1 Failure of Engineering Materials & Structures Code 3 UET TAXILA MECHNICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Bolted Joint s Relaxation Behavior: A FEA Study Muhammad Abid and Saad Hussain Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology Topi. ABSTRACT Gasketed bolted flange pipe joints are always found prone to leakage during operating conditions. Therefore performance of a gasketed flange joint is very much dependent on the proper joint assembly with proper gasket, proper gasket seating stress and proper preloading in the bolts of a joint. For a gasketed flange joint, the two main concerns are the joint strength and the sealing capability. To investigate these, a detailed three dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis of a gasketed joint is carried out using gasket as a solid plate. Bolt scatter, bolt bending and bolt relaxation are concluded the main factors affecting the joint s performance. In addition, the importance of proper bolt tightening sequence, number of passes on joint performance are also presented. Summarizing, a dynamic mode in a gasketed joint is concluded, which is the main reason for its failure. INTRODUCTION Gasketed pipe flange joints are widely used in industry to connect pipe to pipe or pipe to equipment. These are used in a wide variety of different applications from water supply to high pressure and high temperature applications. In gasketed pipe joints, problem of bolt scatter, sealing and joint relaxation is observed and it is difficult to achieve uniform bolt stress during joint assembly as dynamic mode-of-load governs in the gasketed joint [,2]; hence resulting in poor sealing and joint strength. Some experimental and numerical investigations [3-] are performed to estimate bolt preload scatter due to the elastic interaction in the process of successive bolt tightening. These investigations are limited to the linear elastic material modeling. In addition, these do not consider bolt bending behaviour, flange rotation and flange stress variation. A detailed experimental studies are performed by Abid [,2] to highlight boltbending behaviour, flange stress variation and flange rotation with special emphasis on joint strength and sealing capabilities. In the present study; a detailed three dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis of a gasketed joint is carried out using gasket configuration as a solid plate. This is considered as gasket sealing portion is considered to be completely compressed at the seating stress load applied during joint tightening. Bolt scatter, bolt bending and bolt relaxation are concluded the main factors affecting the joint s performance. In addition, importance of proper bolt tightening sequence, number of passes on joint performance are also presented. Summarizing, a dynamic mode in a gasketed joint is concluded, which is the main reason for its failure. A Flange joint of four-inch 900 # class is used in the present study.
2 Muhammad Abid and Saad Hussain FEMS (2007) 3 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Modeling Abid et al [-6] investigated joint strength and sealing capability under combined loading for an axi-symmetric 3-D model where the preload of each bolt was thesame using a solid plate gasket. An angular portion (22. rotation of main profile or /6th part) of flange was modeled with a bolt hole at required position and then reflected symmetrically to complete 360 degree model. Gasket is modeled by rotating an area pattern about y-axis through 360 degrees in 6 numbers of volumes; it is possible to model half gasket with respect to thickness due to symmetry of geometry and loading conditions. Bolt is modeled by rotating an area pattern about axis defined by key points through 360 degrees in numbers of volumes and then remaining 7 bolts are generated by virtue of symmetry in z-axis; the objective pipe flange connection is tightened by eight bolts. Half portion of bolt was modeled due to plane symmetry of bolt. Only a small portion of pipe is modeled to reduce computational time. The resulted flanged joint model is shown in Figure a. Commercial FEA software ANSYS  is used during the analysis. A four inch 900# class, ANSI flange joint is selected for this study. ELEMENT SELECTION Structural Solid Elements Eight-nodded structural SOLID lower order isoperimetric element is used for modeling of flange, bolt, solid gasket and pipe. Contact Elements: Three-dimensional surface-to-surface CONTA7 contact elements, in combination with TARGE70 target elements are used between the flange face and gasket, bolt shank and flange hole, the top of the flange and the bottom of the bolt, to simulate contact distribution. No friction was employed between any of the surfaces, since the forces normal to the contact surfaces would be far greater than the shear forces, therefore, this is a reasonable assumption. Meshing Before volume mesh generation area mesh is created on one side of the flange, bolt and solid plate gasket by specified number of divisions and space ratio for each line. Hub-flange fillet and raised face areas of flange are fine meshed due to high stress concentration. The areas of bolt head which makes contact with flange top is meshed with small size elements for fine mesh. Unmeshed volume of flange is then filled with elements by sweeping the mesh from adjacent area through the volume. Complete 360-degree flange model mesh is then generated from the angular portion of flange by symmetry reflection for 3-D finite elements as shown in Figure b. For bolt and solid plate gasket volumetric mesh is generated by sweeping the mesh from an adjacent area through the volume [Figure c,d].
3 Muhammad Abid and Saad Hussain FEMS (2007) 3 (a) (b) (c) (d) Figure. (a) Full Gasketed Flanged Joint (360 Degree); Volumetric Mesh (b) Flange (c) Bolt (d) Gasket Material Properties Allowable stresses and material properties for flange, pipe, and bolt and symmetry plate  are given in Table. An elastoplastic material model is used consists of two sections each having a linear gradient. The first section, which models the elastic material, is valid until the yield stress is reached. The gradient of this section is the Young s Modulus of Elasticity. The second section which functions beyond the yield stress, and models the behavior of the plastic material, has a gradient of the plastic tangent modulus, which for this study was 0% of the Young s Modulus of Elasticity previously . Table : Material properties Parts As per code E (MPa) υ Allowable Flange/ Pipe ASTM A LF (2/3 rd σy) Bolt ASTM SA93 B Gasket (Solid ASTM A plate) (2/3 rd σy) Between flange, bolt head and gasket Contact generation To define contact pair between flange and bolt head, flange face areas are taken as target surface, while bottom areas of the bolt head are taken as contact surface, same real constant number are assigned to both the target and contact elements [Figure 2(a)]. For contact pair generation between flange bottom surface and gasket [Figure 2(b)], flange bottom surface areas are taken as target surface while gasket top surface areas are taken as contact surface. The contact condition is applied and the friction is taken into consideration at the interfaces between the flange and the gasket, the chosen friction coefficient is varied from 0. to 0.2 and its effects on interface stress distributions are examined. As a result, the effect of friction coefficient is found to be very small.
4 Muhammad Abid and Saad Hussain FEMS (2007) 3 6 Between bolt shank and bolt hole To prevent rigid motion of flange during bolt up, contact is defined between bolt shanks and the bolt holes in flange [Figure 2(c)], as there is a gap present between the two surfaces, so contact surface offset (CNOF) is set to adjust initial contact conditions before contact generation, a positive value.6mm (gap between the two surfaces) is specified to offset the entire contact surface towards the target surface, while a negative value is used to offset the contact surface away from the target surface. In this case, as flange undergoes rigid motion and penetrates into bolt shank, so bolt hole areas in flange are set as contact surface, while bolt shank areas are set to be target surface. (a) (b) (c) Figure 2: Contact pair between (a) flange face and bottom of bolt, (b) Flange bottom and Gasket, (c) bolt shank and bolthole Boundary Conditions The flange and the gasket are free to move in the axial and the radial direction, providing flange rotation and the exact behaviour of stress in flange, bolt, and gasket. Symmetry conditions are applied to gasket lower portion. Bolts are constrained in radial and tangential direction by taking UX, UZ equal to zero on the neutral axis line of bolt. An axial displacement is applied on the bottom area of the bolt shank to get required pre-stress [Figure 3(a)]. Bolt preloading To ensure a proper pre-load on the joint, the sequence in which bolts are tightened during a pass has a considerable importance in flange joint tightening as the joint relaxation mostly depends upon this factor. Bolts are tightened as per sequence- during the first four passes and as per sequence-2 during the last pass. In the present work, following two sequences are used
5 7 Muhammad Abid and Saad Hussain FEMS (2007) 3 Table 2: Target Stress calculated for each pass Applied Torque (Nm) Bolt preload (KN) Target Sequence-:,,3,7,2,6, and 8  [Figure 3(b)] Sequence-2:,2,3,,,6,7 and 8  [Figure 3(c)] Bolts are tightened one by one with the torque control method  i.e. each bolt is tightened to a target stress for a given pass. In the experimental work , author tightened the joint in increments of torque 20, 30, 00 and 0 Nm as per sequence-. Finally, all the bolts were tightened again to 0 Nm in one pass round as per sequence-2 to achieve uniform preload values. Target torques is converted to the bolt preloads for each pass. In simplified form, for lubricated fasteners the relationship of bolt preload achieved against a given torque with 0.2 as Factor of load loss due to friction is calculated as per . Average bolt stress is then calculated by dividing the bolt preload by the nominal area of bolt shank, the joint is tightened to the target stress for each pass calculated as above. For this purpose an optimization routine is developed and used in manner that each time UY is applied on the bolt, the resulting stress on mid node of bolt shank (close to the strain gauge location) is compared with the target stress and in case of difference the UY is incremented and comparison is done again. Similarly the UY is incremented till it reaches an optimum value for which the target stress in bolt is achieved. Table 2 shows the bolt preloads and target stress calculated above against the applied torques. (a) (b) (c) Figure 3: (a) Boundary Conditions; Bolt tightening (b) Sequence- (c) Sequence-2 The magnitude of the axial displacement, UY applied to the bottom area of the bolt shank to pre stress each bolt to the target stress, is given in Table 3. Maximum displacement applied is to achieve 30% of the yield of the bolt, although this is considered very low but it avoids gasket crushing, based on this, maximum recommended applied torque by the gasket suppliers is 0 Nm .
6 Muhammad Abid and Saad Hussain FEMS (2007) 3 8 Table 3: Magnitude of UY for each pass Pass Pass 2 Pass 3 Pass Pass B B B B B B B B RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Bolt stress variation with bolt up To determine bolt relaxation or bending behaviour during tightening the bolts as per sequence- and 2, four nodes are selected at an angle of 90 degree on shank of each bolt. B/ and B/2 represents inner and outer nodes respectively, B/3 and B/ represents side nodes and B/M represents the mid node on bolt shank. Similar nomenclature is used for all other bolts. For average bolt stress, mid node on the shank of the bolt is selected [Figure (a,b)] B B B3 B7 B2 B6 B B8 Bolt up Sequence (a) (b) (c) Figure : Nomenclature (a) Side nodes (b) Mid nodes; (c) Variation of Bolt stress of Bolt- (Pass) Figure c shows how the preload variation of bolt-, which is tightened first, varies with tightening other bolts during pass-. Bolt stress reduces when neighboring bolts, bolt-2 and bolt- 8. This is concluded due to the elastic interaction  of flange which deforms in axial direction during to the bolt load application, thus relaxing the bolt closest to the bolt being tightened, Figure (a) clarifies the phenomena of bolt-2 and bolt- relaxation when bolt-, bolt-3 and bolt- are tightened. Flange areas beneath bolt-2 and bolt- are in compression resulting in relaxation of
7 9 Muhammad Abid and Saad Hussain FEMS (2007) 3 bolt-2 and bolt-. Tightening all other bolts, bolt preload of bolt- increase and is concluded due to the flange opening phenomena, stretching the bolt in tension, Figure (b) shows how bolt- is made in tension when bolt- is tightened during Pass-. It is obvious that with bolt- tightening, flange areas beneath bolt- goes in compression due to the downward flange rotation whereas flange areas at the other end at 80 degree goes up, resulting bolt- in tension. Due to this axial stress of bolt- is increased. Similarly slight increase in stress is observed in case of tightening all other bolts except neighboring bolts. B B B3 B2 B B B (a) (b) Figure : Exaggerated Deformation Plots (a) Bolt Relaxation phenomena (b) Flange Opening Phenomena Figure 6: Individual Bolt up Effect (Pass-) Figure 6 shows the effect of tightening of one bolt on all other the bolts for st pass. It is clear that tightening any bolt relaxes its neighboring bolts while slight rise in stress is observed in the remaining bolts. At the end of st pass, i.e. when bolt-8 is being tightened, 27 to 38% preload relaxation is observed in bolt-3 and bolt-7 respectively. Bolt 2,,6 and 8 remains completely relaxed during tightening bolt 3, and bolt-7. Figure 7 represents the bolt preload variation with the bolt up procedure. For all the bolts, almost same stress variation pattern is observed for the first four passes. However a slight variation in the preloads is observed during the last pass as per sequence-2. This ensures more uniform preload distributions at the last pass. Maximum preload variations are observed for bolt-. For first four passes, the maximum stress at bolt- is observed when bolt-2 is tightened and minimum when bolt- is tightened. The preload variations in bolt- during bolt- tightening are 29 MPa for the st pass, 20 MPa for 2 nd, 7 MPa for 3 rd, MPa for th and MPa for the last pass. Bolt-8 remains relaxed till the end of first pass until it is tightened B B B3 B7 B2 B6 Bolt Num be r B B8 BUP8 BUP BUP6 BUP2 BUP 7 BUP 3 BUP BUP
8 Muhammad Abid and Saad Hussain FEMS (2007) B 20-B 20-B3 20-B7 20-B2 20-B6 20-B 20-B8 30-B 30-B 30-B3 30-B7 30-B2 30-B6 30-B 30-B8 00-B 00-B 00-B3 00-B7 00-B2 00-B6 00-B 00-B8 0-B 0-B 0-B3 0-B7 0-B2 0-B6 0-B 0-B8 0-B 0-B2 0-B3 0-B 0-B 0-B6 0-B7 0-B8 Bolt up Sequence B B B3 B7 B2 B6 B B8 Figure 7: Individual Bolt up Effect (Pass-) Bolt Bending Behaviour Bolt bending behaviour is studied along the four locations along inner, outer and side locations on each bolt shank at each pass end [Figure 8]. Almost similar bending behaviour is observed for all the eight bolts. Tensile stresses in all the bolts are observed at all bolt locations during the bolt up. The difference in axial stresses between the side nodes is negligible for all the bolts, indicating a slight sidewise bolt bending. However the difference in axial stress between the inner/outer nodes is obvious. Inner nodes for all the bolts remain in maximum tension while the outer nodes in minimum tension indicating bolt bending. Bending is increased remarkably with increasing torque and is the maximum during the last two passes. It is also observed that during tightening bolts at 90 and 80-degree locations to the target bolt, the difference in axial stresses between side nodes is little but tightening bolts other than at 90 and 80-degree locations, the difference becomes dominant; this might be due to flange displacement causing the bolt to bend sidewise. For example, axial stress variations at the four locations of bolt-8 during tightening each bolt are shown in Figure 9. Tightening the first four bolts (bolt-, 3, & 7) in a pass, the difference in the axial stress between side nodes is observed. However the difference is negligible with last four bolts tightening. 220 B B B3 B7 B2 B Pass No. Figure 8: Bolt bending behaviour of all 8 bolts in the joint
9 Muhammad Abid and Saad Hussain FEMS (2007) B8/ B8/2 B8/3 B8/ 20-B 20-B 20-B3 20-B7 20-B2 20-B6 20-B 20-B8 30-B 30-B 30-B3 30-B7 30-B2 30-B6 30-B 30-B8 00-B 00-B 00-B3 00-B7 00-B2 00-B6 00-B 00-B8 0-B 0-B 0-B3 0-B7 0-B2 0-B6 0-B 0-B8 0-B 0-B2 0-B3 0-B 0-B 0-B6 0-B7 0-B8 Bolt up Sequence Figure 9: Axial Stress Variation at the Four Locations of Bolt 8 Scatter in Bolt Stresses Preload of bolts,3, & 7 in the first four passes are less than the target stress. At the end of first pass, 27-38% preload relaxations are observed for bolt-3 and bolt-7 respectively. This is due to the reason that these bolts are tightened in advance of the neighboring two bolts, so tightening the last four bolts (bolts 2,,6 & 8), they undergoes relaxation. For example, Bolt-7 is found with minimum stress during the first four passes, reason is that tightening the last two bolts (bolt-6 & 8) in a given pass, bolt-7 is relaxed. Bolt- 2,,6 & 8 are found at stress level greater than the target stress. The reason being that these bolts are tightened as last four bolts in a pass, their neighboring bolts are tightened already, so there are greater stresses than the target stresses in these bolts. The maximum preload difference is observed between bolt-2 and bolt-7, because bolt-2 is first bolt after tightening first four bolts. Tightening bolts,6 & 8 its preload increases, whereas bolt-7 is last bolt in tightening first four bolts. Tightening bolt-6 and bolt-8 at the end of pass, it relaxes. Scatter is greater in bolts,3, & 7 as compared to bolts 2,,6 & 8 because the gasket is seated to its minimum thickness with st four bolts tightening. Figure 0a shows the bolt scatter obtained at the completion of each pass after tightening each bolt to the target stress. It is observed that the bolt scatter is the maximum for the st pass. For 2nd pass, scatter reduces and its magnitude remains almost the same for pass 3 and pass and is minimized/reduced at last pass with sequence-2. Figure 0b represents variations of bolt stresses at the completion of each pass. The preload variations are minimized during the pass-. This concludes the importance of last pass with clockwise tightening. Table illustrates difference between the maximum and the minimum axial bolt stress. Maximum preload difference at the last pass is only 9 MPa, ensuring uniform bolt stress distribution. CONCLUSIONS From the results of study it is concluded that the joint s integrity and sealing performance is very much dependent on the material properties of the gasket used. The joint with solid plate gasket experiences almost uniform bolt stress and bending behaviour and shows almost same variations at all passes. Bolt scatter, bolt bending and bolt relaxation are concluded the main factors affecting the joint s performance. To control these the use of proper bolt tightening sequence,
10 Muhammad Abid and Saad Hussain FEMS (2007) 3 2 number of passes is concluded important. Summarizing, a dynamic mode in a gasketed joint is concluded, which is the main reason for its failure. 200 Average Stress(MPa) B B B3 B7 B2 B6 B B8 PASS Bolt Num ber PASS PASS PASS 3 PASS Pass Number B B B3 B7 B2 B6 B B8 (a) (b) Figure 0: (a) Scatter in Bolt Stress at Completion of Each Pass, (b) Bolt stress variation at the end of each pass Table : Difference between Ma ximum and Minimum Bolt Stress Pass Number Maximum Difference (MPa) REFERENCES. M.Abid, D.H.Nash, (2006), Joint Relaxation Behavior of Gasketed Bolted Flanged Pipe Joint During Assembly. 2 nd WSEAS International Conference on Applied And Theoretical Mechanics (MECHANICS 06) pp Abid, M. (2000), Experimental and Analytical studies of conventional (gasketed) and unconventional (non gasketed) flanged pipe joints (with special emphasis on the engineering of joint strength and sealing ). PhD Thesis Toshimichi Fukuoka, Tomohiro Takaki, (200), Finite Element Simulation of Bolt-up Process of Pipe Flange Connections. Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, Vol., pp Toshimichi Fukuoka, Tomohiro Takaki, (2003), Finite Element Simulation of Bolt-up Process of Pipe Flange Connections With Spiral Wound Gasket. Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, Vol. 2, pp
11 3 Muhammad Abid and Saad Hussain FEMS (2007) 3. M.Abid, Baseer Ullah, (2006), 3-D Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Gasketed Flanged Joint under Combined Internal Pressure and Different Temperatures. Journal of Engineering Mechanics by ASCE, Vol. 33/2, pp M.Abid, D.H.Nash, (2006), Bolt Bending Behavior in a Bolted Flanged Pipe Joint: A Comparative Study. ASME International PVP conference, 2006, pp ANSYS Inc., (200), ANSYS Elements Manual, Seventh Edition. 8. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, American Society of Mech. Eng., New York, USA. 9. European Sealing Association, (998). Guidelines for safe seal usage - Flanges and Gaskets. Report No. ESA/FSA 009/98, pp. 0.
Proceedings of the 2nd WSEAS Int. Conference on Applied and Theoretical Mechanics, Venice, Italy, November 20-22, 2006 319 Joint relaxation behaviour of gasketed bolted flanged pipe joint during assembly
3-D Finite Element Analysis of Bolted Joint Using Helical Thread Model Shaik Gousia Yasmin 1, P. Punna Rao 2, Kondaiah Bommisetty 3 1 M.Tech(CAD/CAM), Nimra College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayawada,
The Stamina of Non-Gasketed, Flanged Pipe Connections M. Abid 1, D. H. Nash 1 and J. Webjorn 2 Most international design codes for pressure equipment, such as BS 5500, ASME VIII and the new European standard
Effect of Bolt Layout on the Mechanical Behavior of Four Bolted Shear Joint using Three Dimensional Finite Effect of Bolt Layout on the Mechanical Behavior of Four Bolted Shear Joint using Three Dimensional
Journal of Mechanics Engineering and Automation 5 (2015) 135-142 doi: 10.17265/2159-5275/2015.03.001 D DAVID PUBLISHING Analysis of Leakage in Bolted-Flanged Joints Using Contact Finite Element Analysis
SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL WORK OF SINGLE LAP BOLTED JOINT TESTED IN BENDING Aidy Ali *, Ting Wei Yao, Nuraini Abdul Aziz, Muhammad Yunin Hassan and Barkawi Sahari Received: Jun 13, 2007; Revised: Nov
IJSTE - International Journal of Science Technology & Engineering Volume 3 Issue 01 July 2016 ISSN (online): 2349-784X An Investigation of Optimal Pitch Selection to Reduce Self-Loosening of Threaded Fastener
Finite Element Analysis of Multi-Fastened Bolted Joint Connecting Composite Components in Aircraft Structures Dr. M Satyanarayana Gupta Professor & HoD, Dept. of Aeronautical Engineering MLRIT, Hyderabad.
Stress Analysis of Flanged Joint Using Finite Element Method Shivaji G. Chavan Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, Finolex Academy of Management and Technology, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra,
Fluid Sealing Association STANDARD FSA-MG-501-02 STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR INWARD BUCKLING OF SPIRAL-WOUND GASKETS 994 Old Eagle School Road, Suite 1019 Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087-1866 Phone: (610) 971-4850
Proceedings of PVP2002 2002 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference August 5-9, 2002, Vancouver, BC, Canada BOLT PRELOAD CONTROL FOR BOLTED FLANGE JOINT PVP2002-1094 Hirokazu TSUJI Department of Intelligent
18 CHAPTER 2 ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE AND DEFORMATION 2.1 INTRODUCTION Transformers are subjected to a variety of electrical, mechanical and thermal stresses during normal life time and they fail when these
International Conference on Information Sciences, Machinery, Materials and Energy (ICISMME 2015) Finite Element Modeling of Early Stage Self-loosening of Bolted Joints Haoliang Xu 1, a, Lihua Yang 1, b,,
Code No: R05310305 Set No. 1 III B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations, November 2008 DESIGN OF MACHINE MEMBERS-I ( Common to Mechanical Engineering and Production Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks:
AN INNOVATIVE FEA METHODOLOGY FOR MODELING FASTENERS MacArthur L. Stewart 1 1 Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering Technology Department, Eastern Michigan University, MI, USA Abstract Abstract Researchers
Dr. Waleed Khalid Jawed Metallurgy & Production Engineering Department, University of Technology /Baghdad Email: Drwaleed555@yahoo.com Sabih Salman Dawood Metallurgy & Production Engineering Department,
Modeling Multi-Bolted Systems Jerome Montgomery Siemens Power Generation Abstract Modeling a single bolt in a finite element analysis raises questions of how much complexity to include. But, modeling a
test condition: 20 C 44 bar load condition 1: 206 C 18 bar load condition 2: 210 C 26 bar bolts: G41400 1Cr-1/5Mo (A193 B7) 16 x M20 (EN ISO 4014) gasket: MPR GASKET 'SP' PETRO 4,0mm 363 x 323 x 4,5 mm
2007-08 Fastener Modeling for Joining Parts Modeled by Shell and Solid Elements Aleander Rutman, Chris Boshers Spirit AeroSystems Larry Pearce, John Parady MSC.Software Corporation 2007 Americas Virtual
A training course delivered at a company s facility by Matrix Engineering, an approved provider of Bolt Science Training Following is an outline of the material covered in the training course. Each person
The Behaviour Of Round Timber Sections Notched Over The Support On The Tension Face Justin Dewey Need for research In Queensland there are approximately 400 timber bridges still in use. Very little research
CH # 8 Screws, Fasteners, and the Design of Non-permanent Joints Department of Mechanical Engineering King Saud University Two rectangular metal pieces, the aim is to join them How this can be done? Function
Send Orders for Reprints to firstname.lastname@example.org The Open Construction and Building Technology Journal, 2015, 9, 1-6 1 Open Access Investigation of Shear Stiffness of Spine Bracing Systems in Selective
UNIVERSITY OF THESSALY MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Instructor: Dr. S.D. Chouliara e-mail: email@example.com MACHINE ELEMENTS Task 2 1. Let the bolt in the following Figure be made from cold-drawn steel.
Practical Bolting and Gasketing for the Non Standard-Flanged Joint Points of Discussion Introduction Joint Analysis Existing Flange Data Machining Procedure Bolting Radial Shear Available Gasket Styles
EFFECTS OF GEOMETRY ON MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF DOVETAIL CONNECTION Gi Young Jeong 1, Moon-Jae Park 2, KweonHwan Hwang 3, Joo-Saeng Park 2 ABSTRACT: The goal of this study is to analyze the effects of geometric
Screw fasteners Helical threads screws are an extremely important mechanical invention. It is the basis of power screws (which change angular motion to linear motion) and threaded fasteners such as bolts,
REVIEW OF THREADED FASTENERS LOOSENING AND ITS EFFECTS Mr. Kale Amol Scholar, M.E. Mechanical Design, V. V. P. Institute of Engineering and Technology, Solapur, India Prof. S. M. Shaikh A.P. Mechanical
International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering Research and Development (IJMPERD) ISSN 2249-6890 Vol. 3, Issue 4, Oct 2013, 1-10 TJPRC Pvt. Ltd. STUDY AND ANALYSIS OF ANGULAR TORQUING OF
International Journal of Engineering Research and Development ISSN: 2278-067X, Volume 1, Issue 3 (June 2012), PP.63-69 www.ijerd.com Structural and Thermal Analysis of Bolted joint of Coiler Drum in Steckel
Stress Analysis Of Bolted Joint Rashtrapal B. Teltumade Student of M.Tech (CAD/CAM), Rajiv Gandhi College Of Engineering, Research and Technology, Chandrapur(M.S.) Prof. Y. L. Yenarkar Associate Professor
Prying of a Large Span Base Plate Undergoing a Moment Load Applied by a Round Pier by Anastasia Wickeler A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Masters of Applied Science
Sriman Venkatesan Gary L. Kinzel 1 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University, 650 Ackerman Road, Suite 255, Columbus, OH 43201 Reduction of Stress Concentration
Fastener Quality Act Information Unbrako offers this link to the National Institute of Standards homepage on the Fastener Quality Act as an aide to individuals who need detailed and complete information
Threaded Fasteners 2 Bolted Joint Stiffnesses During bolt preload bolt is stretched members in grip are compressed When external load P is applied Bolt stretches further Members in grip uncompress some
Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications Mechanical Engineering 5-1-2006 Experimental and Finite Element Analysis of Preloaded Bolted Joints Under Impact Loading Brendan O'Toole University of Nevada,
A training course delivered at a company s facility by Matrix Engineering, an approved provider of Bolt Science Training Following is an outline of the material covered in the training course. Each person
Bolt Material Types and Grades 1- Bolts made of carbon steel and alloy steel: 4.6, 4.8, 5.6, 5.8, 6.8, 8.8, 10.9 Nuts made of carbon steel and alloy steel: 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 2- Bolts made of stainless
TUTORIAL 4: Combined Axial and Bending Problem In this tutorial you will learn how to draw a bar that has bends along its length and therefore will have both axial and bending stresses acting on cross-sections
Title: Sprocket and Hub Bolt Analysis for Mining and Mineral Processing Case Study Section: FEA Keywords: Bolted joints, bolted connections, slip critical bolt design, bolt preload, FEA of bolted joints,
Instruction Manual for installing Preloaded (HSFG) Bolting with TurnaSure DIRECT TENSION INDICATORS CE Marked EN 14399-9 TurnaSure LLC TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction... 1 Theory of Preloaded Bolting Assemblies...
16 TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS EFFECT OF HOLE CLEARANCE ON BOLT LOADS IN PULTRUDED GRP TENSION JOINTS Geoffrey J Turvey*, Pu Wang** *Lancaster University, **Schlumberger Keywords:
66 CHAPTER 5 FAULT DIAGNOSIS OF ROTATING SHAFT WITH SHAFT MISALIGNMENT 5.1 INTRODUCTION The problem of misalignment encountered in rotating machinery is of great concern to designers and maintenance engineers.
Live Loading Of Flange Joints To Prevent Leaks And Reduce Fugitive Emissions W.C.Offutt P.E. Bolted flange joint leaks have always been a problem. In the past, little was done to try to eliminate the problem.
An Alternative Formulation for Determining Stiffness of Members with Bolted Connections Mr. B. Routh Post Graduate Student Department of Civil Engineering National Institute of Technology Agartala Agartala,
Ann. Rep. Fac. Educ., Iwate Univ., Vol.51 No.2 (Feb.1992) 65 `73 Stress Analysis of T-Flange Bolted Joint with a Simplified Spring and Beam Model Minoru TANAKA*, Takashi SASAKI**, Satoru HOSHINO***, and
THE AERONAUTICAL JOURNAL JUNE 2010 VOLUME 114 NO 1156 A finite element stress analysis of aircraft bolted joints loaded in tension R.H. Oskouei email@example.com Department of Mechanical and
Instruction Manual for installing Preloaded (HSFG) Bolting with TurnaSure DIRECT TENSION INDICATORS TurnaSure LLC TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction... 1 Theory of Preloaded Bolting Assemblies... 2 Tightening
Missouri University of Science and Technology Scholars' Mine International Specialty Conference on Cold- Formed Steel Structures (2014) - 22nd International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures
LS-DYNA USED TO ANALYZE THE MANUFACTURING OF THIN WALLED CANS AUTHOR: Joachim Danckert Department of Production Aalborg University CORRESPONDENCE: Joachim Danckert Department of Production Fibigerstraede
Proceedings of the ASME 214 Pressure Vessels & Piping Conference PVP214 July 2-24, 214, Anaheim, California, USA PVP214-28685 Hydraulic Tensioner Assembly: Load Loss Factors and Target Stress Limits Warren
Proposed changes on NZS 3404 specified part-turn method of tensioning high strength friction grip (HSFG) property class 8.8 bolts S. Ramhormozian, G.C. Clifton Department of Civil Engineering, University
User Guide BOLTCALC Program Software for the Analysis of Bolted Joints problems BOLTCALC is produced by Bolt Science Limited Bolt Science provides analytical solutions to bolting problems www.boltscience.com
If you want to learn more about best practice machinery maintenance, or world class mechanical equipment maintenance and installation practices, follow the link to our Online Store and see the Training
Corso di Studi di Fabbricazione 3a Richiami dei processi tecnologici di trasformazione FUNDAMENTAL OF METAL FORMING 1 METAL FORMING Large group of manufacturing processes in which plastic deformation is
, July 3-5, 2013, London, U.K. Development of a Numerical Technique for the Static Analysis of Bolted Joints by the FEM D. Valladares, M. Carrera, L. Castejon, C. Martin Abstract The use of numerical simulation
38 CHAPTER 3 SHORT CIRCUIT WITHSTAND CAPABILITY OF POWER TRANSFORMERS 3.1 INTRODUCTION Addition of more generating capacity and interconnections to meet the ever increasing power demand are resulted in
Page 1 of 19 Page 2 of 19 Page 3 of 19 Page 4 of 19 Page 5 of 19 ASME BPVC.III.1.ND-2015 Page 6 of 19 ð15þ Figure ND-3325-1 Some Acceptable Types of Unstayed Flat Heads and Covers GENERAL NOTE: The illustrations
Fasteners Chapter 18 Material taken from Mott, 2003, Machine Elements in Mechanical Design Fastener A fastener is any device used to connect or join two or more components. The most common are threaded
Bolted Joint Design Introduction A most important factor is machine design, and structural design is the rigid fastening together of different components. This should include the following considerations..
1903191HA Bolts and Set Screws Are they interchangeable? Prof. Saman Fernando Centre for Sustainable Infrastructure SUT Introduction: This technical note discusses the definitions, standards and variations
AN, MS, NAS Bolts Most bolts used in aircraft structures are either (a) general-purpose, (b) internal-wrenching or (c) close-tolerance AN, NAS, or MS bolts. Design specifications are available in MIL-HDBK-5,
Mojtaba Samaei Mostafa Seifan Amir Afkar Amin Paykani ISSN 333-24 eissn 849-39 THE INFLUENCE OF GEOMETRIC PARAMETERS AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ADHESIVE ON STRESS ANALYSIS IN ADHESIVELY BONDED ALUMINUM
SENSORS FOR RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT WHITE PAPER #23 UNDERSTANDING TORQUE -ANGLE SIGNATURES OF BOLTED JOINTS THREADED FASTENER TORQUE-ANGLE CURVE ANALYSIS Written By Jeff Drumheller www.pcb.com firstname.lastname@example.org
GOOD AND TIGHT FOR THE RIGHT TIGHT, TIGHTER IS BETTER: A DESCRIPTION OF ASME MODERN FLANGE DESIGN Robert Williams WestermannBG August 21, 2017 Abstract The Design by Method approach found in the ASME Code
ERECTION & CONSTRUCTION High Strength Structural Bolting Author: Clark Hyland Affiliation: Steel Construction New Zealand Inc. Date: 24 th August 2007 Ref.: Key Words High Strength Bolts; Property Class
17610 15116 4 Hours / 100 Seat No. Instructions (1) All Questions are Compulsory. (2) Answer each next main Question on a new page. (3) Illustrate your answers with neat sketches wherever necessary. (4)
IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development Vol. 4, Issue 05, 2016 ISSN (online): 2321-0613 Static Analysis of VMC Spindle for Maximum Cutting Force Mahesh M. Ghadage 1 Prof. Anurag
Provläsningsexemplar / Preview INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16047 First edition 2005-02-01 Fasteners Torque/clamp force testing Éléments de fixation Essais couple/tension Reference number ISO 16047:2005(E)
Wear Analysis of Multi Point Milling Cutter using FEA Vikas Patidar 1, Prof. Kamlesh Gangrade 2, Dr. Suman Sharma 3 1 M. E Production Engineering and Engineering Design, Sagar Institute of Research & Technology,
Calculations per ABS Code along with ASME Sec. VIII Div.1 XXXX Grouping of Boilers and Pressure Vessels: PART 4 CHAPTER 4 SECTOIN 1 Table #2 and #3 >> Group II PART 4 CHAPTER 4 SECTOIN 1 Appendix 1 Rules
Roller Bearings With Tapered Bore High precision cylindrical roller bearings are bearings with a low cross section, high load carrying capacity and speed capability. These properties make them particularly
Bhagwan mahavir college of Engineering & Technology, Surat. Department of automobile Engineering Assignment Subject: Machine Design & Industrial Drafting B.E. Second year Instructions: 1. This set of tutorial
SENSORS FOR RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT WHITE PAPER #20 ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS OF THREADED FASTENER DESIGN AND ANALYSIS Written By Ralph S. Shoberg www.pcb.com email@example.com 800.828.8840 MTS SYSTEMS CORPORATION
Development of a New-Generation Dowel and Screw Combination 2014 International Crosstie and Fastening System Symposium Urbana, IL, USA Brandon Van Dyk, Christopher Kenyon, Artur Wroblewski, Dr. Michael
Behaviour of fibre reinforced composite beams with mechanical joints A.C. Manalo 1 *and H. Mutsuyoshi 2 1 Centre of Excellence in Engineered Fibre Composites (CEEFC), University of Southern Queensland,
KISSsoft Tutorial 004: Bolt selection and rating according to VDI guideline 2230 KISSsoft Tutorial: Bolt selection and rating according to VDI guideline 2230 For release 04/2006 Last modification 05.05.2006
An experimental investigation on crack paths and fatigue behaviour of riveted lap joints in aircraft fuselage A. Skorupa 1, M. Skorupa 1, T. Machniewicz 1, A. Korbel 1 1 AGH University of Science and Technology,
A training course delivered to Engineers and Designers, at a company s premises, on the technical aspects of bolting. Consulting Analysis Services Software Training An outline is presented below of the