# Wear Analysis of Multi Point Milling Cutter using FEA

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2 as a shape generating technique in the machining of hollow forms. Such hollow shapes are used in tools for presses, forges, and foundry work. Granger describes the selection of a milling cutter in terms of average chip thickness rather than in feed/tooth. This approach depends on a combination of factors including material, component design, and strength, rigidity of fixturing, and type and age of machine. 2. LITRETURE REVIEW According to [Myeong 1999] wear effect of cutting tool by integrated tool wear effect for tool path generation in flat face milling without modifying the cutting conditions, the objective was that, a tool path methodology is presented. The cutting forces calculated on the specific cutting pressure and i.e. tangential and radial specific constant. These cutting coefficients are parameters of cutting, cutting velocity, feed rate, tool diameter etc. The calculations of tool deflection by using FEM and cantilever beam model compared and integrate it in tool path compensation process. In FEM model flat face mill modeled with solid modeling system and analyzed it and in cantilever beam model measured the deflection by both the forces act on beam concentrated and distributed. Then compared with each other both FEM and cantilever beam model, the cantilever beam model approach is better than FEM and it further used to integrate the tool path compensation [Myeong, 1999].[1] According to [Rao, 2004] the modeling of tooth trajectory and process geometry in peripheral milling of curved surfaces and deals with variable curvature geometries and true tooth trajectories except constant geometry in past. Calculated feed rate per tooth, entry angle, exit angle, maximum undeformed chip thickness. By using these calculations model a true trajectory. True tooth tranjectory model the process geometry. Process variables vary significantly in both the cases whether it is convex or concave, selection of process parameter values like cutting speed, feed and depth of cut and in modeling, variables like, entry angle, exit angle, feed per tooth along cutter contact path, maximum chip thickness and surface error, and concluded that it is necessary to use a model which considers variation of work piece curvature. Also necessary to model a true trajectory [Rao, 2004].[2] According to [Altintas, 2000; Budak, 1994] two different methods for force analysis i.e. mechanistic and mechanics of cutting models, in first calculated cutting force coefficient which are calibrated for certain cutting condition. Three cutting force coefficient in the direction, radial, axial and tangential [Altintas, 2000; Budak, 1994].[3] According to [Armarego, 1969] the maximum torque and power also calculated after one revolution of tool. As the force coefficient affected by chip thickness, since it varies continuously, the average chip thickness is used. As a result this model is very time consuming and number of experiment were taken to find the cuttin forces. But it s ery hi h accuracy force prediction for most application. So mechanics of milling approach is used and may reduce the tests. In this technique measured tool angles, velocity and force equilibrium conditions [Armarego, 1969]. [4] According to [Budak, 2005] the modeling of tool done by cantilever beam model, segmented beam model, and finite elements modeling. After the tool is modeled, the clamping stiffness must be known for the total tool deflection [Rivin, 1999]. Then structural deformation model of the work piece determined by FEM. Controlling by feed rate scheduling, milling conditions. The results represented that the cutting deflection reduced by 65-78% for variable curved geometries [Budak, 2005]. [5] 3. MODELING OF MULTI POINT FACE MILLING CUTTER The cutter as per the specifications mentioned above has been modeled in Pro-E. The Fig (1) shows the various views of the modeled milling cutter. Figure 1: 3D-Model of Multi point milling cutter Data of milling cutter SR.NO. DIA SPEED POWER LOAD E E E E E Table 1: Data of milling cutter ISSN: Page 337

3 4. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF FACE MILLING CUTTER Define angular velocity on milling cutter: In order to perform a finite element analysis, it is necessary to determine the forces acting on the cutter. From the given conditions the load (Wt) acting on a single tooth may be represented as: 60,000 H Equation (1) Wt = π D n where H is the power, in kw, n is the speed, in rpm, and D is the diameter of the cutter. The stress calculation at the tip of the tooth of the cutter is estimated based on the Concept of gear tooth stresses. The stress at each speed is determined by [9]: 6W1ɭ Equation (2) σ= Ft² Figure 3: Define angular velocity on milling cutter Define fixed support on milling cutter: The maximum allowable stress at the tip of the cutter is determined as: Equation (3) StKL σallowable = KTKR Where as: St (AGMA bending strength) 44,000 psi KR (reliability factor) = 1 KL (life factor) = 1 4. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF MILLING CUTTER Analysis of Milling Cutter: the milling cutter is a symmetrical body hence the analysis is carried out considering a single tooth of the cutter. Here, the analysis is done for 5 different spindle speeds ranging from 50 to 2000 rpm. The loads at these speeds are calculated and the corresponding Stresses acting on the tooth are found. of tool is,, and and work piece materials are structural steel, mild steel, cast iron and aluminum alloy. Figure 4: Define fixed support on milling cutter CASE 1: For time=18 hrs, Here the speed is 50, 100, 500, used for wear calculation,,, and are cutting tool materials and structural steel, mild steel, cast iron and aluminum are work piece materials The following image represents FEA based stress and variations. Meshing of milling cutter: Meshing has been done in ANSYS 14.5 by auto mesh generation and nodes and elements generated respectively. Figure 5: Stress results at 2000 rpm speed of and structural steel Figure 2: Meshing of milling cutter CASE 2: For time=24 hrs, Here the speed is 50, 100, 500, used for wear calculation,,, and are cutting tool materials and structural steel, mild steel, cast iron and aluminum are work piece materials The following image represents FEA based stress and variations. ISSN: Page 338

4 Figure 6: Stress results at 1000 rpm speed of and structural steel CASE 3: For time=30 hrs, Here the speed is 50, 100, 500, used for wear calculation,,, and are cutting tool materials and structural steel, mild steel, cast iron and aluminum are work piece materials The following image represents FEA based stress and variations. Figure 9: Stress results at 50 rpm speed of and structural steel Figure 7: Stress results at 500 rpm speed of and structural steel CASE 4: For time=36 hrs, Here the speed is 50, 100, 500, used for wear calculation,,, and are cutting tool materials and structural steel, mild steel, cast iron and aluminum are work piece materials The following image represents FEA based stress and variations. Table 2: Represents the Result for Model, Theoretical Stresses by varying Speed and Load Figure 8: Stress results at 100 rpm speed of and structural steel CASE 5: For time=42 hrs, Here the speed is 50, 100, 500, used for wear calculation,,, and are cutting tool materials and structural steel, mild steel, cast iron and aluminum are work piece materials The following image represents FEA based stress and variations. 5. FLANK WEAR CALCULATIONS Researchers and scientist have given several equations and techniques for calculating wear from one of these technologies from archards equation, wear have been calculated analytically. According to Archard s equation V = kxsxl Where V = Change in volume due to wear L = Sliding distance S = Normal contact stress K = Wear per unit pressure Calculation of wear of milling tool for,, and material Volume of milling cutter teeth after deformation V = ½(axcxh) = ½(7x3x5) ISSN: Page 339

5 = 52.5 mm³ V = mm³ Details of the Flank wear calculations To determine the nature of the effect of flank wear on the individual cutting force harmonics, The cutting parameters used in the simulation are as follows for tool material. Sliding distance measured from milling machine for 18 hours is mm at the 50 rpm speed stress is MPA on structural steel work piece material. Putting all the values in Archard s equation V = kxsxl = kx3612.8x (teeth s are 12 and load is ) K= mm Figure 10: Flank wear at on face milling cutting tool 6. Results and Discussion Followings are the results of milling cutter tool with different tool materials and work piece materials, four work piece and four tool materials are used to analyze the wear rate at different time and speed. Following tables are representing the results of FEA and wear 18 hrs time period results Mild Cast Iron Aluminum Table 3: 18 hrs time results ISSN: Page 340

6 24 hrs time period results Mild Cast Iron Aluminum hrs time period results Table 4: 24 hrs time results Mild Cast Iron Aluminum Table 5: 30 hrs time results ISSN: Page 341

7 36 hrs time period results Mild Cast Iron Aluminum hrs time period results Table 6: 36 hrs time results Mild Cast Iron Aluminum Table 7: 42 hrs time results ISSN: Page 342

8 Figure 11 Speed v/s wear graph At 18 hrs time period on structural steel work piece material 7. CONCLUSION Followings are the results discussions occurred in finite element analysis. Stresses on face milling tool tooth found is low in steel as compared to steel, and steel, four work piece materials (structural steel, cast iron, mild steel and aluminum alloy 6061) were selected to perform finite element analysis and all the four materials of work piece is more accurate than other three steel. Wear on face milling cutting tool tooth found is low in steel as compared to steel, and steel, four work piece material were selected to perform finite element analysis and all the cases more accurate than other three steel. Wear width is more in steel, and steel as compared to, four work piece material were selected to perform finite element analysis and all the cases steel is more accurate than other three steel. tool life is more than steel, and steel tool at all the work piece materials. At high cutting speed the wear rate is higher and at low cutting speed wear rate is lower on all the tool materials. REFERENCES [1] Davies, R. Bonding cemented carbide milling cutter inserts. Proceedings of s Selection & Design, London, July, [2] Granger, C. Never too old to pick up milling tips. Machinery Prod, Eng. 1991,149(3797), 1617, [3] Smith, D. Reading the angles. Cutting Tool Ena. Oct ). 30, 32-33, 33. [4] Mohan, L. V. Profile Corrections for relieving tool for form relieved milling cutters. Proceedings of the 12th All India Machine Tool Design and Research Conference 1986, Dec. l&12, pp [5] Agullo-Bathe, J., Cardona-Foix, S. and Vinas-Sanz, C. On the design of milling cutters or grinding wheels for twist drill manufacture: A CAD approach. Proceedings of the 25th International Machine Tool Design and Research Conference, April 22-24, 1985, pp ISSN: Page 343

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