# MECH 344/M Machine Element Design

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1 1 MECH 344/M Machine Element Design Time: M 14:45-17:30 Lecture 6

2 Contents of today's lecture

3 Introduction Multitude of fasteners are available raging from nuts and bots to different varieties. Only a small sample is shown here Limit our discussion to design and selection of conventional fasteners (screws, nuts & bolts). Primarily used in machine design applications and lot of stresses are encountered. Used primarily for holding, or moving (lead screw) Loads are tensile, or shear or both The economic implications are tremendous. the airframe of a large jet aircraft has approximately 2.4 Million fasteners costing about \$750,000 in 1978 dollars.

4 Figure 10.1 illustrates the basic arrangement of a helical thread wound around a cylinder, as used on screw-type fasteners, power screws, and worms. Pitch, lead, lead angle, and hand-of-thread are defined by the illustrations. Virtually all bolts and screws have a single thread, but worms and power screws sometimes have double, triple, and even quadruple threads. Unless otherwise noted, all threads are assumed to be right-hand.

5 Figure 10.2 shows the standard geometry of screw threads used on fasteners. This is basically the same for both Unified (inch) and ISO (metric) threads. Standard sizes for the two systems are given in Tables 10.1 and The pitch diameter, d p, is the diameter of a cylinder on a perfect thread where the width of the thread and groove are equal. The stress area tabulated is based on the average of the pitch and root diameters. This is the area used for P/A stress calculations. It approximates the smallest possible fracture area, considering the presence of the helical thread.

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9 Standard form of power screws Acme is the oldest. Acme stub is easier to heat treat Square gives more efficiency but 0 angle difficult Modified square with 5 is commonly used Buttress is used to resist large axial force in one direction For power screws with multiple threads, the number of threads per inch is defined as the reciprocal of the pitch, not the reciprocal of the lead.

10 An example: let's say you have a 1/2"-8 X 6' with 2 starts. The 1/2" is the diameter and the 8 is the threads per inch, but the difference here is the number of starts. The actual "turns per inch" is actually 4, not 8.

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12 Nut turned with applied torque of T lifts load P To compensate for the friction between nut and the base, thrust bearings are used Another application is shown below For accurate positioning of the nut, based on rotation of the lead screw by servomotor

13 shaded member connected to the handle rotates, and that a ball thrust bearing transfers the axial force from the rotating to a nonrotating member. All 3 jacks being same, Figure 10.5c for determining the torque, Fa, that must be applied to the nut in order to lift a given weight. Turning the nut in Figure 10.5c forces each portion of the nut thread to climb an inclined plane.

14 Turning the nut forces each portion of the nut thread to climb an inclined plane. If a full turn were developed, a triangle would be formed, illustrating tan A segment of the nut is represented by the small block acted upon by load w, normal force n, friction force fn, and tangential force q. force q times d m /2 represents the torque applied to the nut segment.

15 Summing the tangential forces. Summing the axial forces With torque for q being q(d m /2) and q, n, w are acting on a small segment of the nut, integrating this to full nut and changing the notations to Q, N, W, the torque T required to lift a load W is

16 Since L is more commonly referred to in threads than, dividing the numerator and denominator by cos and then substituting L/ dm for tan. Since a bearing or thrust washer (dia d c ) is used friction adds to the torque required If the coefficient of friction of the collar washer or bearing is f c then For a square thread, this simplifies to

17 For lowering the load, the directions of q and fn are reversed giving For a square thread, this simplifies to f c can be (because very low) neglected if ball or roller thrust bearing is used and the second portion of the term does not come into play f & f c can vary between.08 to.2 if plain thrust collar is used (if roller bearing used, f c can be neglected). This range includes both starting and running friction, with starting friction being 1 and 1/3 rd higher than running friction

18 Self locking implies positive torque to lower the load Neglecting collar friction, screw can be self locking if T>=0 For square threads

19 Work output divided by work input is the efficiency Work output in 1 revolution is load times distance which is WL Work input is the torque in one revolution which is 2 T So efficiency e = WL/ 2 T For a square thread Simplified to for square threads

20 As f increases; e lowers Efficiency tends to 0 as lead angle approaches 0, as load does not move much in the vertical plane Efficiency tends to 0 as lead angle approaches 90, as the plane more perpendicular and requires a lot of torque to move the object even slightly Ball bearing screws reduce f

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26 For power screws and threaded fasteners the stress are Torsion while tightening where d is root diameter, d r, obtained from Figure 10.4 (for power screws) or Tables 10.1 and 10.2 (for threaded fasteners). If the screw or bolt is hollow, where d i represents the inside diameter. Where collar friction is negligible, the torque transmitted through a power screw is the full applied torque. With threaded fasteners, the equivalent of substantial collar friction is normally present, in which case it is customary to assume that the torque transmitted through the threaded section is approximately half the wrench torque.

27 Power screws are subjected to direct P/A tensile and compressive stresses; threaded fasteners are normally subjected only to tension. The effective area for fasteners is the tensile stress area A t (Table 10.1 & 10.2). For power screws axial stresses are not critical; so A t, approximated based on d r Threaded fasteners should always have enough ductility to permit local yielding at thread roots without damage. So non uniform load distribution is ok for static stresses. But not fatigue. The combination of the stresses can be the distortion energy theory used as a criterion for yielding. With threaded fasteners, it is normal for some yielding to occur at the thread roots during initial tightening.

28 Figure shows force flow through bolt & nut Compression between the threads exists at threads numbered 1, 2, and 3. This type of direct compression is often called bearing, and the area used for P/A stress calculation is the projected area that, for each thread, is (d 2 - d i2 )/4. The number of threads in contact is seen from the figure to be t/p. Diameter d i is the minor diameter of the internal thread. For threaded fasteners this can be approximated by d r, (Table 10.1)

29 Equation gives an average value of bearing stress. Not uniformly distributed due to threads bending and manufacturing variations from the theoretical geometry. Figure reveals two important factors causing thread 1 to carry more than its share of the load: 1. The load is shared among the 3 threads as redundant load-carrying members. The shortest (and stiffest) path is through The applied load causes the threaded portion of the bolt to be in tension, whereas the mating portion of the nut is in compression. The resulting deflections slightly increase bolt pitch and decrease nut pitch. This tends to relieve the pressure on threads 2 and 3.

31 With reference to Figure 10.11, if the nut is weaker than bolt in shear (common), a sufficient overload would strip the nut threads along cylindrical surface A. If the bolt is weaker in shear, the failure surface would be B. From the thread geometry shown in Figure 10.2, the shear area is = d (0.75t), where d is the diameter of the shear fracture surface.

32 With reference to Figure 10.11, if the nut is weaker than bolt in shear (common), a sufficient overload would strip the nut threads along cylindrical surface A. If the bolt is weaker in shear, the failure surface would be B. From the thread geometry shown in Figure 10.2, the shear area is = d (0.75t), where d is the diameter of the shear fracture surface. The nut thickness (or depth of engagement in a tapped hole) needed to provide a balance between bolt tensile strength and thread stripping strength if bolt and nut strength are same. The bolt tensile force required to yield the entire threaded cross section is d is the major dia of the thread

33 With reference to Figure 10.11, the bolt tensile load required to yield the entire thread-stripping failure surface of the nut based on parabolic stress distribution is where t is the nut thickness. F bolt = F nut indicates bolt tensile and threadstripping strengths are balanced when the nut thickness is approximately Nuts are usually softer than bolts to allow slight yielding of top thread(s) and thus distribute the load more uniformly, the standard nut thickness is approximately t = 7/8 d or.875d

34 Bolts are sometimes subjected to transverse shear loading fig (4.3, 4.4) Shear loads are transmitted by friction, where friction load-carrying capacity is = bolt tension X clamped interface coeff of friction For the double shear, the friction load capacity would be twice this amount. Sometimes bolts are required to provide precise alignment of mating members and are made with a pilot surface as shown in Figure

35 Long power screws loaded in compression must be designed for buckling. It is important first to make sure that it is necessary to subject the screws to compression or a simple redesign allows it to be in tension Often, a simple redesign permits the screws to be in tension. For example, Figure 10.14a shows a press with the screws in compression. Figure 10.14b shows an alternative design with the screws in tension. The second is obviously to be preferred.

36 Classified based on intended use, thread type, head style, strength Based on intended use Blots - Used with a nut for assembly Machine screws - Or cap screw, threads into a tapped hole ANSI definition - bolt is stationary while nut engages. But screw engages in a tapped hole Studs - Headless fastener threaded on both ends

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38 Need for screws that are resistant to tampering by unauthorized personnel An almost endless number of special threaded fastener designs continue to appear. Some are specially designed for a specific application. Others embody proprietary features that appeal to a segment of the fastener market. Not only is ingenuity required to devise better threaded fasteners, but also to use them to best advantage in the design of a product.

39 Mostly made of steel Specifications standardized as in tables 10.4 and 10.5 Aluminum is also common Rolled threads are stronger than cut threads and in case of higher loads, rolled threads should be used

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42 Screws and nut-bolt assemblies should ideally be tightened with an initial tensile force F i nearly = full proof load, which is the maximum tensile force that does not produce a normally measurable permanent set. (This is < the tensile force producing a 0.2 percent offset elongation associated with S y ) On this basis initial tensions are specified in accordance with the equation where A t is the tensile stress area of the thread, S p is the proof strength of the material (Tables 10.4 and 10.5), and K i is a constant (0.75 to 1.0). For ordinary applications involving static loading, let K i 0.9, or 1. For loads tending to separate rigid members, the bolt load cannot be increased very much unless the members do actually separate, and the higher the initial bolt tension, the less likely the members are to separate. 2. For loads tending to shear the bolt, the higher the initial tension the greater the friction forces resisting the relative motion in shear.

43 Tightening of a imparts torsional stress to bolt, along with the initial tensile stress. During initial use, the bolt usually unwinds very slightly, relieving most of torsion.

44 the initial tension that can be achieved with a given bolt the amount of elongation that can be achieved before over tightening fractures the bolt. Accurate determination of bolt tensile load during tightening is difficult (micrometer or drilling and strain guage) The most common method of tightening a bolt a measured amount is probably to use a torque wrench. Accuracy limited. Normal torque wrench controls initial tension within ±30%; with special care, ± 15% is reasonable.

45 An equation relating torque to initial tension can be from Eq by recognizing that load W of a screw jack as to F i for a bolt, and that collar friction in the jack as friction on the flat surface of the nut. When we use 0.15 for both f and f c, in Eq. 10.4, for standard screw threads, where d is the nominal major diameter of the thread. This is approximate relationship, on average conditions of thread friction. A common way to tighten a screw or nut is While the tension increases with d 2 and torsion with d 3 the F i is dependent on d; So small bolts twist and large bolts remain undertightened When rigid parts are bolted, the elastic deflection of the parts <.01mm. Should the loading cause any creep, much of the bolt initial tension will be lost. 5% lost in first few minutes and another 5% lost in next few weeks

46 The following are among the factors influencing whether or not threads loosen. 1. The greater the helix angle (i.e., the greater the slope of the inclined plane), the greater the loosening tendency. Thus, coarse threads tend to loosen more easily than fine threads. 2. The greater the initial tightening, the greater the frictional force that must be overcome to initiate loosening. 3. Soft or rough clamping surfaces tend to promote slight plastic flow which decreases the initial tightening tension and thus promotes loosening. 4. Surface treatments and conditions that tend to increase the friction coefficient provide increased resistance to loosening. The problem of thread loosening has resulted in numerous and ingenious special designs and design modifications, and it continues to challenge the engineer to find effective and inexpensive solutions.

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49 Bolts are typically used to hold parts together against to forces that pull, or slide Figure 10.24a shows the general case with external force F e tending to separate Figure 10.24b shows a portion of this assembly as a free body. In this figure the nut has been tightened, but the external force has not yet been applied. The bolt axial load F b = clamping force F c = initial tightening force F i. Figure 10.24c shows after F e has been applied. Equilibrium considerations require one or both of the following: 1. an increase in F b 2. a decrease in F c. The relative magnitudes of the changes in F b and F c depend on the relative elasticities involved.

50 Figure 10.25a shows a plate bolted on a pressure vessel with soft gasket so soft that the other parts can be considered infinitely rigid in comparison. When the nut is tightened to produce initial force F i, the rubber gasket compresses; the bolt elongates negligibly. Figures 10.25b and 10.25c show details of the bolt and the clamped surfaces. Note the distance defined as the grip g. On initial tightening, F b = F c = F i. Figure 10.25d shows the change in F b and F c as separating load F e is applied. The elastic stretch of the bolt caused by F e is so small. The clamping force F c does not diminish and the entire load F e goes to increasing bolt tension

51 Figure illustrates the clamped members are rigid with precision-ground mating surfaces and no gasket, The bolt has a center portion made of rubber. Here the initial tightening stretches the bolt; it does not significantly compress the clamped members. (Sealing accomplished by a rubber O-ring). Figure 10.26d shows F e is balanced by reduced F c without increase in F b. The only way the tension in the rubber bolt can be increased is to increase its length, and this cannot happen without an external force great enough to separate physically the mating clamped surfaces. (Note also that as long as the mating surfaces remain in contact, the sealing of the O-ring is undiminished.)

52 The extreme cases can be only approximated. In the realistic case in which both the bolt and the clamped members have applicable stiffness. Joint tightening both elongates the bolt and compresses the clamped members. When F e is applied, the bolt and clamped members elongate by (g + for both) From Figure the F e = increased F b + the decreased F c, or Where k b and k c are spring constants of bolt and clamped material. So substituting From figures and 10.26

53 1. When the external load is sufficient to bring the F c to zero (A), F b = F e. So figure shows F c = 0 and F b = F e for F e in excess of A. 2. When F e is alternately dynamic, fluctuations of F b and F c can be found from figure

54 We need k b and k c. From the basic axial deflection ( = PL/AE) and for spring rate (k = P/ ) where the grip g represents the effective length for both. Two difficulties that commonly arise in estimating k c are 1. The clamped members may consist of a stack of different materials, representing springs in series. For this case, 2. The effective CSA of the clamped members is not easy to determine. ( irregular shapes, or if they extend a substantial distance from the bolt axis) An empirical procedure sometimes used to estimate A c is illustrated in Figure. One method for estimating the effective area of clamped members (for calculating k c ). Effective area A c is approximately equal to the average area of the dark grey section.

55 An effective experimental procedure for determining the ratio of k b and k c for a given joint is to use a bolt equipped with an electric-resistance strain gage or to monitor bolt length ultrasonically. This permits a direct measurement of F b both before and after F e is applied. Some handbooks contain rough estimates of the ratio k c /k b for various general types of gasketed and ungasketed joints. For a typical ungasketed joint, k c is sometimes taken as 3 k b, but with careful joint design k c = 6k b.

56 The primary loading applied to bolts is tensile, shear, or a combination of the two. Some bending is usually present because the clamped surfaces are not exactly parallel to each other and perpendicular to the bolt axis (Figure 10.29a) and because the loaded members are somewhat deflected (Figure 10.29b). Most times screws and bolts are selected rather arbitrarily. Such is the case with noncritical applications with small loads Almost any size would do, including sizes considerably smaller than the ones used. Selection is a matter of judgment, based on factors such as appearance, ease of handling and assembly, and cost. Even in bolt applications with known significant loads, larger bolts than necessary are used because a smaller size doesn t look right, and the cost penalty of using the larger bolts is minimal.

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