# AutoCAD 2015 Tutorial: 2D Fundamentals Lesson 10 Section Views /2 01/4. 47/fl 2/4

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1 AutoCAD 2015 Tutorial: 2D Fundamentals 10-1 Lesson 10 Section Views /2 ~imr 01/4 47/fl 2/4 Use CAD Methods to Create Section Views Use the Object Snap Shortcut Options 4 Change the Linetype Scale Property 4 Stretch and Move Objects with GRIPS * Create Cutting Plane Lines * Use the HATCH Command

2 10-2 AutoCAD 2015 Tutorial: 2D Fundamentals AutoCAD Certified User Examination Objectives Coverage This table shows the pages on which the objectives of the Certified User Examination are covered in Chapter 10. Section 2: Creating Basic Drawings Snap Overrides 10-8 Tangent 10-8 Hor. Construction Line Section 3: Manipulating Objects Quick Select Deselect All Section 4: Drawing Organization and Inquiry Commands Linetype Scale Section 5: Altering Objects Offset Command 10-6 Stretch o '5 Section 8: Dimensioning 0 MULTILEADER o c,2 Section 9: Hatching Objects S. Hatch ) O Section 10: Working with Reusable Content Use a Template 10-4

3 Section Views 10-3 Introduction In the previous lessons, we have explored the basic CAD methods of creating orthographic views. By carefully selecting a limited number of views, the external features of most complicated designs can be fully described. However, we are frequently confronted with the necessity of showing the interiors of parts that cannot be shown clearly by means of hidden lines. We accomplish this by passing an imaginary cutting plane through the part and creating a cutaway view of the part. This type of view is known as a section view. In this lesson, we will demonstrate the procedure to construct section views using AutoCAD In a section view, section lines, or cross-hatch lines, are added to indicate the surfaces that are cut by the imaginary cutting plane. The type of section line used to represent a surface varies according to the type of material. AutoCAD's Hatch command can be used to fill a pattern inside an area. We define a boundary that consists of an object or objects that completely enclose the area. AutoCAD 2015 comes with a solid fill and more than 50 industry-standard hatch patterns that we can use to differentiate the components of objects or represent object materials. The Bearing Design

5 Section Views 10-5 The Bearing Design DREGDN INSTITUTE af TECHNDLDGYlBCftRING SHEETi 1/1 DATEi 3/17/2Q12 DR. BY: L. Mario CK. BY; B, MoravFC jftp. EY;S, Schroff SCALE: la WG ND: E42~g-T Setting up the Principal Views 1. In the Status Bar area, reset the options and turn ON the Dynamic Input, Polar Tracking, Object Snap, Object Tracking, said Line Weight Display options. Restrict cursor to specified angles - On Polar Tracking (F10) >a m m - j3 *. L. -K- \ z. f.:i - ^ - - ' : J2 Lrf Line Polyline Circle Arc / Construction Line We will first create construction lines for the front view. 2. Click the Construction Line icon in the Draw toolbar to activate the Construction Line command.

6 10-6 AutoCAD 2015 Tutorial: 2D Fundamentals 3. In the command prompt area, the message "_xline Specify a point or [Hor/Ver/Ang/Bisect/Offset]';" is displayed. On your own, create a vertical line and a horizontal line, near the left side of the screen, as shown in the figure below. These lines will be used as the references for the circular features of the design. I,.,.,.. I ; Drawtngi' " # -] Tap3i2DWiicfnme{ Horizontal and vertical construction lines Y W X 4. Click on the Offset icon in the Modify toolbar. In the command prompt area, the message "Specify offset distance or [Through]:" is displayed. 5. In the command prompt area, enter: 1.75 [ENTER]. 6. In the command prompt area, the message "Select object to offset or <exit>:" is displayed. Pick the horizontal line on the screen. 7. AutoCAD next expects us to identify the direction of the offset. Pick a location that is above the selected line. 8. We will also create a line that is below the original horizontal line at Pick the original horizontal line on the screen. 9. Pick a location that is below the selected line. Enter, Recent Input 10. Inside the Drawing Area, right-mouse-click and select Enter to end the Offset command.

7 Section Views 10-7 Creating Object Lines in the Front View Layer Properties Vault ED- Construction -0- of 0 Center_Line5 9 "ft" EiT D Construction 9 "ft" of H CuttingP landings 1. On the Object Properties toolbar, choose the Layer Control box with the left-mouse-button. 2. Move the cursor over the name of layer Object_Lines; the tool tip "ObjectJ^ines^ appears. V & pf H gbjectklinej_ 9 "ft" of iktiies 9 "ft" C^ D Titleblock 9 ^ Df D TEtleblocklettering 9 ft' of Viewport 3. Left-mouse-click once and layer Object_Lines is set as the Current Layer. Home i Insert Annotate Pararr H~, Line Polyline 4. Click on the Circle icon in the Draw toolbar. In the command prompt area, the message "Specify center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan tan radius)]:" is displayed. 5. Pick the center intersection point as the center of the circle. 6. In the command prompt area, the message "Specify radius of circle or [Diameter]:" is displayed. Enter: 1.25 [ENTER]. 7. Repeat the Circle command and create the two diameter 1.5 circles as shown. Create these two circles (diameter 7.5).

8 10-8 AutoCAD 2015 Tutorial: 2D Fundamentals 8. Select the Line command icon in the Draw toolbar. In the command prompt area, the message "_line Specify first point:" is displayed. Line Create:, straight line segments Center ^ Quadrant "O Tangent 4>_ Perpendicular x^ Parallel 9. Inside the Drawing Area, hold down the [SHIFT] key and right-mouse-click once to bring up the Object Snap shortcut menu. 10. Select the Tangent option in the popup window. Move the cursor near the circles and notice the Tangent marker appears at different locations. 11. Pick the top circle by clicking on the upper right section of the circle. Dynamic Input Undo Snap Overrides 5 Pan Zoom 12. In the command prompt area, the message "Specify the next point or [Undo]:" is displayed. Inside the Drawing Area, right-mouse-click once and select Snap Overrides. Quadrant t> Tangent Perpendicular 13. Select the Tangent option in the popup menu. 11. Pick the top circle by clicking near the expected tangency location. 14. Pick the center circle by clicking on the right side of the circle. A line tangent to the two circles appears on the screen. 15. Inside the Drawing Area, right-mouse-click and select Enter to end the Line command. 16. On your own, repeat the Line command and create the four tangent lines as shown.

9 Section Views 10-9 Editing the Circles Format Tools Draw :?.*? * O 1. Select the Trim icon in the Modify toolbar. In the command prompt area, the message "Select boundary edges... Select objects:" is displayed. r-, r 1 a bti DJ D Modify Trim Trims objects to 2. Pick the four lines we just created as the boundary edges. 3. Inside the Drawing Area, right-mouse-click to proceed with the Trim command. The message "Select object to trim or [Project/Edge/Undo]:" displayed in the command prompt area. is 4. Trim the unwanted portions of the top and bottom circles and complete the outline of the front view as shown. 5. Inside the Drawing Area, right-mouse-click to activate the option menu and select Enter with the left-mouse-button to end the Trim command. On your own, create the additional circles as shown.

10 10-10 AutoCAD 2015 Tutorial: 2D Fundamentals Setting up the Side-View -ins Autodesk 360 Vault LtJ - % Layer Properties 9 "\$Tjf Objectjines 9 # of 9-tt-of 9 -ft of n 9 -a- of 9 -ft- of D 0 Construction Construction 1 5 CuttmgPlanelines Dimensions 1. In the Layer Control box, set layer Construction as the Current Layer. Kirk View Manage Output * O -/-- & A Oi nls f"'~\, * * : r~v m nn,! Lti DJ DO * Modify "- Text Offset 2. Select the Offset icon in the Modify toolbar. In the command prompt area, the message "Specify offset distance or [Through]:" is displayed. 3. In the command prompt area, enter: 5.0 [ENTER]. 4. In the command prompt area, the message ""Select object to offset or <exit>:" is displayed. Pick the vertical line on the screen. 5. AutoCAD next expects us to identity the direction of the offset. Pick a location that is toward the right side of the selected line. 6. Inside the Drawing Area, right-mouse-click to end the Offset command. 7. On your own, repeat the Offset command and create two additional lines parallel to the line we just created as shown (distances of 0.5 and 2.0).

11 Section Views Home i Insert Annotate Pa D-. Line Polyline Circle Arc 8. Select the Construction Line icon in the Draw toolbar. In the command prompt area, the message "_xline Specify a point or [Hor/Ver/Ang/Bisect/Offset]:" is displayed. Construction Line 9. Select the Hor (horizontal) option in the command prompt area. ECommand: xline XLINE Specify a point or [ttarver Ang Bisect Offset]: Mode! Laycuti Layout! + YJ Ol > The Horizontal option enables us to create a horizontal line by specifying one point in the Drawing Area. 10. Create projection lines by clicking at the intersections between the vertical line and the circles (and arcs) in the front-view. 11. Also create two horizontal projection lines that pass through the two tangency-points on the 02.5 circle. 12. Inside the Drawing Area, right-mouse-click to end the Construction Line command.

12 10-12 AutoCAD 2015 Tutorial: 2D Fundamentals On your own, create object lines to show the outline of the side view. Adding Hidden Lines in the Side-View nefcric Vtew Manage Output Ad * o A M r~i DJ DD DD Modify * Offset 1. Click the Offset icon in the Modify toolbar. In the command prompt area, the message "Specify offset distance or [Through]:" is displayed. 2. On your own, create the two additional vertical lines for the counter-bore features as shown

13 Section Views itodcskdu Vauft 9 -HE-o Object.Lines 9 # of o 9 "\$" of Center.Lines V "M" ot" D Construction 9#tf I 3. Set layer Hidden_Line\$ as the Current Layer in the Layer Control box. 9_"gof Ij.gbjceUims V "W" G? H Sectionlines 9 "ft" D? D Titleblock 9 ' ' of D Titfeblocklettering 9 "ft CiT H Viewport ~1 4. Use the Line command and create the hidden lines as shown. >- J-- On your own, complete the views by adding the side-drill, the centerlines, and the rounded corners as shown in the figure below. R,l 5 0,375 I 1 h- 1250^

14 10-14 AutoCAD 2015 Tutorial: 2D Fundamentals Changing the Linetype Scale Property <* Looking at the side-drill feature and the centerhnes we just created, not all of the lengths of the dash-dot linetypes appeared properly on the screen. The appearances of the dash-dot linetypes can be adjusted by modifying the Linetype Scale setting, which can be found under the Object Property option. 1. Pre-select the objects in the side view as shown (four lines and one circle). 2. Click once with the rightmouse-button to bring up the option list, and select the Properties option. QuickLalc. Find... Properties Quick Properties 3. In the Properties dialog box, notice the default Linetype scale is Left-click on Linetype scale in the list and enter a new value: 0.75 [ENTER]. 5. Click on the [X] button to exit the Properties dialog box. Inside the Drawing Area, right-mouse-chck and choose Deselect All. > The appearances of the dash-dot linetypes of the selected objects are adjusted to three-quarters the size of the other objects. Keep in mind that the dash-dot linetypes may appear differently on paper, depending on the type of printer/plotter being used. You may want to do more adjustments after examining a printed/plotted copy of the drawing. It is also more common to adjust the Linetype Scale for all objects of the same linetype to maintain a consistent presentation of the drawing.

15 Section Views Stretching and Moving Objects with GRIPS We can usually stretch an object by moving selected grips to new locations. Some grips will not stretch the object but will move the object. This is true of grips on text objects, blocks, midpoints of lines, centers of circles, centers of ellipses, and point objects. >- 1. Pre-select the horizontal centerline that goes through the center of the part as shown. ~l 2. Select the right grip by left-clicking once on the grip. Notice the grip is highlighted. T F 3. Move the cursor inside the Drawing Area and notice the center line is being stretched; the base point is attached to the cursor. fa 4. Pick a location on the screen to stretch the centerline. J" 5. Click on the Undo icon in the Standard toolbar area to undo the stretch we just did. Undo (Ctrl+Z) Reverses the most recent action > On your own, experiment with moving the center grip of the centerline.

16 10-16 AutoCAD 2015 Tutorial: 2D Fundamentals Drawing a Cutting Plane Line Most section views require a cutting plane line to indicate the location on which the object is cut. 'ft of CenterJJnes 1. In the Layer Control box, turn OFF the Construction layer and set layer CuttingPlanelines as the Current Layer. V "V" CiT H Difrfensions 9 'ft of D HiddenJJnes 2. Use the Line command and create the vertical cutting plane line aligned to the vertical centerline of the front view. Cutting Plane Line r

18 10-18 AutoCAD 2015 Tutorial: 2D Fundamentals > Note that AutoCAD expects us to type in the text that will be associated with the leader. n. 10. In the Text Formatting dialog box, click Close to close the dialog box without entering any text. 11. On your own, use the GRIP editing option and adjust the arrow as shown. (Hint: adjust the right arrow grip point.) 12. In the Status toolbar, turn OFF the Line Weight Display option to help the editing process. Show/Hide Lineweight - Off 13. Repeat the Leader command and create the other arrow as shown. u" T _h

19 Section Views Converting the Side View into a Section View 1. Pre-select all the objects in the side view by using a selection window. n net» 2. Inside the Drawing Area, rightmouse-click to bring up the popup option menu and select the Quick Select option. Quick Select. Find... *> The Quick Select option enables us to quickly select multiple objects by using various filter options. A Quick Select Object type: [Multip e_ Propertie*: Linetype Linetype scale Plot otyle Line weight Transparency HypnMc Operator: [_- Equals v to apply: 3. In the Quick Select dialog box, select Layer from the Properties list. 4. Set the Value box to Hidden_Unes. 5. In the How to apply section, select the Include in new selection set option. 6. Click on the OK button to accept the settings. *> AutoCAD will now filter out objects that are not on layer Hidden_lines. o. Include in new setectbn e'j Specifies the property value for < i Btoiude from new seteciioh'set o cuctbrt wheciion set OK I [ Cancel Help

20 10-20 AutoCAD 2015 Tutorial: 2D Fundamentals ins Aul 4' 9 -ft DP Q HiddenJJnes Layer 9 -ft of Properties 9 -ft Dp 9 -ft op D 9 ft of 9#oP 9 -a- of n tf-ftoph \0 Vault J^^n Q» *A Selected object's layer name ^uf ILLIULLIUfi CuttingPianeiineE Dimensions Qbject_Lines QbjectLines V "-M" CO Sectionlines 1 Titlebloclc 7. On the Object Properties toolbar, choose the Layer Control box with the left-mouse-button. *> Notice the layer name displayed in the Layer Control box is the selected object's assigned layer and layer properties. 8. In the Layer Control box, click on the Object_Lines layer name. > The selected objects are moved to the Object_Lines layer. Group Select Similar DeselecfcAil Uf Subobject Selection Fil Quick Select inside the Drawing Area, right-mouse-click and choose Deselect All. 10. On your own, use the Grip editing options and modify the side view as shown.

21 Section Views Adding Section Lines 1. In the Layer Control box, set layer Section Lines as the Current Layer. Home Insert Annotate Parametric Line Polyline Circle Arc Draw» Drawingl* Hatch Fills an 2. Select the Hatch icon in the Draw toolbar. The Boundary Hatch dialog box appears on the screen. We will use the ANSI31 standard hatch pattern and create an associative hatch, which means the hatch is updated automatically if the boundaries are modified. We can define a boundary by Selecting Objects or Picking Points. The Pick Points option is usually the easier and taster way to define boundaries. We specify locations inside the region to be crosshatched and AutoCAD will automatically derive the boundary definition from the location of the specified point. Home Insert Annotate Parametric Pick Points \$fj Pattern,,,,M! fi Use Cur : Hatch i 4--a t-j.- - Determine: a hatch bcundar/from exi enclosed area around the specified pci 3. Click on the Add: Pick Points icon. 4. In the command prompt area, the message "Select infernal point:" is displayed. 5. Left-click inside the four regions as shown. 6. Inside the Drawing Area, right-mouseclick to bring up the popup menu and select ENTER to continue with the Hatch command. 7. Click on the OK button to close the Boundary Hatch dialog box.

22 30-22 AutoCAD 2015 Tutorial: 2D Fundamentals Complete the drawing by adding the proper dimensions. 02, ALL FILLETS AND ROUNDS R SECTION A- > On your own, create a drawing layout and print out the drawing.

23 Section Views 10-23

24 10-24 AutoCAD 2015 Tutorial: 2D Fundamentals Review Questions: (Time: 30 minutes) 1. When and why is a section view necessary? 2. Describe the general procedure to create a section view in AutoCAD In AutoCAD 2015, can the angle and spacing of hatch patterns be altered? 4. Explain the concept of using a cutting plane line in a section view? 5. Can we mirror text in AutoCAD 2015? (Use the AutoCAD InfoCenter to find the answer to this question.) 6. Using the Trim command, what would happen if we do not specify a boundary and just press [ENTER] at the "Select Objects" prompt? 7. Which command do we use to define the region of the grid display in the current AutoCAD screen? 8. Construct the drawing shown and measure the area A. (Units: mm.) Construct the drawing shown and measure the length L. Show the length with two digits after the decimal point. (Units: inches.)

25 Section Views Exercises: (Time: 220 minutes) (All Dimensions are in inches.) 1. Center Support X Ratchet Wheel \4 01/2 1: 1 1/2 47/B 45* TYP

26 10-26 AutoCAD 2015 Tutorial: 2D Fundamentals 3. Mounting Bracket 4. Position Guide 01.00

27 Section Views Yoke Support -315TYP 2 50 Rounds & Fillets: R Lock Cap

28 10-28 AutoCAD 2015 Tutorial: 2D Fundamentals Notes:

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