 1872, the Indian Penal Code 1860, and the Banker's Book Evidence Act 1891 provides the legislative framework for transactions in electronic world. The definition of 'evidence' has been amended to include electronic records. The definition of 'documentary evidence' has been amended to include all documents, including electronic records produced for inspection by the court. Section 3 of the Evidence Act, 1872 defines evidence as under: "Evidence" - Evidence means and includes: 1) all statements which the court permits or requires to be made before it by witnesses, in relation to matters of fact under inquiry; such statements are called oral evidence; 2) all documents including electronic records produced for the inspection of the court. Such documents are called documentary evidence. The term 'electronic records' has been given the same meaning as that assigned to it under the IT Act. IT Act provides for "data, record or data generated, image or sound stored, received or sent in an electronic form or microfilm or computer-generated microfiche". The definition of 'admission' (Section 17 of the Evidence Act) has been changed to include a statement in oral, documentary, or electronic form which suggests an inference to any fact at issue or of relevance. New Section 22-A has been inserted into Evidence Act, to provide for the relevancy of oral evidence regarding the contents of electronic records. It provides that oral admissions regarding the contents of electronic records are not relevant unless the genuineness of the electronic records produced is in question. New sections 65-A and 65-B are introduced to the Evidence Act, under the Second Schedule to the IT Act. Section 65-A provides that the contents of electronic records may be proved in accordance with the provisions of Section 65-B. Section 65-B provides that notwithstanding anything contained in the Evidence Act, any information contained in an electronic form, is deemed to be a document and is admissible in evidence without further proof of the original's production, provided that the conditions set out in Section 65-B are satisfied. Section 65-B(1) states that if any information contained in an electronic record produced from a computer (known as computer output) has been copied on to an optical or magnetic media, then such electronic record that has been copied 'shall be deemed to be also a document' subject to conditions set out in Section 65-B(2) being satisfied. Both in relation to the information as well as the computer in question such document 'shall be admissible in any proceedings when further proof or production of the original as evidence of any contents of the original or of any fact stated therein of which direct evidence would be admissible. The conditions specified in Section 65-B(2) are: 1. Firstly, the computer output containing the information should have been produced by the computer during the period over which the computer was used regularly to store or process information for the purpose of any activities regularly carried on over that period by the person having lawful control over the use of the computer. 2. The second requirement is that it must be shown that during the said period, the information of the kind contained in electronic record or of the kind from which the information contained is derived was 'regularly fed into the computer in the ordinary course of the said activity'. 3. A third requirement is that during the material part of the said period, the computer should have been operating properly and that even if it was not operating properly for some time that break should not affect either the record or the accuracy of its contents. 4. The fourth requirement is that the information contained in the record should be a reproduction or derived from the information fed into the computer in the ordinary course of the said activity. Under Section 65-B(4), the certificate which identifies the electronic record containing the statement and describes the manner in which it was produced giving the particulars of the device involved in the production of that record and deals with the conditions mentioned in Section 65-B(2) and is signed by a person occupying a responsible official position in relation to the operation of the relevant device 'shall be evidence of any matter stated in the certificate. Electronic Evidence - Case Laws 1. In Amitabh Bagchi vs. Ena Bagchi (AIR 2005 Cal 11) [Sections 65-A and 65-B of Evidence Act, 1872 were analyzed.] The court held that the physical presence of person in Court may not be required for purpose of adducing evidence and the CSI Communications September

33 same can be done through medium like video conferencing. Sections 65-A and 65-B provide provisions for evidences relating to electronic records and admissibility of electronic records, and that definition of electronic records includes video conferencing. 2. State of Maharashtra vs. Dr. Praful B Desai (AIR 2003 SC 2053) [The question involved whether a witness can be examined by means of a video conference.] The Supreme Court observed that video conferencing is an advancement of science and technology which permits seeing, hearing, and talking with someone who is not physically present with the same facility and ease as if they were physically present. The legal requirement for the presence of the witness does not mean actual physical presence. The court allowed the examination of a witness through video conferencing and concluded that there is no reason why the examination of a witness by video conferencing should not be an essential part of electronic evidence. 3. Bodala Murali Krishna vs. Smt. Bodala Prathima (2007 (2) ALD 72) The court held that, the amendments carried to the Evidence Act by introduction of Sections 65-A and 65-B are in relation to the electronic record. Sections 67-A and 73-A were introduced as regards proof and verification of digital signatures. As regards presumption to be drawn about such records, Sections 85-A, 85-B, 85-C, 88-A and 90-A were added. These provisions are referred only to demonstrate that the emphasis, at present, is to recognize the electronic records and digital signatures, as admissible pieces of evidence. 4. Dharambir vs. Central Bureau of Investigation (148 (2008) DLT 289) The court arrived at the conclusion that when Section 65-B talks of an electronic record produced by a computer referred to as the computer output, it would also include a hard disc in which information was stored or was earlier stored or continues to be stored. It distinguished as there being two levels of an electronic record. One is the hard disc which once used itself becomes an electronic record in relation to the information regarding the changes the hard disc has been subject to and which information is retrievable from the hard disc by using a software program. The other level of electronic record is the active accessible information recorded in the hard disc in the form of a text file, or sound file or a video file etc. Such information that is accessible can be converted or copied as such to another magnetic or electronic device like a CD, pen drive etc. Even a blank hard disc which contains no information but was once used for recording information can also be copied by producing a cloned had or a mirror image. 5. In State (NCT of Delhi) vs. Navjot Sandhu (AIR 2005 SC 3820) There was an appeal against conviction following the attack on Parliament on December 13, This case dealt with the proof and admissibility of mobile telephone call records. While considering the appeal against the accused for attacking Parliament, a submission was made on behalf of the accused that no reliance could be placed on the mobile telephone call records, because the prosecution had failed to produce the relevant certificate under Section 65-B(4) of the Evidence Act. The Supreme Court concluded that a cross-examination of the competent witness acquainted with the functioning of the computer during the relevant time and the manner in which the printouts of the call records were taken was sufficient to prove the call records. 6. In Jagjit Singh vs. State of Haryana ((2006) 11 SCC 1) The speaker of the Legislative Assembly of the State of Haryana disqualified a member for defection. When hearing the matter, the Supreme Court considered the digital evidence in the form of interview transcripts from the Zee News television channel, the Aaj Tak television channel, and the Haryana News of Punjab Today television channel. The court determined that the electronic evidence placed on record was admissible and upheld the reliance placed by the speaker on the recorded interview when reaching the conclusion that the voices recorded on the CD were those of the persons taking action. The Supreme Court found no infirmity in the speaker's reliance on the digital evidence and the conclusions reached by him. The comments in this case indicate a trend emerging in Indian courts: judges are beginning to recognize and appreciate the importance of digital evidence in legal proceedings. 7. Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation vs. NRI Film Production Associates (P) Ltd. (AIR 2003 KANT 148) In this case certain conditions have been laid down for video-recording of evidence: a) Before a witness is examined in terms of the Audio-Video Link, witness is to file an affidavit or an undertaking duly verified before a notary or a judge that the person who is shown as the witness is the same person as who is going to depose on the screen. A copy is to be made available to the other side. (Identification Affidavit). b) The person who examines the witness on the screen is also supposed to file an affidavit/undertaking before examining the witness with a copy to the other side with regard to identification. c) The witness has to be examined during working hours of Indian Courts. Oath is to be administered through the media. d) The witness should not plead any inconvenience on account of time difference between India and USA. e) Before examination of the witness, a set of plaint, written statement and other documents must be sent to the witness so that the witness has acquaintance with the documents and an acknowledgement is to be filed before the Court in this regard. f) The learned judge is to record such remarks as is material regarding the demur of the witness while on the screen. g) The learned judge must note the objections raised during recording of witness and to decide the same at the time of arguments. h) After recording the evidence, the same is to be sent to the witness and his signature is to be obtained in the presence of a Notary Public and thereafter it forms part of the record of the suit proceedings. i) The visual is to be recorded and the record would be at both ends. The witness also is to be alone at the time of visual conference and notary is to certificate to this effect. j) The learned judge may also impose such other conditions as are necessary in a given set of facts. k) The expenses and the arrangements are to be borne by the applicant who wants this facility. Conclusion Indian evidence law has withstood the technology and cyber world challenges, as suitable amendments have been incorporated. However, much remains to be done to make it comprehensively adequate to face any technology update related challenges. There is a dire need for updating and upgrading the entire justice system by adopting E-governance in Judiciary. Means, the daily usage of computers by judges and lawyers to smoothen and accelerate case progression to reach its logical end within the set time frame, with complete demystification of the adjudicatory process ensuing transparency. This would perhaps take us closer to the pursuit of truth and justice. E-governance in judiciary would change the complete system of justice delivery. n CSI Communications September

34 Security Corner Mr. Subramaniam Vutha Advocate IT Act 2000» Prof. IT Law in Conversation with Mr. IT Executive: Issue No. 6 IT Executive: Hi Prof. IT Law! I think I am beginning to get an idea about the challenges of making agreements or contracts over the Internet. Our last session was particularly illuminating! You explained how difficult it is for people entering into contracts over the Internet to know each other; and how the identity of the parties to a contract was crucial. Prof. IT Law: Yes, and I also showed you that it is easier to remain anonymous in the real world than on the Internet; because of electronic trails. IT Executive: Yes. Thanks. What will you teach us today? Prof. IT Law: Today, we will discuss how electronic signatures are used in e-commerce to authenticate the parties involved. IT Executive: You mean, to find out whether the person is really who he says he is? Prof. IT Law: Yes, and to ensure payment. IT Executive: That sounds interesting. Prof. IT Law: In the real world, a handwritten signature has sanctity for various reasons. Can you tell me one such reason? IT Executive: Because each signature is unique? Prof. IT Law: You are right! No two signatures are alike. And therefore a signature is accepted as authentic and reliable. But it is also important to find out the identity of Continued from Page 29 of services across globe. New technology such as cloud computing, personalization, business analytics and reporting are making services more user-friendly. Wide diffusion of smart devices such as mobiles, pads has enabled to provide service These new technologies are permitting smooth change management. Outsourcing of SS Global competitions, shrinking skilled workforce, maturing economies, regulatory demands, improved IT infrastructure, and cost pressure has created need for outsourcing of shared services [1,5]. However, some are in favor whereas others are in opposition. Usually, global organizations prefer outsourcing of SS, whereas regional organizations have an opinion of in-house the person who is signing. And that is done by asking for proof of identification. IT Executive: Using a PAN card or a driving license or passport? Prof. IT Law: That s right. And there are other reasons why a signature is seen as reliable. One such reason is that a signature is linked to the person who affixes it. No other can sign in the same way. IT Executive: Except an expert forger, I guess. Prof. IT Law: That s right. And the signature is also affixed to the document inextricably. Moreover, any alteration can be detected. IT Executive: So a signature is seen as reliable because, it is unique, linked to the signatory, affixed to the document, and allows alterations to be easily detected? Prof. IT Law: You have summarized all the four reasons perfectly. Now let us compare real world handwritten signatures with electronic signatures used in electronic commerce. IT Executive: I suppose the same four criteria should be fulfilled for an electronic signature to be valid. Prof. IT Law: Exactly. An electronic signature must be unique, linked to the signatory or owner of the signature, affixed in some way, and should allow alterations to be detected. running of SS. Though, outsourcing has advantages of cost cutting and use of industry best practices, it will always remain point of interest for political discussions. Conclusion Shared services are becoming an integral part of organizations. Finance, Human resources, and Information technology are the key functions sharing highest number of services under shared services model. SS have been adopted since the 1980s, but implementation rate has increased in last two years primarily because of cost pressures. Adoption of SS is necessary for organizational leadership, while designing and making it successful will remain a challenge for HR managers. IT Executive: I can see what you are getting at. Yes, each electronic signature is unique; and belongs exclusively to the owner or signatory. Like a password. Prof. IT Law: Absolutely. Therefore passwords, PIN s and the like are electronic signatures. They fulfill all the four criteria, as you can readily see. IT Executive: We use electronic signatures all the time with our credit cards, debit cards, PC access, and so on! Prof. IT Law: Yes, and often without realizing that you have used an electronic signature! IT Executive: What about digital signatures? Prof. IT Law: Digital signatures are also electronic signatures. But they are technology specific. Whereas the broader category of electronic signatures include password, PIN s and the like. IT Executive: Please tell me more about digital signatures. Prof. IT Law: Surely. We will discuss digital signatures in our next session. IT Executive: Thank you. I do appreciate how you are unfolding a complex subject such as technology law in a simple way that people like me can understand. I look forward to meeting you again soon. Prof. IT Law: Same here. See you soon. n References [1] Bergeron, B (2003). Essential of shared services. John Wiley & Sons. [2] Colman, R (2006). Shared services Journey. CMA Management, [3] Davis, T R (2005). Integrating shared services with the strategy and operations of MNEs. Journal of General Management, 31(2), [4] Deloitte. (2011). Global Shared Services Survey. [5] Klender, M, et al. (2009). Taking shared services to the next level. Deloitte Consulting LLP. [6] Sako, M (2010). Technology strategy and management outsourcing versus shared services., Communications of the ACM, 53(7), [7] Ulrich, D (1995). Shared services: from vogue to value. Human Resources Planning, 18(3), n About the Author Dr. Manish Godse works as Research Analyst in Infosys Limited for innovation and new products initiatives. He has two decades of experience, which spans as Business Leader, Entrepreneur, and Academician. His functional experience is focused on strategic partnership development, customer relationship management, pre-sales and product management. Manish holds PhD in Management from SJM School of Management, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay. CSI Communications September

35 IT.Yesterday() Dr. R Srinivasan Dean R&D, RNS Institute of Technology, Bangalore Ferranti (ICT) SIRIUS Computer at NAL, Bangalore ( ) It used to be very interesting, with lot of challenge, to use the computers in 1960s and 1970s. One such computer was the Ferranti SIRIUS Digital Computer procured by the National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL) in 1964 under a special international grant. The computer was built by Ferranti (later on called as ICT) in England in early 60s. I have been lucky that Dr. Neelakantan, Director NAL and Dr. S Krishnan, Head of the Department of Data Handling System, identified me to undergo training on this computer and be in charge of it later on. I am really proud to jot in a few lines about this computer because many computer scientists, engineers, and users might not have had the opportunity to have come across the unique architecture of this system. Logic Elements SIRIUS was one of the earliest systems built making use of transistors. I call the architecture as unique because the core logic elements were called as Neurons. A typical neuron was built employing the principle of a magnetic amplifier comprising a toroidal core with hysteresis. Various logical functions were achieved by linearly adding the input signals on independent windings at the input side of the magnet and generating an output signal on the output winding, if the sum exceeded a fixed threshold, defined by the saturation property of the magnetic core. By controlling the polarity of the input signals the basic logic functions like AND, OR, and NOT were produced. Interest in Neuron was so high that the team in Ferranti decided to build a small machine to test it, called Newt. This test bed led to the building of SIRIUS. SIRIUS was announced on 19th May, 1959 with claims that it would be the smallest and most economically priced computer in the European market. Sirius was marketed in England for 20,000, a deal compared to its competitors, the Elliot 803 at 35,000, and theict301 at 120,000 pounds. About 20 machines were produced by Ferranti, one such was bought by NAL and installed in SIRIUS - How it Looks A picture of SIRIUS is shown above. One attractive feature was, it was based on decimal numbers, each digit represented by four bits. System consisted of eight accumulators and each one of them could hold ten decimal digits (40 bits each). As could be seen from figure, there were two rows of illuminated numeric digits each row depicting a 10-digit number. (LED s were yet to be born at that time. So each decimal digit was carved on a perspex sheet and illuminated by individual miniature incandescent bulbs!!) The top row represented the current instruction and the bottom row could display the contents of any selected accumulator. Set of six displays on the right side of the panel indicated the system status and the bottom two displays represented power on/off. Numbers were stored as a string of ten decimal digits in one of eight accumulators, along with a parity bit. The computer words could also be used to store half of a double-length number, or five characters. The operator console was a very handy one (Fig. 1) - it consisted of three sections of buttons. A single column on the left was used to select an accumulator to input the ten-digit value. There was a row of command keys on the right. You could select any accumulator by hitting one of the left most section and select the contents to be loaded into that accumulator by pressing the appropriate columns in the next section consisting of 10 columns and 10 rows. The third one the right most section of the operator panel were command keys. The system had the facility to run at a lower speed!! The facilities on the front panel, operator s console, and the flexible adjustment of speed of operation were really a boon to program developers and the system manager. General Features Can you guess the clock speed of the system? It was just 500KHz. As each digit was stored as four bits, operational cycle for each word of 40 bits was 80 microseconds! Addition and subtraction took 240 microseconds and the overall processing speed was 4Koperations/second. Average time taken for multiplication and division was 8 milliseconds. SIRIUS deployed single address instruction set (in a single decimal digit of a word). The fields of an instruction are structured as 6-digit address, 2-digit opcode, and 1-digit representing one of the registers A or B. B acts as the index register. Sirius used decimals for storage and so the system offered a number of instructions that quickly multiplied the input or output by 10, by shifting the numbers in the accumulators. For easy programming, a type of high-level language used in SIRIUS was called Autocode, where the variables are represented by the letter v and the integers are by the letter n. Memory, Input, and Output Units In today s parlance the memory used in SIRIUS may be viewed as an outdated technology. It was a torsional Acoustic Nickel delay line memory hosed with its electronics a tray as shown in Fig. 2. Each tray could hold 1000 words - NAL had four trays and so the total memory capacity of NAL computer was just 4000 words!! Fig. 2: Acoustic Delay Line Memory CSI Communications September

36 The medium to input and out data in SIRIUS was the paper tape as shown below. There were two types available: 5-hole tape and 7-hole tape. Data was represented by one character each across the width of the tape. Presence of hole represented logic 1 and absence of hole stood for logic 0. The input unit to read the tape was a photo-electric tape reader as shown below: While reading, the tape would be moved one character position at a time at the rate 300 Charaters per second. A special incandescent bulb with linear filament illuminated the tape at each character position and the status of the holes are read accordingly and the optical output was converted to electrical signals by the electronics of the tape reader. The paper tape was made out of vegetable parchment paper. The paper tape and the special illuminating lamps had to be imported!! Later on we could discover and use car head light lamps operating at 12V,1A!! The output unit was a teletype punch (shown below) that would take the control circuit which could convert the digital output and punch it on the paper tape. We had to use an imported Creed ASR 33, a 75 baud, Teleprinter (shown below) to get the textual print out of the tape. After a year of experience and understanding we could design driver circuit for the Hindustan Teleprinter, made in India and save the valuable foreign exchange. Paper-tape punch (output unit) The creed teleprinter Noteworthy Happenings: Because SIRIUS at NAL was the only Computer available for the public, the user community consisted of not only Scientists from NAL but also from Indian Instititute of Science (IISc), DRDO labs, and public sector organizations. To mention the names of few users who became celebrities in future are Dr. Seshagiri, Dr. N Ramani, Dr. Venkatraman, Dr. Rajaiah, all from IISc. Even today Dr. Seshagiri mentions that he could not forget the days that he enjoyed using SIRIUS. It could enable solving many problems through programming in Autocode in their Ph.D dissertation work. The system was very sensitive to power fluctuations. (In 60s it was not bad as we have today). But one day it was so bad that I had to turn off the system for the day and informed the Electrical Section people in NAL about it. Next day when I switched on the system it was behaving funny and looked mad!! I was scratching my head and finally discovered that, in order to help us, the Electrical Section people had connected a constant voltage transformer (CVT) as the input power supply to the computer. Unfortunately, they didn t realize that the CVT produces a large amount of harmonics, which the system could not tolerate. Once I removed it and connected the system to direct AC supply, everything was fine. As the years passed the reliability of the system was becoming poor. One vulnerable point in the design was the use of three bias voltages 1.2V, 2.4V, and 3.6V, derived from a 9Volts power supply, using three potentiometers by potential division. Any minor drift in any one of these biases affected the performance of the system. When the users complained to me that the system is not functioning properly what I had to do was to just adjust the potentiometers to get the bias reset in just a minute which made the users wonder how good I am and conversant with the system!! Final one to mention on the lighter side is about the electric clock on the front panel shown in Fig. 1. Every morning, after switching on the system, I used to adjust the time of the clock as per my wrist watch. There was so much of admiration for digital computer in those days, people who visited our NAL computer center adjusted their wrist watch as per the clock on the computer s panel, assuming that the time is also maintained and controlled by the computer - but they did not know that they are adjusting my wrist watch time!! I was so attached to the SIRIUS that when the curtains were down and the system was loaded in a truck to be dispatched, tears gathered in my eyes just like a mahout feels when his elephant dies. Bibliography [1] Ferranti_Sirius [2] text/ferranti.sirius pdf [3] I n f o t e c h. m projectmuseum/papers/first-computerat-monash-university-v4.pdf [4] ccs-f32.pdf [5] Personal archives of the author n About the Author Dr. R Srinivasan is a Fellow of CSI and was the President of CSI. He retired from NAL in 1995, taking VRS. He is currently Dean Research and PG Studies in RNS Institute of Technology, Bangalore. CSI Communications September

37 Brain Teaser Dr. Debasish Jana Editor, CSI Communications Crossword» Test your Knowledge on IT Applications Solution to the crossword with name of first all correct solution provider(s) will appear in the next issue. Send your answers to CSI Communications at address with subject: Crossword Solution - CSIC September Do you know? In early days, computers did not store programs. Also, early computing instruments had fixed programs. As an analogy, you may think of a calculator that is fixed program computer. In early days, when programs were not stored, re-programming required re-wiring, re-structuring, or even re-designing the machine itself. John von Neumann, a pioneer polymath with Hungarian-American background made major contributions to stored program concept, along thoughts of Alan Turing, proposed that programs can reside together with data, in the computer memory. Thus, although conceptually programs and data are different, but memory stores them in same place together and when treated by the program knows what is program and what data is. Congratulations to Ms. P. Deepa (Panimalar Engineering College, Chennai) and Mr. Surendra K Khatri (New Delhi) for getting ALMOST ALL correct answers to August month s crossword CLUES ACROSS 4. A declarative access control policy language implemented in XML (5) 7. An object oriented language (9) 8. A web server to support embedded systems (9) 9. Acronym for asynchronous javascript and XML (4) 16. Program that translates high level language to machine language (8) 17. A vendor of enterprise resource planning software (3) 18. A database engine (5) 19. An interpreted general purpose programming language (6) 20. A business management software category for enterprise resource planning (3) 22. A cross platform software package for numerical computation (6) 25. A computational software program widely used in engineering, scientific and mathematical community (11) 28. A business intelligence application (7,7) 29. A concurrent programming language (2) 30. A popular spreadsheet application software (5) 31. A model for representing objects in HTML (3) 32. A rapid web application development platform (10) DOWN 1. A microkernel based distributed operating system (6) 2. A software category for handling customer relationship management (3) 3. Tool to fix a file being stored scattered across the different locations in disk (6) 5. A framework for building mobile, web and desktop applications (4) 6. A scripting language (10) 10. Java based web application server (5) 11. Python based web application server (4) 12. A high level programming language (7) 13. An application server for Java EE platform (9) 14. A vendor of enterprise resource planning software (4) 15. A vendor of enterprise data integration software (11) 21. Main programming language for OS X and ios (10) 23. Allows a program and all its modified and extended versions to be free (8) 24. A popular computing environment for symbolic and numerical computation (6) 26. A database engine (5) 27. A software package for business analytics (6) Solution to August 2012 crossword 1 O 2 N 3 S 4 I 5 L L I N 6 D O D M 7 D I S K C A R T R I D G E 8 A 9 B A C U S E S O P D L L K 10 A L A N T U R I N G E 11 E L T I 12 P O 13 M A C 14 H I N E 15 J T G U V S 16 H O L L E 17 R I T H N 18 E N I 19 A C I H B T E C I L M J N I B M H A V A C U U M T U B E P 24 C C O L A T C S 25 A E N C M S R N M I N S K F 28 P D P E S U O 29 R U B Y D 30 O S 2 R M O T 31 T I F R A C S 32 A U T O C 33 O D E R N D O A 34 M A G N E T I C T A P E S N CSI Communications September

38 Ask an Expert Dr. Debasish Jana Editor, CSI Communications Your Question, Our Answer Pay no attention to what the critics say; No statue has ever been erected in honor of a critic. ~ John Sibelius Subject: Object Oriented Programming using C++ Sir, I am a final year student of MTCT at Jadavpur University, Kolkata. I have few doubts in Object Oriented Programming concepts in general with emphasis on C++. If you could help me with the answers with some example(s), then it would be very helpful. Also, if possible, please provide some real-life examples. (1) Shallow copy and deep copy (concept and example) (2) Stack IS-A or HAS-A relationship with Array (concept and example) (3) Dangling Pointer in C/C++ (concept and example) Palash Dutta Student, MTech (Computer Technology) Final year Jadavpur University, Kolkata A Here are the answers to your questions: 1) Whenever you copy or clone an object (typically through copy constructor or assignment operator in C++), the decision lies on the provider of the copy logic that how much to clone. Shallow copies clone as less as possible, confined to copying only at first level of a hierarchy. A shallow copy of a tree-like structure is a copy of the entire structure, not just the first-level elements. With a shallow copy, two structures share the first level of individual elements. Deep copies duplicate everything. In a deep copy between two objects, each and every element in the nested structure gets copied with no sharing between these two. Suppose you have a class X and Y as follows: class Y {... }; class X { Y * py; public: X(const X& src); }; // deep copy (copy deepest level possible) X::X(const X& src) { this->py = (Y *) NULL; if ( this->py = new Y(*(; } // shallow copy (copy just one layer) X::X(const X& src) { this->py =; } 2) Containership is HAS-A relationship, like Y has-a X, Y is a container, X is a content, like say, a polygon has corner points (containership) but inheritance depicts IS-A relationship, where a subclass specializes a superclass, e.g. a student is-a person, so, Person can be a superclass, and Student class is a subclass of Person class. In case of Array and Stack relationship, Array provides a contiguous storage of homogeneous elements of certain dimension of fixed length. Another behavioral aspect of Array is that arrays are random access in the sense that Array class may have a public operator [] (in C++) or getitem(int indx) (in Java) to access any of the elements within the Array object. If we analyze requirements of Stack class, stack is also a homogeneous contiguous storage of elements with the elements accessed in Last-In-First-Out (LIFO) manner. So, Stacks are not random access, i.e. any element from within a stack is not accessible, except the last one that was inserted. Thus, it is safer bet for designing Stack has-a Array (in containership model). And, if we design Stack is-a Array, then, by virtue of inheritance, the random access behavioral aspect gets inherited in Stack, as such, we may start accessing stack elements too passing the desired index. This is a violation of stack behavior. So, inheritance model is not applicable. However, in C++, there is a concept of private inheritance, where Stack can privately inherit from Array. Thus, all public functions of Array become privately accessible within Stack class, and outsiders of Stack class cannot access the random access index operator or getitem of Array class. And you are safe. 3) A dangling pointer means the pointer has some value but the value is not address of any valid element. This means the element might have been freed earlier (i.e. lifetime is over) or the pointer contains a garbage (because of being uninitialized, may be). This situation may occur while returning address of a local automatic variable from a function so that when you come out of the function the local variable ceases to exist or using the address of an element after it is freed. The following code snippet explains this: int main() { int *p;//uninitialized, contains garbage *p = 10; // unsafe, dangling p = new int; *p = 10; //safe delete p; // p is freed *p = 10; // unsafe, dangling! } Hope that answers your doubts. Send your questions to CSI Communications with subject line Ask an Expert at address CSI Communications September

39 H R Mohan AVP (Systems), The Hindu, Chennai ICT News Briefs in August 2012 The following are the ICT news and headlines of interest in August They have been compiled from various news & Internet sources including the financial dailies - The Hindu, Business Line, Economic Times. Voices & Views E-commerce sales grew to Rs. 46,520 crore in 2011 as against Rs. 31,600 crore previous year - IMAI. Attrition rate has fallen in IT, ITeS, & BPO sector to 15-20% during the last six months as against 55-60% in the year-ago - Assocham. Social media users to boost domestic e-commerce market - IMAI. India, last choice as data center hub. Ranked 29th in the 30 country Data Center Risk index, a new indexing started by Cushman and Wakefield. US ranks 1st and followed by UK. Around 55% of young workforce in IT/ ITeS are stricken with lifestyle disorders due to unhealthy eating habits, hectic work schedules, tight deadlines, and irregular and associated stress - Assocham. Global spend on IT outsourcing services to reach $252 billion in Gartner. Cyber attack Gauss targets financial info of users. Verizon says 98% of threat to corporate data is external. Mobile commerce catching up in non-urban areas. The ratio between rural and urban buyers would be 1:10 right now but may go up to 6:10 over next two years - ebay. London Olympics, 2012, is being termed as the first ever Socio-Olympics. More women book tickets online - Survey by Indian app software market will cross $227 million in 2012, a 22.6% rise over Gartner. Cloud, mobile, social media to drive businesses - Vishwanath Alluri, CEO, IMImobile. Globally, the information stored by all businesses is said to be 2.2 zettabytes and SMBs on an average have 563 terabytes of data - Symantec. Cloud computing market may grow 70% this year to $909 million - IDC. Indian smartphone users spend over 157 minutes daily on the mobile web - Nielsen. Operating costs for MNCs research centers operating in India fall 6% in FY12 and resulted in savings of $70 billion in the last five years - Zinnaov. 75% of rural users use Internet for entertainment - study by IMAI & IMRB. Telecom, Govt, Policy, Compliance The Govt. will not censor or manage Internet content - Kapil Sibal. Mobile Banking Security Lab launched at Institute for Development and Research in Banking Technology, Hyderabad. TRAI to ask for import ban on phones with fake IMEI. Times Internet to conduct spectrum auction process. Competition panel investigating Google s anti-competitive practices. Telcos may have to procure SIM cards, broadband modems, and 16 other items from local manufacturers starting April July mobile subscriber addition (1.7 million users) lowest since BSNL loss stood at Rs. 8,851 crore during last fiscal - Govt. Govt. bans bulk SMSes to stem riot fears. Lifts it on 30th Aug. MAIT pleads for easier e-waste disposal rules. Asia gets fastest (40 gigabits per second) undersea data cable system. Mobile operators comply with new radiation norms from September 1. Govt. working with social media to prevent misuse of technology - Sibal. Govt. issues norms for e-governance, departments using social media. $2-billion Govt. fund proposed for electronics development. 2G: SC rejects petitions for CBI probe into Chidambaram role. IT hardware companies to get 10% subsidy for upgradation in AP. Supreme Court extends deadline for spectrum auction till Jan 11, IT Manpower, Staffing & Top Moves Study by finds dip in hiring sentiment. Cisco Systems has given pink slips to 600 of its employees in India as part of its restructuring process. Top Indian IT companies plan to hire some 15,000 people for their Chinese operations. IT sector begins search for talent beyond engineering and management colleges. Online retailer KyaZoonga to hire around 60 people by this year end. Web hosting and domain name provider Go to recruit 60 in Hyderabad. Uninor in talks with telcos for reappointment of its staff who will be retrenched. Microsoft India is carrying out a project called Kshamta (capacity), to improve the employability of retired Army jawans and aims to enhance their capacity and competence. Jodhpur boy selected among top global computer experts by Google for its Mentor Summit. IT firms pick math, stats grads for number crunching. Gurnani is new MD for Tech Mahindra. Motorola Mobility to cut 4,000 jobs worldwide. IT firms unaffected as North-East people flee Bangalore. Kamal Nath to head Sify Tech. Mahindra Satyam staff to get 7-10% wage hike. Company News: Tie-ups, Joint Ventures, New Initiatives Microsoft launches, a webbased service. Fujitsu NEC and NTT Docomo to develop and sell semiconductors for smartphone data transmissions. Dell commits to fund $2.4 million for CSR activities, over and above its spending of $6.5 million in the last few years. Airtel ordered to pay Rs. 25,000 for harassing subscriber by demanding fresh documents to verify his six-year-old connection and then stopping outgoing calls. Micro Technologies (India) Ltd. introduces Micr CallBlocker which can detect and block unsolicited calls and SMSs. Google to shut down Apps for Teams, Listen. Cognizant beats Infosys to emerge No. 2 IT firm. Infosys launches cloud integration software solutions, Cloud Ecosystem Hub. Infosys selected for Rs. 700-crore India Post project. Google to include people s Gmail in search results. HCL Info bags Rs. 2,000-crore Aadhaar contract. Matrix offers free calls from US, UK. Google+ offers custom URLs for verified accounts. Tata DoCoMo creates the world s largest signage with a built-up area of 30,000 sq.ft. displaying the company s logo on a hill-side of the Pune-Mumbai Expressway. TCS Computational Research Laboratories (CRL) for Rs. 188 crore. Infosys wins after a US court threw out a harassment charge filed by its employee. Samsung did not copy iphone, says S. Korean court. Apple wins $1 billion in patent case against Samsung in US. An Android app deployed by PharmaSecure to keep tabs on fake medicines. Now, charge your phone by simply holding it through a new technology that turns body heat into electricity. Teracom launches tablet starting at Rs. 3,999 on MTNL network. n CSI Communications September

40 On the Shelf! Dr. Suneeta Sane Professor and Head (MCA), Computer Technology Department, Dean, Research and Development, VJTI, Mumbai Book Review» Professional Python Framework Web 2.0 Programming with Django and Turbogears Book Title : Professional Python Framework Web 2.0 Programming with Django and Turbogears Author: : Dana Moore, Raymond Budd, and William Wright ISBN : ISBN 10: : Printed Pages : 420 Price : Rs US edition Rs. 1800/- Publisher : WROX, a Branded Imprint of Wiley Publishers The name suggests that the book is essentially for professionals who are involved in developing website development applications. It discusses two new standard frameworks like: Django and Turbogears for developers. The book is organized in four parts: Introduction to Python Frameworks, Turbogears, Django, and Advanced Client-side Topics. Part one provides a brief history of application developing on desktop to Web 2.0. An overview of various tools like J2EEE, AJAX, DSL, Python, Django, TurboGears, and Javascript along with their strengths and limitations. It specifies how working of Web 2.0 with Python with Framework and without Framework changes the development process of applications. A detailed discussion on Frameworks is given along with extensive examples for development. Part two is based on Turbogears. Introduction states indepth exposure to this new most complete development tool. It introduces the concept of HTML templates and template engines. With strong library support the user management and user tracking is easier in Turbogears. Widget is a key component of Turbogears with CSS and Javascript providing good functionality. Advanced features are discussed to explain the other things which one might use in the development. Part three deals with the Django which automates the production of common web development. Developers with experience in development in Javascript and Python will find it a delight to work with Django and will find the ease of application development an enjoyable experience. Both Django and Turbogears support MVC, however, both deal with this differently. User management functions are built in Django and have been explained with examples for the user benefit. Django is also very strong in content management. This is illustrated in this part. Part four is devoted for the advanced application development with special emphasis on the client-side development. It specially mentions about the MochiKit-Pythonic Javascripting. It details development using various technologies like Flash, Flex2, and Action script open source wrapper. The book has interviews of Kevin Dangoor, creator of Turbogears and also that of Adrian Holovaty, original lead developer of Django making more interesting reading. It is interesting to understand the philosophy of the creator, which makes the book more readable for people working in the academia and Web Technology Development. n Heartiest Congratulations! It is a great pleasure to inform that the IEEE Board of Directors selected Dr. F C Kohli, Founder Member of CSI, to receive the 2012 IEEE Founders Medal, which is given for outstanding contributions in the leadership, planning, and administration of affairs of great value to the electrical and electronics engineering profession. The award comes with the following citation: For early vision and pioneering contributions to the development of the IT industry in India. Congratulations to Dr. Kohli on his achievement and for being part of a select group of researchers, inventors, innovators, and practitioners whose exceptional achievements and outstanding contributions have made a lasting impact on technology, society, and the engineering profession. It is an extremely proud moment for the entire CSI fraternity. CSI Communications September

41 CSI Report Anirban Basu PhD (Comp Sc) Research Professor and Consultant Cloud computing is believed to be the new wave which will dominate the computing world. While Cloud Computing offers lot of advantages, there are still a number of challenges before it gets wider acceptance and public clouds gain widespread use. Considering the importance of Cloud Computing in the days to come, Bangalore Chapter of Computer Society of India, in association with CSI Division 1 and Division 4 launched the conference series on Advances in Cloud Computing (ACC 2012) on 27th July, 2012 to provide an international forum for researchers, professionals, and industrial practitioners to share their knowledge in the rapidly growing area of Cloud Computing. The Conference held in Hotel LaLiT Ashok, Bangalore during July 26-28, 2012 received very good response from the industry and academia with several professional organizations supporting this event, which included IEEE-Bangalore Section, The Institution of Engineers(India), IETE, IET, ISACA Bangalore Chapter, FKCCI, ISTE, OMG and others. The conference was supported by leading organizations, which included Department of Science and Technology (Government of India), STPI, ISRO, Tally Solutions, VMware, EMC, CDAC, MindTree, NIIT, Dell, Huawei, Accenture, SAIL among others. Sri. M N Vidyashankar, Principal Secretary, Industries and Commerce, Government of Karnataka, was the Chief Guest in the Inaugural function of ACC 2012, Prof. S Sadagopan, Director, IIITB and Sri. J Parthasarathy, Director, STPI Bangalore and Chennai were the Guests of Honor. Sri. Vishwas Bondade, Chairman of Computer Society of India-Bangalore Chapter, welcomed the august gathering and Prof. (Dr.) Anirban Basu, Past Chairman of CSI Bangalore Chapter and Event Chair of ACC 2012 gave an overview of the program. The conference started on 27th July and was preceded by 4 Tutorials held on 26th July on topics of great interest and relevance. The Tutorials included: Cloud Computing and Aneka Platform by Prof. Raj Buyya, University of Melbourne, Australia Cloud Resource Orchestration by Dr. Rajiv Ranjan, CSIRO, Australia Open Platforms for HPC and Scientific Cloud by CDAC team led by Dr. Prahlad Rao Using Cloud for (improving) software testing by Dr. Prakash Mutalik The Tutorials were very well attended and provided a good forum for interactions and learning. The conference ACC 2012 had a very interesting program with a good mix of Theory and Practice. Call for Papers was released last year and received a good response. All papers were reviewed by an International Team of Reviewers under the leadership of Prof. Raj Buyya (Hony Conf. Chair) and Dr. Rajiv Ranjan (Program Chair). The Conference had invited speakers from academia and industry to help professionals learn about challenges in Cloud Computing. A number of renowned experts from all over the world participated and delivered Invited Talks and shared their expertise. Prof. (Dr.) Raj Kumar Buyya, Professor and Director, University of Melbourne, Australia delivered a Talk on "Market-Oriented Cloud Computing: Challenges and Opportunities". Dr. Dimitrios Georgakopoulos, Director, CSIRO, Australia delivered an Invited Talk on "Media Wise - Designing a Smart Media Cloud", Prof. (Dr.) Sikharesh Majumdar, Professor and Director, Carleton University, Canada spoke on "Resource Management on Clouds: the Multifaceted Problem and Solutions", Prof. (Dr.) Chen Khong Tham, Associate Professor, National University of Singapore delivered a Talk on "People-centred Cloud Service Aggregation and Exchange". Prof. (Dr.) Sanjay Madria, Missouri University of Science and Technology, US shared his expertise on "Trust in Cloud Infrastructure and Security in Sensor Cloud Computing", Dr. Arkady Zaslavsky, CSIRO, Australia delivered Talk on "Sensing-asa-service and big data". Technical leaders from the industry who shared their expertise included: Tarun Sareen, Sr. Director, EMC Corporation who delivered an Invited Talk on Winning The Business With Cloud & Big Data Dr. Sudhir Dixit, Director, HP Labs India shared his thoughts on "Peering Into the Future of Cloud Computing and Services" Rajesh Nair, VMware delivered a Talk on Software Defined Datacenters Sunil Gupta, of Tally Solutions spoke on The Golden Hammer - What it will take to make the Cloud a Swiss Knife" P Sundar Varadaraj, Director, Technology and Innovation Center, Dell delivered an Invited Talk on "The Art and Science of making the Cloud work" Vishal Sharma, Director, Deloitte Consulting India shared his views on Business benefits of cloud computing - Looking beyond technology Vamsicharan Mudiam, Country Executive - Cloud Computing, IBM delivered an Invited Talk on "SmartCloud: Rethink IT. Rethink Business" Raja Bavani, Chief Architect, MindTree shared his thoughts on "Think Agile to Succeed in Cloud Computing Projects" Hari Vasudev, Vice President, Yahoo spoke on "The Intersection of Cloud Computing and Big Data" Bimal Shah, Head-Architecture, ion, TCS delivered a Talk on "Future of inventions in cloud computing" (Dr.) Sarat Chandra Babu, Executive Director, CDAC spoke on "Cloud Security" Bijoy Das, NIIT enlightened on their work on Cloud Computing Education Yathish L N, Chief Architect, Huawei Technologies shared his expertise on "How to enable operators to take full advantage of Telecom Cloud" Nilesh Naker, Associate Director, Ernst and Young delivered a Talk on "Cloud Computing Adoption in India - A Practitioner's View" Sanjeev Mehta, VP, SAP delivered an Invited Talk on "SAP Business ByDesign - next Generation Cloud Suite for Medium Enterprises" Pamela Kumar, Member of IEEE SA Board of Governors shared her views on "Intercloud Interoperability" Raghavan Subramanian of Infosys delivered a Talk on "Can Cloud Computing disrupt incumbent IT" There was a Panel Discussion moderated by Past CSI President Lalit Sawhney on Challenges to Cloud Adoption. The panelists included reputed CXOs: Sayeed Anjum (Greytip), Rakesh Kumar (Unilever), Antra Bhargava (Grant Thornton, Ireland), M G Raghuraman (Mphasis), Ravi Eppaturi (Mphasis), and V V Padmanabhan (Britannia). The Conference concluded with a Valedictory Session chaired by Padma Bhusan Prof. V Rajaraman, former President of CSI and Ex Chairman of SERC, IISc, and considered Father of Indian Computing. Papers selected after careful scrutiny and the talks were compiled by the Editors: Rajiv Ranjan, Raj Buyya, and Anirban Basu and brought out in the form of proceedings published by Universities Press. ACC 2012 brought the best possible combination of knowledge from the industry and academics and participants felt that the deliberations of ACC 2012 will help in enhancing the expertise of both IT professionals and academics in the area of Cloud Computing and shaping Indian software prowess in this emerging field. In his valedictory address Prof. (Dr.) Anirban Basu thanked all the speakers and sponsors for making this a memorable event and setting a benchmark in organizing International Conferences. n CSI Communications September

42 Contents 1 Journal of Computing Published by the Computer Society of India Article Title Page No. Preface 1 Natural Language Processing: A Computational Perspective in the Presence of Ambiguity, Resource Constraints and Multilinguality Pushpak Bhattacharyya 2 GPU implementation of a hybrid lattice Boltzmann method for non-isothermal flows Nachiket Sahasrabudhe, Mahesh Mynam, Ajay Nandgaonkar, Gayathri Jayaraman Game Theoretic Strategies for Node Cooperation in Mobile Ad Hoc Wireless Network 22 4 An Evolutionary Clustering Algorithm for Handling Dynamics of User Profile in Recommender Systems Chhavi Rana, Sanjay Kumar Jain 5 Nash Equilibrium in Weighted Concurrent Timed Games with Reachability Objectives Shankara Narayanan Krishna, Lakshmi Manasa, Ashish Chiplunkar 6 Control Dependence Analysis of Software Components Ratneshwer Gupta 7 An Approach for Improving Quality of Emotion Transformation for Hindi Anurag Jain, S. S. Agrawal, Nupur Prakash 8 Clustering technique for Interpretation of Cloudburst over Leh Kavita Pabreja 9 Detecting flaws in dynamic hierarchical key management schemes using specification animation Anil Mundra, Naveen Kumar, Anish Mathuria, Manik Lal Das 10 Literacy for All in Parallel and Distributed Computing: Guidelines for an Undergraduate Core Curriculum Prasad, Sushil K., Gupta, Anshul, Kant, Krishna, Lumsdaine, Andrew, Padua, David, Robert, Yves, Rosenberg, Arnold, Sussman, Alan, Weems, Charles Guidelines to Authors 96 For accessing the complete paper kindly visit CSI Communications September CSI Journal of Computing

43 Academic Awards 2012 Call for Nominations Computer Society of India has been honoring academic excellence through academic awards every year. The awards are given away at the CSI Annual Convention. For the year 2012, the Convention is being held at Kolkata on 1st and 2nd December. To facilitate the Awards Committee select the final awardees, nominations are called for the following awards: S. No. Name of the Award Criteria To be Nominated by 1 Best Student Branch Award Good standing - during and currently, large student strength & large number of activities as defined in the specified form 2 Largest Student Branch Award Continuous good standing for the past 3 years with highest 3 years averaged strength 3 Best Compliance Student Branch Award 4 Best CSI International Students Event Host Award 5 Highest Sponsorship of CSI Events Award Prompt Yearly Report of activities and Accounts over past 3 years Institutional member hosted maximum students competition participated by minimum 10 foreign students Institutional member extending maximum support for CSI events during the last year 6 Longest Continuous SBC Award Longest continuous tenure as SBC over past 3 years SBC 7 Faculty with maximum publishing - CSI publications 8 Paper Presenter at International Conference for Faculty 9 Student with maximum publishing - CSI publications 10 Highest Committed Student Branch Activist Award Publishing maximum articles in CSI publications over past 3 years Presentation of paper at prestigious International Conferences over past 3 years Publishing maximum articles in CSI publications over past 3 years Most active CSI Student Branch member over past 3 years 11 Best Ph.D Thesis Award Active CSI member, who submitted a high-quality thesis (Thesis quality to be evaluated by a panel of eminent research scientists) leading to acceptance for Ph.D degree by a recognized University Student Branch Counsellor (SBC) SBC SBC SBC SBC Self nomination Self nomination SBC SBC Research Scholar who got his/her Ph.D during the award year or the research supervisor To be eligible for the Award, the awardees should be CSI members. Also, wherever applicable, they should belong to CSI Student Branches in good standing during and Forms for nominations are available at The forms are to be downloaded and hard copy nominations should reach Education Directorate, through proper channel as specified in the forms, latest by 30th September Education Directorate will verify membership status, student branch strength, and the extent to which criteria are met. The shortlist of Awardees cleared and recommended by the Education Directorate will be forwarded to CSI Awards Committee headed by Immediate Past President. The decision of the Awards Committee will be final and Awardees will be invited to attend CSI 2012 and receive the prizes. Regional Vice Presidents, Student Coordinators, and Chapter OBs are requested to give wide publicity and encourage nominations. For enquiries, please contact Wg. Cdr. M Murugesan Director (Education) Computer Society of India, Education Directorate, CIT Campus, IV Cross Road, Taramani, Chennai CSI Communications September

44 CSI Communications September

45 CSI Communications September

46 CSI News From CSI Chapters» Please check detailed news at: SPEAKER(S) BHOPAL (REGION III) Prof. Manish Parashar, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rutger s University, New Jersey TOPIC AND GIST 14 August 2012: Lecture on Current Trends and Challenges in Cloud Computing Prof. Manish Parashar spoke about the cloud usage and related challenges with specific focus on security issues in the context of cloud usage. SURAT (REGION III) Prof. Prabhat Ranjan During the lecture 21 July 2012: Seminar on Brain-Computer Interface to Help Persons with Severe Disability Prof. Ranjan is an eminent personality working in the field of applying Brain- Computer Interface, along with body and voice sensors to help persons with severe disability. He is also using embedded systems and sensor networks for planetary exploration (moon mission), wildlife tracking, nuclear fusion, assistive technology and agriculture. Prof. Ranjan covered various technologies that can help differently enabled persons based on their specific abilities. He illustrated his points by specific show case studies which he had already implemented in the field. UDAIPUR (REGION III) Prof. Ranjan while conducting Seminar Dr. Dharm Singh 22 July 2012: Young Talent Search in Computer Programming First level regional contest for Young Talent Search in Computer Programming 2012 was held at Udaipur. Regional centre co-ordinator and Vice Chairman, CSI Udaipur Dr. Dharm Singh guided students about rules and format of the examination and infrastructures facility provided by the Techno NJR campus for the contest. Nine students participated from three different schools from all over Rajasthan. TRIVANDRUM (REGION VII) Mr. Vimal Joseph All Participants along with CSI members Udaipur Chapter 28 July 2012: Workshop on Python Programming The workshop was organized in association with The International Centre for Free and Open Source Software (IC-FOSS). It provided a complete introduction to Python. The content included Syntax and Style, Data Structures, Flow control (loops and conditionals), Files and I/O, Modules, Functions, Errors and Exception Handling in Python. Programming exercises were used to reinforce the learning. Mr. Vimal Joseph conducting the workshop CSI Communications ions September embe w.cs indi

47 From Student Branches» SPEAKER(S) TOPIC AND GIST AES INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES (AESICS), AHMEDABAD (REGION-III) Mr. Amal Derasary 7 July 2012: Seminar on Software Quality Assurance (SQA) and Career Opportunities Mr. Derasary covered various aspects of quality as a critical aspect for success of IT projects. He explained different types of testing, software testing life cycle, software testing tools, test automation, and recent trends in testing. He discussed real-life case studies to explain the importance of software quality that is delivered to customers by IT projects. He also explained how to develop career in SQA, career opportunities available, and the career growth paths offered by the IT industry. Mr. Amal Derasary addressing students during the seminar Mrs. Trushali Jambudi 7 July 2012: Workshop on jquery This workshop provided practical exposure to students in creating an interactive and animated web page/web site content using jquery, which renders the same look and feel on different browsers. jquery features like retrieving and manipulating page content, events, animations and effects were covered in the workshop. The participants were given hands-on exposure for the features covered in the workshop. Mr. Pinakin Patel, Mr. Jignesh Shah, and Mr. Bipin Mehta Mr. Hiren Solanki, Mr. Jaymin Shah, and Mr. Pratik Patel Mrs. Trushali Jambudi, delivering a lecture on jquery during the workshop 9 July 2012: Network Design Competition-2012 Objective was to provide a platform for IT students to apply their network design and management skills to solve real life problem. The contest provided problem scenario for designing wired and wireless network for the new building in the University campus. The network design proposals submitted by 8 teams covered details like network design and topology, network components configuration, network protocols and IP addressing, hardware and software configuration for client and servers and solution for network security issues. First and second winners of the competition were provided prizes. Mr. Bipin Mehta, Mr. Aditya Patel and the judges with the winners of the competition 28 July 2012: Workshop on Web Developing and Hosting with PHP The topics covered during the workshop included Basic Concepts of PHP, Advance PHP, MySQL for database connectivity, Hosting and managing the web site. The participants were trained to create web pages using the forms, conditional statements, loop control structures, get and post methods, Cookies, and session maintenance and MySQL database. They were given online demo of all the concepts discussed. During the workshop CSI Communications io ns September embe

48 SPEAKER(S) SP PEA EAKE KER( R(S) R( S S) TOPIC TOPI TO PIC C AND AND GIST GIST SILICON S SI LICO LI CON N IN INST INSTITUTE STIT ITUT UTE E OF T TECHNOLOGY, ECHN EC HNOL OLOG OGY, Y, SILICON SIL ILIC ICON ON HILLS, HIL ILLS LS,, BHUBANESWAR BHUB BH UBAN ANES ESWA WAR R (R (REGION-IV) (REG EGIO IONN-IV IV)) Prof. Prof Pr of.. A K Tr of Trip Tripathy, ipat ip athy at hy,, Pr hy Prof Prof. o. L N Bh of Bhuy Bhuyan, u an uy an,, Pr Prof Prof. o. S P Mi of M Mishra, s ra sh ra,, Prof. Chitta Ranjan Prof. Sk. Kamaruddin Prof Pr of.. Ch Chit itta it ta R anja an jan n Da Das, s, and and P rof.f.f S ro k K k. amar am a ud ar ddi din n Ju July ly 2012: : 01 2 Tw 2: Two-day T o-da odayy Na da N National ati tion ional al S Sem Seminar emin inar ar o on n "A "Application "App ppli lica cati tion on Oriented Ori O rien ente ted d Networking (NSAON-2012) Netw Ne twor orki king ng ((NS NSAO AONN ) ) Prof. Bhuyan Prof. Prof Bhuy Bh uyan uy a started an ssta tart rted d w with ith it h in intr introduction trod tr oduc od uccti tion o from on ffro rom m fundamental fund fu ndam amen enta tall concepts conc co ncep epts ts to to internetworking importance in nte tern rnet rn etwo et work wo r in rk ingg an and d im impo po orttan ance c of ce of network netw ne twor orkk packet pack pa cket ett processing pro p roce cess essin ingg at the the processor pro p roce cess ssor or level. leve le vel.l He He also also s talked ttal alke ked d on Internetworking In Inte tern rnet etwo work rkin in ng g w with ith it h pr pres presentation esen enta tati tion on of of interconnection in nte terc rcon rc onne on nect ne ctio ct ion io n within with wi thin in modern mod oder ern n day day computers, comp co mput uter ers, s, details det d etai ails ls of of Network Netw Ne twor orkk processors proc pr oces esso sors rs architecture, aarc rchi hite tect cttur ure, e, itss ap it appl applications plic licat atio tio ions ns aand nd h his is res rresearch esea earc rch h wo work rk iin n de desi design sign gn and and evaluation eeva valu luat atio ion n of low low power pow p ower er network netw ne twor orkk processors. or proc pr oces oc esso es sors so rs.. Wh rs Whil While ililee ta talk talking lkin lk ingg about in abou ab outt Effi ou Effi fficcie ccient ient ie n S nt Scheduling ched ch edul ed ulin ul ingg of N in Network etwo et work rk Applications, presented diff scheduling approaches network Ap ppl plic i at ic atio ions nss,, h hee pr p essen esen ente ted d di d fferent e en er entt sc sche heedu dulililing ng aapp ppro pp ro oac ache hess fo forr ne netw twor orkk applications. appl ap plic icat atio ions ns.. Pr P Prof. off. Da Dass sp spok spoke o e ab ok abou about outt N Networking Net etwo work wo rkin rk in ng in tthe he C Con Context onte teext o off Cl Clou Cloud oud d Computing, Co omp mput utin ut ing in g,, ba g basi basics sics si cs of of cl clou cloud oud d co comp computing, mput utin ing, g, aand nd ccon concluded oncl on c ud cl u ed w wit with ith it h re rese research sear se arch ar ch ave aavenues venu ve nues nu es area. Prof. Bhuyan about Scheduling for Power Energy in tthis hiss ar hi area ea.. Pr Prof of.. Bh of Bhuy uyan an llater ater at er ttalked a ke al ked d ab abou outt S ou Sch ch hed edul u in ul ingg fo or Po Powe werr an we and d En Ener ergy er gy Savings discussed power energy optimization multicore servers. S Sa ving vi ngs s aand s nd d dis isscu cuss s ed p ss ow wer aand nd eene nerg rgyy op opti timi miza zati tion on o on n mu mult ltic icor oree se serv rvver ers. s. During Dur During ing the the inaugural iinau naugur gural al session sessio ses sion n of of NSAON NSAON NSAO N , 2012, the the dignitaries dign dignita itarie riess present present pres ent on the the dais dais Prof. Pro f. A K Tripathy, Tripa Tr ipathy thy,, Prof. Prof.. L N Bhuyan, Prof Bhuyan Bhu yan,, Prof. Prof.. S P Mishra, Prof Mishra Mis hra,, and and Prof. Prof. Sk. Kamaruddin Kamar Ka marudd uddin in DADI DA DI IINSTITUTE NS STI TITU TUTE TE EO OFF EN ENGI ENGINEERING GINE NEER ERIN ING G & TE TECH TECHNOLOGY CHNO N LO NO LOGY GY ((DI (DIET), DIET ET), ), V VIS VISAKHAPATNAM ISAK AKHA HAPA PATN TNAM AM (R (REGION-V) (REG EGIO IONN-V) V) Mr.. La Mr Lavv Ag Agar Agarwal, arwa ar wal,l,, A P C wa Cho Choudhary, ho oud udha h ry ha ry,, Da Dadi dii V Veerabhadra eera ee rabh bhad adra ra Rao, Ra ao, P Madhusudan, Mad adhu husu hu suda su dan, da n, Suman Sum uman an Das, Das D as,, J V Ra as Rao, o P o, Prof. rof.f.f P S ro Avad Av adha ad hani ha ni,, Pa ni Para rama mata ta S atya at yana ya nara raya y na ya n, Ya Yarl rlag agad adda da LLax axmi mi Avadhani, Paramata Satyanarayana, Yarlagadda Laxmi Prasad, Pras Pr a ad as ad,, an and d T K Ch Chan Chand and an d August Augu Au gust gu st : 012: 2: Tw Two-day Twoo-da dayy AP State Sta S tate te LLev Level evel el S Stu Student tude dent nt C Con Conventiononve vent ntio ionn Mr. Mr. Agrawal Agra Ag rawa wall said said students sstu tude dent ntts need neeed e to to remain re in committed com ommi m tted tto o up upgr upgrade grad adee kn kknowledge owle ow ledg dgee and work work for for the the success suc ucce cess ce ss o off ap ppl p yi ying ng technology ttec echn hnol olog ogyy to m akee lilife ak ife f m mor oree pr p oduc od ucti uc tive ve.. and applying make more productive. Prof. Prof Pr of. P S Avadhani Avad Av adha hani ni said, sai aid d, today s tod tod oday ay s s stu sstudents tude dent ntss ar aree so ssolutions olu luti tion on ns to p present rese re sent se nt aand nd ffut future utur ut uree ur challenges chal ch alle leng ng ges e and and every eveery engineering eeng ng gin inee eeri ee ring ri ng student stu t de dent ntt should ssho houl ho uld ul d harbor harb ha rbor rb or an an intent inte in tent nt to to ad aadd d va valu value luee to eexi existing xist s in st i g kn know knowledge ow wleedg dgee an and d wo work rk to to cr crea create eate tee o orr im impr improve p ov pr ovee on onee st sstream reeam a o off te tech technology chno nolo logy gy or an an application ap ppl plic icat cat atiion ion that that ccan an m make akee the ak the common c mm co mmon o ccit on citizen s ittiz i en en s lif s life lif ifee simpler siimple simp lerr and and easy. easy ea sy. Mr. T K Ch han and d to told ld sstu tude dent ntts th hat a, ba b asi sicc cr rea eati tivi vity ty aand nd iinnovation nnov nn ovat ov atio at ion io n ar aaree no nott Mr. Chand students that, basic creativity enough. enou en ough ou gh.. On Onee sh sshould ould ou ld d aals also lso o st stri strive rive ve tto o ta take ke tthe them hem m to tthe he w wor world. orld ld d. If yyou ou h hav have avee an iidea, dea, de a think thin th inkk how in how st stro strong ro ong iitt is aand nd w what hatt ch ha chan changes ange gess ca can n it b bring ring ri ng aabo about. b ut bo ut. Address Add Addres resss by by Chief Chieff Gues Chie G Guest uestt Padmasree Padmasr Padm asree ee Y Lakshmi Lakshmi Laks hmi Prasad Prasa Pr asad d G. P PULLA ULLA UL LA R REDDY EDDY ED DY E ENG ENGINEERING NGIN INEE EERI RING NG C COLLEGE, OLLE OL LEGE G, HY GE H HYDERABAD DERA DE RABA BAD D (R (REGION-V) (REG EGIO IONN-V) V) Mr.. I L Na M Mr Nara Narasimha rasi ra simh m a Ra mh Rao, o, K LLax Laxminarayan axmi miina nara raya ra yan n Ra Raju Raju, ju,, an and d Dr. A Go Dr Gova Govardhan vard rdha han n Ga Garu ru 8 9 August 8 9 Augu Au g st 2 gu : 012: 2: A Tw TwoTwo-day o-da dayy Re Regi Regional gion gi o all LLevel on evel ev el S Stu Student tude dent ntt ccon convention onve on vent ve ntio nt ion io n Aavishkar-2012 Aav A avis ishk hkar ar I L Narasimha Nara Na r si simh mhaa Rao Rao delivered d lilive de vere red d inaugural inau in augu gu ura rall address a dr ad dres esss on the es the topic top opic ic Indians In Indi diian anss ca can n do o bett be tter tt er iiff th they ey o org rgan rg aniz ized ed w wel e l el l.. K La Laxm xm min inar aray ayan an R Raj aju, u, d deliv iver ered ed aadd ddre ress ss o on n better organized well. Laxminarayan Raju, delivered address thee topic th topi to picc C Communication Com o mu muni nica ni cati ca tion on sskills killllls pl ki play ay iimp important mpor orta tant nt rrole olee in ol n iindustry. ndus nd u tr us try y.. Total T ta To t l of tech te chni ch nica ni call pa pape pers pe r w rs eree re er rece c iv ce ived ed ffro ro om st stud uden ud ents en ts o off va vari riou ri ouss En ou Engi g ne gi neer erin ing g Colleges Colllleg Co eges eg es technical papers were received from students various Engineering forr Paper fo Pape Pa peer Presentation Pres Pr e en es nta tati t on Contest ti Con onte teest o n th thee to opi pics cs ssuch uch uc h as C Clo loud ud C Com ompu puti ting ti ng, on topics Cloud Computing, Gree Gr een ee n Computing, Comp Co mput mp utin in ng, g Mobile Mob obilililee Adhoc Adho Ad h c Ne ho Netw twor tw orks or ks,, So ks Soft ft C om mpu p ti ting n, an ng and d Intelligent Inte In tellllig igen ent Green Networks, Computing, Infr In fras fr astr truc uctu ctu ture re Technologies Tec echn h ol hn olog ogie og iess and ie a d 21 papers an pap p aper erss were were selected sel sel elec ecte ec ted te d for forr presentation. fo pres pr esen enta tati ta tion ti on.. In on Infrastructure addi ad d ti di tion on to to th this is T Tec echn ec hnic hn ical al Quiz, Qui uiz, z, Software Sof S oftw of twar tw aree Contest, Co ont ntes e t, es t aand nd d Poster Pos P oste teer Pr P esen es enta tati tion on addition Technical Presentation weere aals were lso ls o conducted. cond co nduc nd ucte uc ted. te d. also L LL tto o R: R: Dr. B Sreenivasa Sreeni Sre enivas vasa a Reddy, Reddy, Redd y, Sri. Sri. K Laxminarayan Laxmi La xminar naraya ayan n Raju, Raju Raju,, Sri. Sri. I L Narasimha N Nara arasim simha ha Rao,, Dr. Rao Dr. N Kasiviswanath, K Kasi asivis viswan wanath ath,, and and Dr. R Praveen Pravee Pra veen n Sam Sam PRAKASAM PRAK PR AKAS AK ASAM AM E ENG ENGINEERING NGIN INEE EERI RING NG C COLLEGE OLLE OL LEGE GE ((PE (PEC), PE EC) C),, AP (R (REGION-V) (REG EGIO IONN-V) V) Dr.. P Tr Dr Trim Trimurthy imur im u th ur thyy August Augu Au gust gu s 2 st : 012: 01 2 Na 2: National Nati tion ti o al level on llev evel el T Tec Techno echn hno o Cu Cult Cultural ltur ural al FFes Festival esti tiva vall I ISKRA ISK SKRA RA 2 2K1 2K12 K12 2 Fest involved Fest iinv nvol olve ved d a variety vari va riet etyy of events eve vent ntss such such h as as Paper Pape Pa perr Presentations, Pres Pr esen entations, s, Technical Tec T echn hnic ical al Quiz Qu iz P ro ogr gram ams, am s, T Tec echn hnic ical al P Pos oste terr Pr Pres esen enta tati tion onss et eetc. c. D Dr.r. P T Tri rimu murt rthy hy, Fo Form mer Programs, Technical Poster Presentations Trimurthy, Former P Pr esid es i en id entt of C SI, Ch SI, C hie ieff gu gues estt IS es ISKR KRA A 2K 2K12 12,, ad 12 addr dres dr esse es sed d th thee ga ath her erin i g du in duri ring ri ng President CSI, Chief guest ISKRA 2K12, addressed gathering during valedictory vale va ledi dict di c or ct oryy fu func function. ncti tion ti on.. on LL tto or R:: D Dr. r. P Trimurthy, Trimurt Trim urthy, hy, Dr. Dr. Kancharla Kanchar Kanc harla la Ramaiah, Ramaia Ram aiah, h, Mr. I V Subb SSubbarao, ubbara arao, o, Mr. G Ayyanna, Ayyann Ayy anna, a, Prof. Prof. N Renukachari, Renukac Renu kachar hari, i, and Dr. Dr. M Lakshmana Laksh La kshman mana a Rao Rao CSII Co CS Comm Communications mmun mm unic un ic cat atio ions io nss Se September S Sept ept p em mb be er w w w. ww w..cs csics sii-in -indi in ndiia. a.or org rg

49 SPEAKER(S) TOPIC AND GIST MANAKULA VINAYAGAR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (MVIT), PUDHUCHERRY (REGION-VII) 3-4 August 2012: Two-day workshop on Android and Its Applications The workshop was focused on the application development in Android Platform. It provided hands-on experience to the students in android simulator. The workshop helped the students to develop their own android applications and their knowledge towards current mobile operating systems. Speaker during the workshop Following new student branches were opened as detailed below - REGION VI Datta Meghe College of Engineering (DMCE), Airoli, Navi Mumbai - -This new student branch was inaugurated on 3rd August, 2012 at the hands of Prof. A P Pande. Chief guest Mr. Abraham Koshi spoke about the historical perspective on the development of the Indian computer technology and gave excellent examples of revolution created by brilliant scientists. REGION VII Sree Buddha College of Engineering, Pattoor, Kerala - The CSI Student Branch was inaugurated on 26th July, 2012 followed by a talk on Personal Effectiveness and awareness program about CSI by Mr. Y Kathiresan, who spoke about the importance of developing personal effectiveness in students. Please send your event news to Low resolution photos and news without gist will not be published. Please send only 1 photo per event, not more. Kindly note that news received on or before 20th of a month will only be considered for publishing in the CSIC of the following month. Guidelines for Chapter Elections for Compliance 1. Chapter Nominations Committee (NC) will initiate the election process of the respective Managing Committee (MC) as per the CSI Constitution and Bye-laws. An announcement will appear in CSI Communications/ on CSI website regarding CSI elections for the year /2015 as in the past. One of the strengths of any professional society is to conduct elections as per schedule. 2. Each chapter is advised to form Chapter MC and NC with proper balance of members. Chapter NC holds responsibility to search and invite suitable members for MC and NC. While selecting MC and NC members, the current NC members should try to find suitable members representing IT Industry, Academic Institutions, Government Departments, Corporate sector, Consultants etc. In the process, the need to keep experienced members, young members, and women members, to balance the composition of MC and NC, may please be kept in mind. 3. If election is required to be conducted at the chapter level, it must be conducted in all fairness. 4. It is suggested to co-opt one past office bearer of the chapter in the NC team. This is to ensure that there is at least one experienced member to guide the team. 5. The chapter NCs ( ) are requested to ensure that the new NC team is cohesive and each member has a commitment towards CSI. 6. In case the Chapter NC/MC needs the help of the National NC, the National NC will be very happy to assist. Dr. D D Sarma Bipin V Mehta Subimal Kundu Nominations Committee ( ) CSI Communications ions September embe

50 IEEE Computer Society e-membership benefits at subsidized rates CSI and the IEEE Computer Society (CS) signed a renewed and enhanced Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) in July The MoU aims at encouraging the exchange and dissemination of technical information, promoting understanding and cooperation between the members of both societies and encouraging cross-membership. While the MoU covers several inter-organizational collaborative activities, a significant benefit for CSI members is the Sister Society Associate programme (at this time, available only to CSI Members globally). CSI members who join IEEE-CS through this mechanism CSI- SSA program are eligible for: 1. Free access to 3 IEEE CS digital publications: Computer, IEEE Software and IT Pro. These publications contain the most up-to-date and advanced information in the computing world. 2. Subscription to other IEEE CS member optional periodicals at Sister Society rates. 3. IEEE CS Custom Newsletter for SSA Members. 4. Discounts in IEEE CS conferences organized in India. These benefits are available at a discounted rate of US$ 12 for professional members and US$ 10 for student members. For further details, kindly visit: Suchit Gogwekar Executive Secretary Four good reasons to JOIN Take part in various forums and discuss, your favourite topics Make a contribution on National level through our open exchange of ideas seminars Share your specialized knowledge with colleagues Receive new information on developments in the field via regular conferences, seminars, workshops etc. Join us and become a member WE INVITE YOU TO JOIN Computer Society of India A professional body guiding Indian Information Technology Industry I am interested in the work of CSI. Please send me information on how to become an individual/institutional* member Name Position held Address City Postal Code Telephone: Mobile: Fax: *[Delete whichever is not applicable] Mail this coupon to: Computer Society of India, Unit 3, 4th Floor, Samruddhi Venture Park, MIDC, Andheri, Mumbai URL: CSI Communications September

51 CSI Calendar 2012 Prof. S V Raghavan Vice President & Chair, Conference Committee, CSI Date Event Details & Organizers Contact Information September 2012 Events Sept Kerala State Student Convention TKM College of Engineering Sept th e-governance Knowledge Sharing Summit (KSS2012) Govt of Chhattisgarh, In association with CSI-SIG-eGOV at Hotel V W Canyon Raipur Sept Regional Student Convention Region 6 MGM's Jawaharlal Nehru Engineering College, N-6, CIDCO, Aurangabad 28 Sept International conference on Computer Science - Theory, Applications and Research (CSTAR 2012) Sir Padampat Singhania University in association with CSI-SIG-WNs, CSI DivIV and Udaipur Chapter October 2012 Events 6-7 October October October October 2012 Alan Turing Year India Celebrations- Theme: "Alan Turing - Creator of Intellectual Currents" IISc., Bangalore Alan Turing Year India Celebrations IIT, Kanpur 7th Tamilnadu State Student Convention Kalasilingam University, Krishnankoil 26th Annual Karnataka Student Convention on Green Computing Challenges & Change Sidganga Institute of Technology, Tumkur, Karnataka 20 October 2012 Communication Technologies & its impact on Next Generation Computing (CTNGC-2012) I.T.S Management & IT Institute Mohan Nagar, Ghaziabad, U.P November 2012 Events Dr. Chitraprasad, Mr. Muraleedharan Pillai, Mr. A M Parial, Maj. Gen. (Retd) Dr. R K Bagga, Ms. Parminder Kaur, Prof. S S Sane, Dr. Dharm Siong, Sanjay Mohapatra, Akhilesh K Sharma, Dr. Y Narahari, Dr. T V Gopal, Dr. Harish Karnick, Dr. T V Gopal, Prof. V Thiruppathy Kesavan, Prof. Maluk Mohammed, Prof. Sunita Prof. Umang, Prof. Ashish Seth, Prof. Alka Agrawal, 9-10 November Nov- 1 Dec 2012 FDP on Intelligent Computing New Horizon College of Engineering, Bangalore Third International Conference on Emerging Applications of Information Technology (EAIT 2012) CSI Kolkata Chapter Event at Kolkata URL: Prof. Ilango D P Mukherjee/Debasish Jana/ Pinakpani Pal/R T Goswami December 2012 Events 1-2 December December December December th Annual National Convention of CSI (CSI 2012) CSI Kolkata Chapter Event at Kolkata, URL: Second IEEE International Conference on PDG Computing [ PDGC 2012], Technically CSI Special Interest Group on Cyber Forensics at Jaypee University of information Technology, Waknaghat- Solan (HP) International Conference on Management of Data (COMAD-2012) SIGDATA, CSI, Pune Chapter and CSI Division II Alan Turing Year India Celebrations - Teacher Training. Subject: "Simplification in Intelligent Computing Theory and Algorithms" Bangalore Subimal Kundu/D P Mukherjee/ Phalguni Mukherjee/J K Mandal, Dr. Nitin, Dr. Vipin Tyagi, Mr. C G Sahasrabudhe Dr. D K Subrahmanian, Dr. Rajanikanth,> Dr. T V Gopal, January 2013 Events January 2013 International Conference on Reliability, Infocom Technologies and Optimization (Trends and Future Directions) Amity Institute of Information Technology, Amity University, CSI and IEEE Prof. Sunil Kumar Khatri

52 Registered with Registrar of News Papers for India - RNI 31668/78 If undelivered return to : Regd. No. MH/MR/N/222/MBI/12-14 Samruddhi Venture Park, Unit No.3, Posting Date: 10 & 11 every month. Posted at Patrika Channel Mumbai-I 4th floor, MIDC, Andheri (E). Mumbai Date of Publication: 10 & 11 every month CSI Service Awards 2012 Call for nominations The Annual Convention of the Computer Society of India (CSI) will be held at Kolkata on 1st and 2nd December On this occasion, CSI felicitates with awards to chapters/ individuals for their significant contributions to the society during the financial year The awards will be presented during the Annual General meeting, at Kolkata. The CSI awards constituted for encouraging the persons/chapters are indicated below: 1. Best National Chapter Award 1 2. Best Regional Chapter Award (Category A) 3. Best Regional Chapter Award (Category B) 4. Best Regional Chapter Award (Category C) 5. Chapter Patron Award 6. Best Chapter News Letter Award 7. Significant Contribution Award 8. Active Participation Award (Youth) 9. Active Participation Award (Woman) The norms/guidelines/forms for each award have been well documented and are uploaded on the website ( serviceawards-2012). Chapters and individuals interested in participating for these awards, may mail their nominations in a prescribed format uploaded on the website to the Executive Secretary, CSI-HQ, Mumbai at Incomplete application will not be considered for scrutiny. The nomination should be routed through respective Regional Vice Presidents latest by 10th October, 2012 so that the scrutiny can be done by CSI-HQ at Mumbai and forwarded to AWARDS COMMITTEE headed by the Immediate Past President, for final selection. For enquires, kindly contact Mr. S M Fahimuddin Pasha, Assistant Manager, CSI HQ at Thanking you MD Agrawal, Chairman, Awards Committee Computer Society of India 1 The best national chapter award will be given on the basis of nomination for best regional chapter award, so, a separate nomination for this award is not required.

Cover Story An Algebraic Method for Super Resolution Image Reconstruction 5. Technical Trends Applications of Image Processing in Industries 8

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