3 AMS (a) and (b) revised

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2 FLNG NSTRUCTONS PLEASE FLE MMEDATELY RULES #553 PARTS PAGES CHANGES 3 AMS (a) and (b) revised 4 No change (d) revised (f) tt 6a add General information re: new Metric Groundwave Field Strength Curves 6b add Sample Field Strength Measurement Form f used, may be reproduced Graphs Remove old graphs through 9 and replace with new graphs through 9a Note - The enclosed groundwave curves become effective on February, 987 and all studies filed with FCC must use the new curves Remove blue page filed opposite page 7 of Part 73 TVS, also t! tt t f " 2a of Part 73H Please place this instruction sheet in front of Rules book preceding all other material f for some last sheet found to be missing, us, it, with aoendmentsnpillred be mailed immediately O /20/87 BROADCAST SERVCE BUREAU Post Office Box 5974 Bethesda, MD 2084 (30)

3 FLNG NSTRUCTONS PLEASE FLE MMEDATELY RULES # 552 PARTS PAGES CHANGES (a) 2nd and 4th sentence deleted; note revised; (b) revised; old (c)() now (e) and now on new page 72aa; (c)(2) now (c)() and revised; (c)(3) now (c)(2 72a 0465note added to (c)(2); (c)(4) now (c)(3); (d)() and (d)(3) revised 72aa O465(d)(4) added; (e) revised 8 52 revised a24 no change was old page (e)(3) revised (a) last sentence added (b) and (c) paragraph:; numbers changed 76a 2939(a)() paragraph: numbers changed (c) revised 79aa 2977(d) added Remove blue page opposite f t t a87a 200() " " (a) and (c) revised 73AM 27a Should this page be missing, please file No change a30a 7338(b) note added (f) 2nd line, number (6) deleted 73H (c) revised 9a 73225(d) revised, remove blue page opposite 2a 73660(b) and (d) last sentence added 2aV 73690(b)() and (2) deleted, (b)(3),(4) and (5) now (b)(), (2) and (3) 2V 73690(e) revised, remove blue page opposite, docket # dated 7/4/ d 7493(b)(3)(ii) deleted; (d) note 3 added Please place this instruction sheet in front of Rules book preceding all other material f for some reason the last preceding numbered sheet is found to be missing, inform us, and it, with amendments will be mailed immediately /28/86 BROADCAST SERVCE BUREAU Post Office Box 5974 Bethesda, MD 2084 (30)

4 AM BROADCAST TECHNCAL STANDARDS 738 ntroduction 8382 Engineering;=standards of allocation 7383 Groundwave'signals 7384 Groundwave field strenght charts 7385 Computation of interference and overlap 7386 Establishment of effective field at one mile 7388 Location of transmitters 7389 Minimum antenna heights or field strength requirements 7390 Engineering charts AM Standard --

5 7352(a) () - (iii) S TA7A D BPOAPCAST TF C7NCAL STANDARDS \- Y392 End ineeri n7 standards of allocation (a) Sections 732 to 7337 inclusive, 7overn allocation of facilities in the W broadcast hand of 535 to 605 kc/s Section 732 establishes three classes of channels in this band, namely, clear channels, regional channels for the use of tedium powered stations, and local channels for the use of low -powered stations The classes and rower of A'' broadcast stations which will be assi7ned to the various channels are set forth in 732 the classification of the AM broadcast stations are as follows: () Class stations are dominant stations operating on clear channels with powers of not less than 0 or more than 50 kw These stations are designed to render primary and secondary service over an extended area and at relatively long distances, hence have their primary service areas free from objectionalbe interference from other stations on the same and adjacent channels and secondary service areas free from objectionable interference from stations on the same channels, (The secondary service area of a Class station is not protected from adjacent channel interference However, it it is desired to make a determination of the area in which adjacent channel groundwave interference (Diaz removed) to sky - wave service exists, it may be considered as the area where the ratio of the desired 50% skywave of the Class station to the undesired groundwave of a station 0 kc removed is to 4) From an engineering point of view, Clas: s a icr may be divided into 3 groups and, hereafter, for the purpose of convenení:e, the 3 groups of Class stations will be termed Class with the assignment to channels allocated by 7325(a) or (b) (i) The Class station in Group -A are those assigned to the -A, -B or -N in accordance channels allocated by Section 7325(a) The power of these stations shall be 50kW The Class stations in this group are afforded protection as follows: (A) DAYTME: To the 0 mv/n groundwave contour from stations on the same channel, and to the 05 mv/m groundwave contour from stations on adjacent channels (B) NGHTTME, To the 05 mv/m 50% skywave contour from stations on the same channel, and to the 05 mv/m groundwave contour from stations on adjacent channels (ii) The Class stations in group -B are those assigned to the channels allocated by 7325(b), on which duplicate operation is permitted, that is, other Class or Class stations operating unlimited time may be assigned to such channels During nightime hours in operation a Class -N station is protected to the 00uV/m 50 percent skywave contour and a Class ' -B -station of this group is protected to the 500uV/m 50 percent skywave contour During daytime hours of operation Class -B and Class -N stations are protected to the 00uV/m groundwave contour from stations on the same channel Protection in given to the 500uV/m groundwave contour from stations on adjacent channels for both dap and nightime operation The operating powers of Class stations on these frequencies shall be not less than 0kw nor more than 50 kw (iii) n Alaska there is a third group of Classl stations, designated as Class-N These station operate on channels allocated by 7325(a) or Section 7325(b) with a minimum power of 0 kw and antenna efficiency of 75 mv/m for kw Stations operating on these channels in Alaska which have not been designated as Class -N stations in response to licensee request will continue to be condidered as Class stations During daytime hours a Class (""'\-N station receives protection to the 00 uv/m groundwave contour from co- '\,/ channel stations During nithttime hours a Class -N station receives protection to the 00uV/m 50 percent skywave contour from cochannel stations Protection is given to the 500 uv/m groundwave contour from stations on adjacent channels for both day and nighttime operation 6/27/ár 73 AM STANDARD - -

6 7382(a)(iii) note - (3) 'Note: n the Report and Order in mm Docket No , the Commission designated 5 stations operating on US clear channels as Class -N stations Eleven of these stations already have Class -N facilities and are to be protected accordingly Permanent designation of the other four stations as Class -N is conditioned on their constructing minimum Class -N facilities no later than December 3, 989 During this period, until such facilities are obtained, temporary designation as Class -N stations shall be applied and calculations involving these stations should be based on existing facilities but with an assumed power of 0 kw Therefdre, these stations are to be protected based on their actual Class -N facilities f any of these stations does not obtain Class -N facilities in the period specified, it is to be protected as a Class station based on its actual facilities These four stations may increase power to 0kW without regard to the impact on Class co -channel stations However, increases by these stations beyond 0kW (or by existing Class -N stations beyond their current power level) are subject to applicable protection requirements for co -channel Classul stations Other stations not on the original list but which meet applicable requirements may obtain Class -N status by seeking such designation from the Commission f a power increase or other change in facilities bya station not on the original list is required to obtain minimum -Class -N facilities, any such application shall meet the interference protection requirements applicable to a Class -N proposal on the channel (2) Class stations are secondary to stations which operate on clear channels with powers not less than 250 watts nor more than 50 kw, except that Class -A stations shall not operate nighttime with less than 0 kw, and Class -B stations coming within Section 732(a)(2)(ii)(C) not operate with nighttime shall power exceeding kw Class stations are required to use directional antennas or other means to avoid causing interference within the normally protected service areas of Class stations or other Class stations (For special rules concerning Class -A stations, see Section 7322) These stations normally render primary service only, the area of which depends on the geographical location, power, and frequency This may be relatively large but is limited by an subject to such interference as may be received from Class stations However, it is recommended that Class stations be so located that the interference received from other stations will not limit the service area to greater than 25 mv/m groundwave contour nighttime and 05 mv/m groundwave contour daytime, which are the values for the mutual protection of this class of stations with other stations of the same class There are three exceptions: (i) Class -A stations are normally protected at night to the limit imposed by the co -channel Class -A station; (ii) Class -B stations coming within Section 732(a)(2)(ii)(D) are normally protected at night to the limitl irgnosed by the' co-channel Class -A or Class -N station or the higher limit, i -any, imposed by previously authorized facilities of other stations: and (iii) Class -B stations coming within Section 732(a)(2)(ii)(C) are normally protected at nighttime to their 0mV/m groundwave contour, or the higher limit, if any, imposed by previously authorized facilities of other stations (3) Class stations operate on regional channels and normally render primar service to the larger cities and the rural area contiguous thereto They operate with powers not less_than 05kW and not more than 5kW and are normally protected to the 2500uV/m groundwave contour nighttime and the 500uV/m groundwaver contour daytime; provided, that Class V stations in the 48 conterminous United States may, during nighttime hours, treat all stations assigned in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Roco and the US Virgin slands on 230, 240, 340, 400, 450 and 490kHz as if they were Class V stations 3/3/86 73AMS -2-

7 7382(a)(3) note () - (a)(4) note Note - Class stations in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Roco and The US Virgin slands are permitted a maximum power of 50kW day or night Use of such higher power is subject to amendment of the US/Mexican Agreement and final disposition of NARBA Pending such amendment, the maximum power permitted stations in these localities may not exceed + 5kW Stations in the above -names places that are reclassified from, Class V to Class stations under 7326(b) shall not be authorized to increase power to levels that, under the RSS procedure and the 50% exclusion rule in 7382(o), would increase the nighttime interferencefree limit of cochannel Class V stations in the conterminous U S Note 2 - Stations that were classified as Class -B, before the distinctions between Class -A and Class -B stations were removed, shall -insofar as AM applications filed before March 0, 986 are concerned --remain normally protected during nighttime hours to their 4000 uv/m contour (4) Class V stations operate on local channels, normally rendering primary service or rural areas, contiguous thereto, with powers not less than 025 kw, nor more than kw, except as provided in 732(c) () (for restrictions on daytime power of stations near the Mexican border see Note 2 in 732 Such stations are normally protected to the 05 mvm contour daytime On local channels the separation required for the daytime protection shall also determine the nightime seperation Where directional antennas are employed daytime by Class V (2)stations operating with more than 025 kw power, the seperation required shall in no case be less than those necessary to afford protection, assuming nondirectional operation with 025 kw n no case will 025 kw or greater nightime power be authorized to a station unable to operate nondirectionally at 025 kw in the daytime The actual nightime limitation will be calculated NOTE: The following approximate method may be used t is based on the assumption of 025 wavelength antenna height and 88 my/r at one mile effective field for 250 watts power, using the 0% skywave field intensity curve of Figure 2 of 7390 Zones defined by circles of various radii specified below are drawn about the desired station and the interfering 0% skywave signal from each station in a given zone is considered to be the value tabulated below The effective interfering; 0% skywave signal is taken to be the RSS value of all signals originating within these zones (Stations beyond 500 miles are not considered) nner Radius Outer Radius 0 percent skywave signal (mv/m) ZONE A B c D E F G 45o Where the power of the interfering station is not 250 watts, the 0% skyww 'ig;- nal should be adjusted by the square root of the ratio of the power to 250 waft: 3/3/86 73AMS -3-

8 ' 7382(b) - (f) (b) The class of any station is determined by the channel assignment, -the power, and the field intensity contour to which it renders service free of interference!:'rem other stations as determined by these standards No station will be permitted 'c change to a class normally protected to a contour of less intensity than the cont r to which the station actually renders interference -free service Any station of a class normally protected to a contour of less intensity than that to which :the station actually render interference -free service, will be automaticy reclaesified according to the class normally protected, 'the minimum consistent with ti: power and channel assignment Likewise, any station to which the interference is reduced so that, service is rendered to a contour normally protected for a higher class will he automatically changed 'to that class if consistent with its power and channel assignment (c) Reserved (d) When a station is already limited by interference from other stations to a contour of higher value than that normally protected for its class, this ccntour shall be the established standard for such station with respect to interference from all other stations (e) The several classes of broadcast stations have in generalthree service areas; namely, primary, secondary, and intermittent service area (See '73 for the definitions of primary, secondary, and intermittent service areas) Class stations render service to all three service areas Class stations render service to a primary area but the secondary and intermittent service areas may be materially limited or destroyed due to interference from ether stations depending on the station assignments involved Class and V stations usually have only primary service areas as interference from other stations generally prevents any'secondary service and may limit the intermittent service area However, complete intermittent service may be obtained in many cases depending on the station assignments involved (f) The groundwave signal strength required to render primary service is 2 nv/m for communities with populations of 2,500 or more; and 05 mv/m for communities with populations of less then 2,500 See 7384 for curves showing distance to various groundwav field strength contours for different frequencies and ground conductivities and also see 7383, "Groundwave Signals" 3/3/86 73AMS -4-

9 32(g) (k) (;) The FCC will authorize the directional antenna for a Class V station for daytime operation only with power in excess of 025 k`j n computing the degrees of protection which such antenna will aford, the radiation produced by this antenna will be assumed to be no less, in any direction, than that which would result from non -directional operation using a single element of the directional array with 025 kw (h) All classes of broadcast stations have primary service areas subj ct t: limitation by fading and noise, and interference from other stations to ',he contours set out for each class of station (i) Secondary service is delivered in the areas where the sky - wave for 50% or more of the time has a field strength of 05 mv/m or greater,(0 mvm in Alaska) t is not considered that satisfactory secondary service can be rendered to cities unless the skywave approaches in value the groundwave required for primary service The secondary service is necessarily subject to some interference and extensive fading whereas the primary service area of a station is subject to no objectionable interference or fading Class stations only are assigned on the basis of rendering secondary service NOTE: Standards have not been established for objectionable fading as such standards would necessarily depend on -the receiver characteristics which have been changed considerably in this regard during the last several years Selective fading causing audio distortion and the signal fading below the noise level are the objectionable characteristics of fading on modern design receivers The AVC circuits in the better designed modern receivers in general maintain the audio output sufficiently constant to be satisfactory during most fading (j) The irtermittent service is rendered by the groundwave and begins at the outer boundary of the primary service area and extends to the value of signal where it may be considered as having no further service value This may be down to only a few microvolts in certain areas and up to several millivolts in other areas of high noise level,- interference from other stations, or objectionable fading at night The intermittent service area may vary widely from day to night and generally varies from time to time as the name implies Only Class stations are assigned for protection from interference from other stations into the intermittent service area (k) Sectior732:; provides that the several classes of broadcast stations may be licensed to operate unlimited time, limited time, daytime, sharing time, and specified hours, with full explanation given in thesection (see 338 for restriction on limited time authorizations, /9/95 73A-'S

10 7382(k)() (o)(4) () Section 7324 sets out the general requirements for obtaining an increase in facilities of a licensed station and for a new station Sections 7324(b) and 7337 concern the matter of interference that may be caused by a new assignment or increase in facilities of an existing assignment (m) (n) (Reserved) (Reserved) (o) Objectionable interference from a station on an adjacent channel shall he considered to exist to a station when, at the normally protected contour of a desired station, the field strength of the ground wave of an undesired station operating on an adjacent channel (or the root -sum -square "value of the field strengths of two or more such undesired stations operating on the same adjacent channel) exceeds a value specified in paragraph (u) of this section () With respect to the root -sum -square values of interfering field intensities referred to herein, except in the case of Class V stations on local channels, calculation is accomplished by considering the signals in order of decreasing magnitude, adding the squares of the values and extracting the square root of the sum, excluding those signals which are less than 50% of the RSS value of the higher signals already included o (2) The RSS value will not be considered to be increased when a new interfering signal is added which is less than 50% of the RSS value of the interference from existing stations, and which at the same time is not greater than the -mallest signal included in the RSS value of interference from existing stations (3) t is recognized that application of the above "50% exclusion" method of calculating the RSS interference say result in some cases in anomalies wherein the addition of a new interfering signal or the increase in value of an existing interfering signal will cause the exclusion of a previously included signal and may cause a decrease in the calculated RSS value of interference n order to provide the Commission with more realistic information regarding gains and losses in service (as a basis for determination of the relative merits of a proposed operation) the following alternate method for calculating the proposed RSS values of interference will be employed wherever applicable (4) n the cases where it is proposed to add a new interfering signal which is not less than 50% of the RSS value of interference from existing stations or which is greater than the smallest signal already included to obtain this RSS value, the RSS limitation after addition of the new signal shall be calculated without excluding any signal previously included Similarly, in cases where it is proposed to increase the value of one of the existing interfering signals which has been included in the RSS value, the RSS limitation after the increase shall be calculated without excluding the interference from any source previously included 4/8/86?3AM STANDARDS

11 o 7382 (o) (5) (o)(6) (5) f the new or increased signal proposed in such cases is ultimately authorized, the BSS values of interference to other stations affected will thereafter be calculated by the "50% exclusion" method without regard to this alternate method of calculation (6) Elaaples of RSS interference calculations: () Existing interferences: Station No -- 0 my/a Station No av/a Station No my/a Station No my/a The BSS value from Nos, 2 and 3 is 3 av/a: therefore interference from No 4 is excluded for it is less than 50% of 3 my/a (ii) Station A receives interference from: Station No -- 0 av/m Station No av/m Station No av/a t is proposed to add a new limitation my/a This is more than 50% of 3 av/m, the RES value of Nos, 2 and 3 The RSS value of Station No and the proposed station would be 2 my/m which is more than twice as large as the limitation from Station No 2 or No 3 However, under the above provision the new signal and the three existing interferences are nevertheless calculated for purposes of comparative studies, resulting in an PBS value of 47 av/m However, it the proposed station is ultimately authorized, only No and the new signal are included in all subsequent calculations for the reason that Nos 2 and 3 are less than 50% of 2 av/a, the BSS value of the new signal and No (iii) Station A receives interference from: Station No Station No 2 Station No 3 0 my/a 060 my/m 059 mv/a No proposes to increáse the limitation it imposes on Station A to 2 my/m Although the limitations from stations Nos 2 and 3 are less than 50% of the 2 av/a limitation, under the above provision they are nevertheless included for comparative studies, and the RSS limitation is calculated to be 47 my/a However, if the increase proposed by Station No is authorized, the R80 value then calculated is 2 av/a because Stations Nos 2 and 3 are excluded in view of the fact that the limitations they impose are less than 50% of 2 my/a AM Standard 7

12 7382(p) (s) (p) Objectionable interference from a station on the same channel shall be 2) --,Lnidered to exist to a station when, at the field intensity contour specified in ( paragraph (v) of this section with respect to the class to which the station belongs, the field intensity of an interfering station (or the root -sum -square -value of the field intensities of two or more interfering stations) operating on the same channel, exceeds for ten (0) percent or more of the time the value of the permissible interfering signal set forth opposite such class in paragraph (y) of this section (q) Objectionable interference from a station on an adjacent he considered to exist channel shall to a station when, at the normally protected contour of a desired station, the field intensity of the ground wave of an undesired station operating on an adjacent channel (or the root-sum -square value of the field intensities of two or more such undesired stations operating on the same adjacent (r) For the purpose of estimating the effects of stations in coverage and the interfering the absence of field shall be made of Figure strength measurements, use 8 of 7390, which describes the estimated effective field for one kilowatt power input of simple vertical omnidirectional antennas of various heights with ground 20 one -quarter systems of at least wave -length radials Certain approximations, curve or other appropriate theory, based on the may be made when other than'such antennas and ground systems are employed, but in any event field to be employed the effective shall not be less than given in the following: Class of Station -A and -B -N, and V Effective field (at km) 362 mv/m 282 mv/m 24 mv/m n case a directional antenna is employed, the a broadcasting station will interfering signal of vary in different directions, than the above values in being greater certain directions and upon the design and adjustment less in others depending of the directional antenna system To determine the interference in any direction the measured or calculated radiated field (unabsorbed field intensity at must be used in conjunction kilometer from the array) with the appropriate (See 7385 for propagation curves further discussion and solution of a typical antenna case) directional Note - For Class stations in the USVirgin slands, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and 24uV/'i shall be used (s) The existence or absence of objectionable ference from stations groundwave inter- on the same or adjacent by actual measurements channels shall be made in accordance determined 73E36, or, in the with the method absence of such described in measurements, by reference propagation curves of 7384 to the The existence interference due to or absence of objectionable skywave propagation to the appropriate shall be determined by reference formulas set forth in 7390 and the propagation curves in appropriate Figure la, lb or Figure 2 of /3/86 73 AM STANDARDS'

13 7382(t) - (u) 0 0 (t) Computation of Skywave Field Strength Values: () Fifty Percent SkywaveField Strength Values (Clear Channel) n computing the fifty percent skywave field strength values of a Class -A or -B clear channel station, use shall be made of Figure la of 7390 entitled "Skywave Field Strength" for 50 percent of the time n computing the fifty percent Skywave field strength values of a Class -N station (in Alaska), use shall be made of the formula in 7390(c)()for deriving such values (2) Ten Percent Skywave Field Strength Values (Clear Channel) n computing the 0% skywave field strength for stations on clear channels on a single signal basis, the curve in Figure la and the formula in 7390 (b)(2) shall be used unless one or both of the stations being considered are in Alaska: in such a case, the formula included in 7390(c)(2) should be used to calculate the 0% values for both stations n computing the 0% skywave field strength for stations on clear channels on an RSS basis, the formula in 7390(c)(2) shall be used in computing the RSS of a station in Alaska n computing the RSS of a station not in Alaska, the formula in 7390(c)(2) shall be used in computing the contribution from stations in Alaska, and the formula in 7390(b)(2) shall be used in computing contributions from stations not in Alaska (3) Regional end Local Channels n computing the 0% skywave field strength values for stations on a regional channel, on an RSS basis, the formula in 7390(c)(2) shall be used in computing the RSS of a station in Alaska n computing the RSS of a station not in Alaska, the formula in 7390(c)(2) shall be used in computing the contribution from stations in Alaska, and the appropriate curve in Figure 2 shall be used in computing contributions from stations not in Alaska (n the case of Class V stations on local channels, simplifying assumptions may be made See Note in paragraph (a)(4) of this section) (4) Determination of Angles:of Departure n calculating skywave field strength for stations on all channels, the pertinent vertical angle shall be determined by use of the formulas in 7390(d) (u) The distance to any specified groundwave field intensity contour for any frequency may be determined from the appropriate curves in 7384 entitled "Ground 'slave Field ntensity vs Distance" o 7//85 Part 73AMS -9-

14 7382(v) O (v) Protected service contours and permissible interference signals for broadcast stations are as follows (for Class and Class -A stations, see paragraph (a) of this sections Class of station Class of annel used Permissible power Signal strength contour of area protected from objectionable nterference* - Permissible interfering signal on same channel 6 Day, Night Day Night, -A Clear 50 kw, SC 00 µv/m AC 500 µv/ SC 500 µv/m(50% skywave), AC µv/m 25 µv/m' -B do 0 kw to 50 kw m SC 00 µv/m AC 500 µv/ 4 SC 500 µv/m 50% skyways AC 500 µv/ 5 µv/m 25 µv/m, m m3 -N do 50 kw SC 00 µv/m AC 500 µv/ SC 00 µv/m 50% skyways AC 500 µv/ 5 µv/m 5 µv/m m m -A do 025 kw to 50 kw (daytime) µv/m 500 µv/m, 25 µv/m 25 µv/m kw to 50 kw (nighttime) -8 do 025 kw to 50 kw 500 µv/m 2,500 µv/iii,,, do 25 µv/m -C do 025 kw to kw 500 µv/m 0,000µV/m8 do 500 µv/m -D do 025 kw to 50 kw (daytime) 500 µv/m Not prescribed do Not prescribed -S do 025 kw to 50 kw (daytime) less 500 µv/m do do Do than 025 (nighttime) ll Regional 05 kw to 5 kw 500 µv/m 2,500 µv/ma, do 25 µv/m V Local 025 to kw 500 µv/m Not prescribed, do Not prescribed r When a station is already limited by interference from other stations to a contour of higher values than' that normally protected for ts class, this contour shall be the established Standard for such station with respect to interference from all other stations, For adjacent channel, see paragraph (w) of this section 3Groundwave 4 Skywave held strength for 0 percent of more of the time,these values are with respect to interference from all stations except Class -B, which stations may cause interference to a field strength contour of higher value However, it is recommended that Class stations be so located that the nterference received from Class -B stations will not exceed these values f the Class stations are limited by Class -B stations to higher values, then such values shall be the established standard with respect to protection from all other stations,see paragraph (a)(4) of this section and Note to paragraph (a)(3) 'Class -A stations on channels reserved for the exclusive use of one station during nighttime hours are protected from co -channel interference on thatbasis Applies only to nighttime operations of Class -C stations coming within 732(x)(iii), and to the operation of limited -time Class -D stations during nighttime hours other than those during which they were authorized to operate as of June, 980,During nighttime hours, Class V stations in the conterminous 48 states may treat all Class ll stations assigned to 230, 240, 340, 400, 450 and 490 khz in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the US Virgin slands as if they were Class V stations Note-SC=Same channel AC'=Adjacent channel 3/3/86 73AMS -9a-

15 7382(w) (y; (w) The following table is to be used for determining the minimum ratio of the field intensity of a desired to an undesired signal for interference free service n the case of a desired groundwave signal interfered with by two or more skywave signals on the same frequency, the RSS value of the latter is used From the table, it is apparent that in many cases stations operating on channels 0 and 20 kilocycles apart may be operated with antenna systems side by side or otherwise in proximity without any indications of interference if the interference is defined only in terms of permissable ratios listed in this paragraph As a practical matter, serious interference problems may arise when two or more stations with the same general area are operated on channels 0, 20 and 30kilohertz apart Desired 50 Frequencnyof percent desired to un- Desired groundwave skywave desires signals to-- to unde- Undesired Undesired sired 0 ground- 0 percent percent wave skywave skvwave -D -2z : 20: 20: 0 }ffiz : :5 () T-The secondary service area of a Class station is not protected from adjacent channel interference However, if it is desired to make a determination of the area in which adjacent channel groundwave interference (0 khz removed) to skywave service exists, it may be considered as the area where the ratio of the desired 50 percent sky - wave of the Class station to the undesired groundwave of a station 0 kc removed is to 4 (x) Two stations, one with a frequency twice that of the other, should not be assigned ín the same groundwave service area unless special precautions are taken to avoid interference from the second harmonic of the lower frequency n selecting a frequency, consideration should be given to the fact that occasionally the frequency assignment of two stations in the same area may bear such a relation to the intermediate frequency of some broadcast receivers as to cause so-called "image" interference However, since this can usually be rectified by readjustment of the intermediate frequency of such receivers, the Commission in general will not take this kind of interference into consideration in allocation problems (y) Two stations operating with synchronized carriers and carrying the identical program will have their goundwave service subject to some distortion in areas where the signals from the two stations are of comparable intensity For the purpose of estimating coverage of such stations areas in which the signal ratio is between to 2 to will not be considered ashaving satisfactory service NOTE: Two stations are considered to be operated synchronously when the carriers are maintained within one -fifth of a cycle per second of each other and they transmit identical programs 0/20/66 73 AM STANDARDS -0-

16 97383(a) - 73ó3(c) 7383 Groundwave signals -(a) nterference that may be caused by a proposed assignment or an existing assignment during day time hours should be determined when possible, by measurements on the frequency involved or on anmther frequency over the same terrain and by means of the curves in 7384 entitled "Ground Wave Field strength versus Distance" (ib) n ddermining interference based upon field intensity measurements, it is necessary to do the following: First, establish the outer boundary of the protected service area of the desired station in the direction of the station that may cause interference to it Second, at this boundary, measure the interfering signal from the undesired station The ratio of the desired to the undesired signal given in 7382(w) should be applied to the measured signals and if the required ratio is observed, no objectionable interference is foreseen When measurements of both the desired and undesired stations are made in one area to determine the point where objectionable interference from groundwave signals occur or to establish other pertinent contours, several measurements of each station shall be made within a few miles of this point or contmui The effective field of the antennas in the pertinent directions of the stations must be established and all measurements must be made in accordance with 73d8 NOTE: nternational agreement in the matter of standards for good engineering practice concerning determination of ground conductivity by field intensity measurements has not been arrived at as contemplated by NARBA, and the United States has no established procedures for reciprocal consideration of such measurements with any country except Canada Therefore, groundwave field intensity measurements will not be accepted or considered for the purpose of establishing that interference to a station in a foreign country other than Canada, or that signal intensity at the border thereof, would be less than indicated by the application of the ground conductivity maps and 'engineering standards contained in this part and applicable international agreements Satisfactory groundwave measurements offered for the purpose of demonstrating values of conductivity other than those shown by Figure M-3 of 7390 in problems involving protection of Canadian stations or the Canadian border will be considered only if, after review thereof, the appropriate agency of the Canadian government notifies the Commission that they are acceptable for such purpose (c) n all cases where measurements taken in accordance with the requirements are not available, the groundwave strength must be determined bu means of the pertinent map of ground conductivity and the groundwave curves of field strength, versus distance The conductivity of a given terrain may be determined by measurements of any broadcast signal traversing the terrain involved Figure M3 (see Note ) shows the conductivity throughout the United States by general areas of reasonably uniform conductivity When it is clear that only one conductivity value is involved, Figure R3 of 7390, which is a replica of Figure M3 and contained in these standards, may be used; in all other situations Figure M3 must be employed t is recognized that in areas of limited size or over a particular path, the conductivity may vary widely from the values given; therefore, these maps are to be used only when accurate and acceptable measurements have not been made (For determinations of interference and service requiring a knowledge of ground conductivities in Mexico, Annex XV -C to the Agreement Between the United States of America and the United Mexican States Concerning Radio Broadcasting in the Standard Broadcasting Band ( khz), Mexico, DF, 968, may be used Similarly, for values of ground conductivity in Canada, a map issued by the Department of Communications, Government of Canada entitled "Ground Conductivity Map," dated January, 980, may be used Where different conductivities appear in the maps of two countries on opposite sides of the border, such differences are to be considered as real, even if they are not explained by geophysical cleavages A uniform ground conductivity of 0 millimhos per meter may be assumed for Cuba) 3/29/83 73 AM STANDARDS - -

17 383(c)(Note ) (d) NOTE Figure R3 in 7390 is a replica of Figure M3 Figure M3, which is incorporated in these Standards by reference, was derived by indicating ground conductivity values in the United States on the United States Albers equal area projectioh map (based on standard parallels 29-/2 and 45-/2 ; North American datum; scale /2,5000,000) NOTE 2 Copies of "Ground Conductivity Map" May be obtained by contacting the Chief, Broadcast Applications Engineering Division, Department of Communications, 300 Slater Street, Ottawa, Ontario KA 008, Canada Cost is $0000, Canadian Remittance should be made by check or money order payable to Receiver General for Canada (d) Example of determining interference by the graphs in 7384: t is desired to find whether objectionable interference exists between a 5 kw Class station on 990 khz and a kw Class station on the adjacent channel of 000 khz The spacing between the two stations is 65 kilometers and both stations operate nondirectionally with antenna systems which produce an effective field of 282 mv/kw at one kilometer (See 7385 in case of use of directional antennas) The conductivity at each station and of the intervening terrain is determined to be 6 ms/m' The protection to Class stations during daytime is to the 500 uv/m (05 mv/m) contour The distance to the 05 mv/m contour of the kw station is determined by the use of the appropriate curve in 7384, Graph 2 Since the curve is plotted for 00 mv/m at kilometer, to find the distance to the 05 mv/m contour of the kw station, it is necessary to determine the distance to the 0773 mv/m contour (00 x 05/282 = 0?73) Using the 6 msm curve, the estimated radius of the 05 mv/m contour is seen to be 645 kilometers Subtracting this distance from the distance between the two stations leaves 005 kilometers Using the same propagation curve, the signal from the 5 kw station at this distance is seen to be 025 mv/m Since a protection ratio of one to one, desired to undesired signal applies to stations separated by 0 khz, the undesired signal could have a value up to 05 mv/m without causing objectionable interference Consequently, there would be no mutually objectionable interference between the two stations Had the undesired signal been found to be greater than 05 mv/m, objectionable interference would then have existed For co -channel operation, a desired to undesired signal ratio of no less than 20 to is required to avoid causing objectionable interference 7//85 73 AM STANDARDS - a -

18 7383(e) - (f) (e) Where a signal traverses a path over which different conductivities exist, the distance to a particular groundwave field intensity contour shall be determined by the use"of the equivalent distance method Reasonably accurate results may be expected in determining field intensities at a distance from the antenna by application of the equivalent distance method when the unattenuated field of the antenna, the various ground conductivities and the location of discontinuities are known This method considers a wave to be propagated across a given- conductivity according to the curve fora homogeneous earth of that conductivity, When the wave crosses from a region of one conductivity into a region of a second conductivity, the equivalent distance of the receiving póint from the transmitter changes abruptly but the field intensity does not From a point just inside the second region the transmitter appears to be at that distance where, on the curve for a homogeneous earth of the second conductivity, the field intensity equals the, value that occurred just'across the boundary in the first region Thus the equivalent distance from the receiving point to the transmitter may be either greater or less than the actual distance An imaginary transmitter is considered to exist at that equivalent distance This technique is not intended to be used as a means of evaluating unattenuated field or ground conductivity by the analysis of measured data The method to be employed for such determinations is set out in 7386 (f) An example of the equivalent distance method follows: t is desired to determine the distance to the 05 mv/in and 0025 mv/m contours of a station on a frequency of000 khz with an inverse distance field of 00 mv/m of one kilometer being radiated over a path having a conductivity of 0 ms/m for a distance'of 20 kilometers 5 ms/m for the'next 30 kilometers and 5 ms/m thereafter Using the appropriate curve in 7384, Graph 2 at a distance of 26 kilometers on the 0 ms/m curve, it is seen that the fieldstrength its 286 mv/m On the 5 ms/m curve, the equivalent distance to this field strength is seen to be 49 kilometers, which is 5 (20-49) kilometers nearer to the transmetter Continuing on this propagation curve, the distance to a field strength of 05 mv/m is seen to be 364 kilometers The actual length of the path travelled, however, is 45 ( ) kilometers Continuing on this -propagation curve to the conductivity change at 449 (50-5) kilometers, it is seen that the field strength is 0257 mv/m On the 5 ms/m propagation curve, the equivalent distance to this field strength is seen to be 94 kilometers, which changes the effective path length by 49 (94-449) kilometers Continuing on this propagation,curve, the distance to 'a field strength of 0025 mv/m is seen to be 23 kilometers The actual length of the path travelled, however is 87 ( ) kilometers 7//85 73AMS -2-

19 7384( G 7384 Groundwave field strength graphs (a) Graphs to 9 show, for each of 20 frequencies, the computed values of groundwave field strength as a function of groundwave conductivity and distance from the source of radiation The groundwave field strength is here considered to be that part of the vertical component of the electric field which has not been reflected from the ionosphere nor from the troposphere These 20 families of curves are plotted on log -log graph paper and each is to be used for the range of frequencies shown thereon The curves themselves were generated by straight-line connection of the plotted computed values of groundwave field strength as a function of distance The computed and plotted points are sufficiently numerous and closely spaced that the error introduced by straight-line interpolation is negligible Computations are based on a dielectric constant of the ground (referred to air as unity) equal of 5 for land and 80 for sea water and for the ground conductivities (expressed in ms/m) given on the curves The curves show the variation of the groundwave field strength with distance to be expected for transmission from a vertical antenna at the surface of a uniformly conducting spherical earch with the groundwave constants shown on the curves The curves are for an antenna power of such efficience and current distribution that the inverse distance (unattenuated) field is 00 mv/m at kilometer The curves are valid at distances large compared to the dimensions of the antenna for other than short vertical antennas (b) The inverse distance field (00 mv/m divided by the distance in kilometers) corresponds to the groundwave field intensity to be expeted from an antenna with the same radiation efficiency when it is located over a perfectly conducting earth To determine the value of the ground - wave field intensity corresponding to a value of inverse distance field other than 00 mv/m at Kilometer, multiply the field strength as given ou these graphs by the desired value of inverse distance field at kilometer divided by 00; for example, to determine the groundwave field strength for a station with an inverse distance field of 2700 mv/m at kilometer, simply multiply the values given on the charts by 27 The value of the inverse distance field to be used for a particular antenna depends upon the power input to the antenna, the nature of the ground in the neighborhood of the antenna, and the geometry of the antenna For methods of calculating the interrelations between these variables and the inverse distance field, see "The Propagation of Radio Waves Over the Surface of the Earth and in the Upper Atmosphere" Part, by Mr K A Norton, Proc RE, Vol 25, September 937, pp NOTE -- The computed values of field strength versus distance used to plot Graphs to 9 are available in tabular form Copies of these tabulations may be ordered from the FCC official copy center whose name and address may be obtained by calling or writing the Consumer Affairs Office, Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC (202) O /20/87 73 AM Standard -3-

20 7384(c) (c) At sufficiently short distances (say less than 35 miles), such that the curvature of the earth does not introduce an additional attenuation of the waves, the graphs were computed by means of the plane earth formulas given in the paper, "The propagation of Radio Waves Over the Serface of the Earth and in the Upper Atmonphere", Part, by Mr K A Norton, Proc RE, Vol 24, October 936, pp At larger distances the additional attenuation of the waves which is introduced by the effect of the curvature of the earth was introduced by the methods outlined in the papers, "The Diffraction of Electromagnetic Waves from an Electrical Point Source round a Finitely Conducting Sphere, with Applications to Radiotelegraphy and the Theory of the Rainbow," by Balth van der Pol and H Bremer, Part, Phil Nag, Vol 24, p 4, July 937, Part, Phil Mag, Vol 24, p 825, Suppl, November 937, "Ergebnisse einer Theorie ueber die Fortpflanzung elektron magnetischer Wellen ueber eine Kugel endlicher Leitfahigkeit,}' by Balth van der Pol and H Bremmer, Hochfrequenztechnik and Elektroakustiek, Band 5, Heft 6, June 938, "Further Note on the Propagation of Radio Waves over a Finitely Conducting Spherical Earth,tt by Balth van der Pol and H Bremer, Phil Mag, Vol 27, p 26, March 939 n order to allow for the refraction of the radio waves in the lower atmosphere due to the variation of the dielectric constant of the air with height above the earth, a radius of the Barth equal to 4/3 the actual radius was used in the computations for the eithe t of the earth's curvature in the manner suggested by C R Burrows, "Radio Propagation over Spherical Earth", by Proc FE, May 935; ie, the distance corresponding to a given value of attenuation due to the curvature of the earth in the absence of air refraction was multiplied by the factor (4/3) 2/3 = 2 The amount of this refraction varies from day to day and from season to season, depending on the air mass conditions in the lower atmosphere f k denotes the ratio between the equivalent :radius of the earth and the true radius, the following table gives the values of k for several typical air masses encountered in the United States Air mass type Summer k Winter Tropical Gulf-Tc Polar Continental -Pc Superior -S Average 33 t is clear from this table that the use of the average value of k = 4/3 is justified in obtaining a single correction for the systematic effects of atmospheric refraction (2FR2947) /20/87 73AM Standard -

21 ' /""-^ O 7384(d) (d) Provided the value of the dielectric constant is near 5, the curves of Graphs to 9 may be compared with experimental data to determine the appropriate values of the ground conductivity and the inverse Odistance field intensity at kilometer This is accomplished by simply plotting the measured fields on transparent log -log graph paper similar to that used for Graphs to 9 and superimposing this chart over the graph corresponding to the frequency involved The log -log graph sheet is then shifted vertically until the best fit is obtained with one of the curves on the graph; the intersection of the inverse distance line on the graph with the kilometer abscissa on the chart determines the inverse distance field strength at kilometer For other values of dielectric constant, the following procedure may be used for a determination of the dielectric constant of the ground, conductivity of the ground and the inverse distance field strength at mile Before the results of such determinations are submitted to the FCC, they must be converted to equivalent metric units Graph 20 gives the relative values of groundwave field strength over a plane earth as a function of the numerical distance p and phase angle b On graph paper with coordinates similar to those of Graph 20, plot the measured values of field strength as ordinates versus the corresponding distances from the antenna expressed in miles as abscissae The data should be plotted only for distances greater than one wavelength (or, when this is greater, fives times the vertical height of the antenna in the case of a single element, ie, nondirectional antenna or 0 times the spacing between the elements of a directional antenna) and for distances less than 50/(f Mhz) /3 miles (ie, 50 miles at Mhz) Then, using a light box, place the sheet with the data plotted on it over the sheet with the curves of Graph 20 and shift the data sheet vertically and horizontally (making sure that the vertical lines on both sheets are Parallel) until the best fit with the data is obtained with one of the curves on Graph 20 When the two sheets are properly lined up, the value of the field strength corresponding to the intersection of the inverse distance line of Graph 20 with the mile abscissa on the data sheet is the inverse distance field strength at mile, and the values of the numerial distance at mile, pi, and of b are also determined Knowing the values of b and pl (the numerical distance at mile), we may substitute in the following approximate formulas to determine the appropriate values of the ground conductivity and dielectric constant x(ir/p,)(r/x),coo b () Ali/A),=Number of wavelengths in mile, semu =(xfmhz/7973)0-4 (2) Pem,,=Conductivity of the ground expressed in electromagnetic units /Mllz=frequencyexpreued in megacycles e=x tan b-" (=dielectric constant of the ground "referred ` to air as unity First solve for x by substituting the known values of pl, (RA)<L and cos b in equation (), Equation (2) may then be soived'for and equation (3) " fore' At distances greater than 50/f MHz miles the curves of Graph 20 do not give the correct relative values of field strength since the curvature of the earth weakens the field more rapidly than these plane earth curves would indicate Thus,nno attempt should be made to fit experimental data to these curves at the larger distances NOTE -- For other values of dielectric constant, use can be made of the computer program which was employed by the FCC in calculating the points used for plotting the curves in Graphs to 9 A printout of this program can be ordered from the FCC official copy center whose name and address may be obtained by calling or writing the Consumer Affairs Office, Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC 20554, (202) /20/87 73 AM Standard -5-

22 7384 (e) - (f) o (e) At sufficiently short distances (say less than 35 miles at broadcast frequencies), such that the curvature of the earth does not introduce an additional attenuation of the waves, the curves of Graph 20 may be used for determining the ground wave field intensity for transmitting and receiving antennas at the surface of the earth for any radiated power, frequency, or set of ground constants in the following manner: -First, lay Off the straight inverse distance line corresponding to the power radiated on transparent log -log graph paper similar to that of Graph 20, labelling the ordinates of the chart in terma of field intensity, and the abscissae in terms of distance Next, by means of the formulas given on Graph 20, calculate the value of the numerical distance, p, at mile, and the value of b Then superimpose the log -log chart over Graph 20, shifting it vertically until the inverse distance lines on both charts coincide and shifting it horizontally until the numerical distance at mile on Graph 20 coincides with mile on the log -log graph paper The curve of Graph 20 corresponding to the calculated value of b is then traced on the log -log graph paper giving the field intensity versus distance in miles 20 (f) This paragraph consists of the following Graphs to 9a and NOTE -- Graphs will not be published in the CFR Copies are available by calling or writing the Consumer Affairs Office, Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC 20554, Telephone: (202) o /20/87 73 AM Standard

23 GROUNDWAVE FELD STRENGTH VERSUS DSTANCE National Association of Broadcasters This package contains a complete set of all graphs published by the FCC in 7384 These graphs have been printed using original materials generated by FCC computers Great care has been taken to assure accuracy of reproduction These graphs and graph paper should not be copied Office copiers introduce geometric distortions which will affect accuracy Copies for submission to the FCC and station files should only be made after all data have been plotted The Field Strength Measurement Form on the next page may be reproduced for use in taking measurements Additional sets of graph paper may be purchased from NAB Services Call GENERAL REQUREMENTS FOR MEASUREMENTS* All measurements should be made during the daylight hours in the absence of interference, and special temporary authority may be required prior to the commencement of measurements for a new authorization For established stations, the FCC Rules permit considerable flexibility in operation during periods of making antenna system field strength measurements t is FCC policy that the measurement observations to be recorded and utilized as a basis of analysis of the inverse distance radiation values are those observed with the field strength meter oriented towards the station The maximum indication can occur when the meter is oriented away from the transmitting source This phenomenon can be caused by many factors including null depth on the measured radial These factors vary from local effects surrounding or adjacent to the measuring point, nonuniform conditions inherent in the propagation path and can be affected by the position of the observation point on a rapidly changing portion of the directional pattern A record must be kept of the measurement data, including each point number, the field strength observations, dates and times of the measurements, the pattern under investigation, a description of each point location, the name of the individual taking the measurements, the general weather conditions, the field strength instrument utilized and the date of its last calibration A sample form is provided for tabulating the field measurement data Graphical Analysis The inverse distance field or unattenuated field strength at a reference distance kilometer ( km) is the field strength predicted at that distance from the transmitting antenna if the earth were to behave as a perfect conductor As the wave energy travels away from the antenna, the unattenuated field strength reduces by the inverse proportion to the distance from the antenna For example, if the value of the unattenuated field at km is 00 mv/m, its value at 2 km will be one-half that value or 50 mv/m, and at 0 km, its value will be one -tenth of the km value or 0 mv/m The effects of attenuation on field strength are shown by families of curves for field strength vs distance for various values of ground conductivity These graphs are included in Section 7384 of the FCC Rules The actual field will be diminished by this inverse distance factor as well as the losses attributable to ground conductivity The FCC, in its conversion to the metric system, redetermined the frequency curves n addition, the FCC used its computer program and determined additional conductivity values for each frequency chart The dielectric constant for all curves except for sea water, is 5 For sea water the calculations are based upon a dielectric constant of 80 There are 9 sets of frequency dependent propagation graphs that encompass the frequencies from 540 to 60 khz Curves for each frequency group are drawn on two graphs One graph shows the uppermost portion with conductivity curves normalized for 00 mv/m/km from one -tenth to 50 km and the bottom portion reflects the conductivity curves for 0 to 5000 km The second graph is an expanded version of the uppermost portion of the first graph to allow for easier determination of the inverse distance field and conductivity values for measurements less than 50 km from the transmitting antenna After the distances from the transmitting antenna to each of the measuring points have been determined and tabulated opposite the observed field strength values, the measured field strength values can be plotted on log -log graph paper The ordinate (vertical scale) is field strength, expressed in mv/m, and the abscissa (horizontal scale) is distance in kilometers Data can be plotted on ground - wave field intensity graph paper available through NAB This paper has the same logarithmic scale as the expanded version of the FCC curves Plotting Data For the logarithmic coordinate system, (log -log graph paper) the inverse distance field strength plots as a straight line The conductivity curves are drawn for the case of an inverse distance field of 00 mv/m at km, but their use is not limited to that value f an inverse distance field strength is 200 mv/m (twice the reference value) or 50 mv/m (one-half the reference number) or some other value at km, and if all points on the curve are multiplied by the ratio of the actual inverse distance field strength to 00 mv/m, the effect would be the equivalent of moving the curves by that amount on the logarithmic coordinate paper This is the basis on which field strength measurements are analyzed The appropriate conductivity 73 Alvi s -6a-

24 o GROUNDWAVE FELD STRENGTH VERSUS DSTANCE values for the frequency involved are made by matching the abscissa of the data with that of the FCC graph and sliding the ordinate information data vertically to obtain the "best fit" of measured field strength values to the conductivity curves By this method, both the unattenuated field at km and the conductivity values along the radial path can be determined The use of a light table will assist in aligning and moving the two sheets of paper An individual attempting to analyze measurement data for the first time and without the benefit of experienced supervision can find this a frustrating experience One approach is to take log -log graph paper for the appropriate frequency (either the regular or expanded scale) and plot the measurement point values normalized to 00 mv/ km For example, if the non -directional 025 kw operation is expected to possess an RMS field at kw of 9 mv/m (70 degrees [094 of a wavelength] electrical height tower with a normal ground system-see Figure 8, Section 7390 of the FCC Rules), it has a field 9/00 less than the FCC log -log conductivity graph Therefore, multiply all values (divide all values if the expected field is greater than 00 mv/m) of the measurement data by the ratio of 00/9 to normalize it to 00 mv/m Plot the normalized data The plotted values can be viewed in relation to the conductivity values if the assumption of the inverse distance field is correct f the normalized data appear to be over the inverse distance line, then the radiation value is higher than assumed and conversely if the normalized data appear normally low, the assumed radiation value selected is too high This approach can be useful when the non -directional measurements out to 3 km in the various directions have been taken and a quick evaluation of the conductivity values/radiation efficiency around the site is desired t also will help to assess whether or not the non -directional radiation pattern is being influenced by other adjacent towers in the directional antenna system *From "AM Field Strength Measurements and Proof of Performance" by Donald G Everist, in thé NAB Engineering Handbook, 7th Edition, 985 o

25 DATE: National Association of Broadcasters PO NT NO DST DATE TME FELD STRENGTH MEASUREMENTS FOR kw ND MV/M DATE TME N kw DA-_ MV/M o E PAGE NO: ENGNEER: METER: RATO DA /ND PONT DESCRPTON 73AlqS -6b- 0

26 - 4,>~> i - i, r 7f - i,, { S - k)_ h 4,, l, [, - +/, 7r 0 D0 00 KLOMETERS FROM ANTENNA 0 500, U 4U S 000 -, - J -, -- - a 'i-' i, ; k r {,' t,t ti:-, ' tt lt:--n,: 700 r +-, +, l t - tbm, } c {n ' M f, "-,; r M(M4rpM_ 4M ` +,7,:T-, i,r,,"r ''4,fiM MMM4WNMN4pÑMN,Ó - trr 4NtY4A0,lOPY4s HHt, iir4!yf tthl,mfmmf 4 /M+, `5 i}{ T,i}(3ii 3'r 400 ii t {:` :' GROUND WAVE FELD STRENGTH f p : ill 300 w : r" -i4,:4 4 :4 :a VERSUS,r,,,r V DSTANCE ḟ' `h r :?h'-- c jl* * E?,{tt#::i[ it3f i_,,, :4 3:, 200 T: ': t :r : - -, khz ' X + ::,, ::: } k;f i',+ r ( -, - ' r?"4 -' - a ', f :/*4r + 44 COMPUTED FOR 550 khz,,t - i E 5 AND GROUND CONDUCTVTES EXPRESSED N ms/m, +,-' 'H,!,M r r wmrr ;, (tt ^" -lilí r,rr :p r»r - BLYCRiKiG t- \µ - l?»ppf7llpji:`rltgt;ityi[aii:m:miia9wycwz(:tlti 70 xi " -,---,-::inawrrsxi«timimrü Mfyryfíiúi' y ws ÍÑy!ÑSi "" '"' "fw -i fi ~íu3:ly -ri { ` "a: `'iyzñi \\- c0", 'idi'igctfr:y%uwkrl :, 44 á>{sr[r, 50 t++ -' ryyggyy ++pp 40 a`s ic fiitytfy, -,- _,+y '::ppipp7,,,pasll3l:3ny3ftyy{ i [ átt _<f \t :k,i : 30 EiiiiieSP iiif7fipc 7iNWü i :, ' iffillifi i ; í, { }'4=! f 20,' i T L'- li 3 t{ } t F_ { i i7 - f c,its `l:\\\,' Lt 6p t, r f i f -;j(f J f ql -f#,?}i st, ` i -: ` rv -, r \\ `: ` -, 0 yyr«m rar, 'T44* t:, \\\ =OE,4t MM ', + r-4 -,`, -; i, _5 y,, -\ ` n,y a: 4 f 3i3Y,bfC 'SiL[ E7, \ i"'tf' ' ": i T: i\^ T ''O, L: 9é -s; :S! : r i - :r + L -r : ;5 7+ 2D y } -r _ ^;, r-, r n AA»wilrrlKilrR R:ipRf:iiiC - L r »CiWWMp"'Mi,+ -, _ - +-}}r,+ -+r -«e- 4» qµ rt r Os ++-it4y-- if, -,-e- M y+ Cn,, R Ff ;M-'i) figismlaii3l YSt[W,t3UY - -y,u [ rt s,,, 04, =-,----- ' : c -- Emu;":-"44'44-` } 7 C: ^' T - ',:h, 003 ẇt,,`,: : : t;; -r-f--r,t,,, Z - ` ':i, 'hy" 4 - ' " `?' -,4 r { F a ' ':, #i '=t+ -jt#i: 0--,7,- 2 - <- l-as» i i {, ik tf{t r i :P L :, j f - t» ġ : ry t i,á +, 4 :: i, }, f w w+ -- -" 7, D ,` - \ - - ` ' rfarrlf, '"; Knfi S Y w,,, + _,,!!,` ti' `: + i,,- 007 _ C- - - '-, O00Os D0 ' - ++ '} n + r 4r w ppqs LYSSff7>:3GC - f747tirwuywl3 : ^, i:cactsucif7 ' =as= - -, m 7ACá"dálL«ni/a==,, r 4 ^ t' -"77''',' rt R, iiiiilii`i `r,,++ i 4 }4: f! i > + y f Y 3fL!t,,qifSi;Upbpis"C,'!T4}} `l we' 'e:cfiimtni -H t',i, rts :, ^ im Hfil#+tifpL', i7 a :4';tss?" i t ',y ` r,-;+= --rtn r', W«GG T W,, µ i 4 ryt t +, l -!`_ } {, r j 4r 3 ; Y!'4 "- tt4 ' : i [ x;: z:i'{;8iia cdxtt,002-4 i lti iyb: l f t +, *f+vr _ " Y- lf, t Y ^t ífr7i}! '\4, tr - - Vli4ri Am ufi -, W437it4Fi7 CO - r,r, t _, Or,,,Y `R,yM t _4,,, 4 :}! r 'tít r }tt! +J3hF' ; c' v f ' } il r - '! s - ±,03f 0, Y Fí a, ill y 4 Yffl f i F - 'Yf>i TlS t r_ a:, }lslt '-4 $47 Kr tíff t t t ' t Si i' [ill ' Off tl f: 4' ' TgCi: i}$ Ti t0ri :3 f!t :lli! - ;,;T tt{, 4 a 4ti t M i:/r Hih +, :'N :f k i t' kk r ': ' + i M i ` S r + y{ E i Ll ' i +,w, w i { tt nn Wf i',] 'M ly - r :M { i r f Ñ' f } } N- V { u * t7k4-'n+'m - +if 4 ' r th - :r + + f, + : :; M{ra 4 4 ffi f :! _ [- ^, i44,yrk=w;: i: rt L f 'T r' i K } :;H : l,,,[r> p *,i+r, k : ` «,, ' p p l=x tup'iíiy 4 lwwtllp Ni- 4L,iat Y al / ' ' 4 4N/OY NWM+MNM' MMp tti,4my0mya WW : p 4a+fllfl L#JT: _4 4!^cl,,-+i 7yti T-`íiit`[ lik!gip-r?epipky,4,; $iit?'9!'clp:jr Z `j,`i`"#v kl; ; - f,tkitúi Rut r -` + -_ 't3lld,ieica:l:r, : :mail Y`:sii, y r jtl 4 - F; t i2%, 3 +' tw, H it:2 gbrfiililtc, '-t!! :!lsi[ +- i,- tl * i ' ':t'k } 4 r, St {s t, i{: : r U-!b { kkjitif:rylrl i [f `:: i'cc}yti,' :89:;!?i3sj( t{' ieñk,? ': T F, i-- { rri : rí :, µ!*; iilty4t,,h ; y r,! 4, t C / ; i: i4-;ii i4:?:ii!w, t; 4 M }:Lrt M4r M'0 <4- ti th th, f M + 4fÍ:4 :4 i'" "Wi4,M+ fi + +:f+75; f {,rfi4f,,,,,t+}}} [44-t};44+ ffarfl : tt!' Hh M /,t 44 - M M { il:j{tt 4 ; F : t í;:;:- K,?:,:t» H,, fv 4 ; t4 ' : Ftf H4r -H 9 t++t 4 Y ' 4 P iir i hti j f N» / t}, t %H M+h: HfH { : +i4,i{{? w a k Yt,*Yt W Íi3i4 4f4 M,M H }++t?i4 {,,,? h", Hf{k, ga j'4 i: }i, t,: i»f ry fr}im H',t: : H 'f +H H n { h}^++ilh 5000 / DO KLOMETERS FROM ANTENNA GRAPH 988, NATONAL ASSOCATON OF BROADCASTERS

27 - - -,, - ' t V ss, 4444, + f ; ^' ' ' -,, / + ', ::: _! _, 00 KLOMETERS FROM ANTENNA 2 ; i ri-:;,h 900 pppptiwlnunwnxm'yxgvlpapalqpxx+++ rmab8a8ymmmra r "'`'''" Ni '/t 700 na4 i,,, xnp»yypppppa,pp,r NN rhlv, O ' 4MM! s tppn!qplp! +, MNB, ` 7 s ' ;, «aanw r ,-=+r_ '\ S "^ -C,:r, t, v " tt - w:«r'0 ;Yi y <<+' "' * ; µ +,_ :/,,:, '; \ ;'4 w,l ' } igf M, «w 300 J '" H xww8nppynyat l ÑlWtlÍÍ8NfwUWiaaYNPfN,-,7-+/ 4,}+;eaGROUND WAVE FELD STRENGTH VERSUS Cii:ñ'"' 7,Ṛ +4 DSTANCE khz COMPUTED FOR 550 khz '/ 4 ( 5 AND GROUND CONDUCTVTES 4 % -, w,+, S { 4 H t rr r, r ' 4,jJ lt j rl,ti EXPRESSED N m5/m rw ^' f, i w,w{44:44;: +4 t* 44 -,,y}rrltf+ l j4im liw 4 _ tin4»rtk'rt NMM, r i5 200 NM ' /: n; ñ, A / - 't,t ` ^, «+}f ~", '` i w tw,fhtl,,, ;, i-w! -, t ` fr -e \», -- ', i' :, -j t yijltluyr,, + f *r : i \\ a - i t,ti, t +44+,4 4/, k 4ir-4 ;-4:,-444,, _, i, f,y YR _,-,y', ^ 0 - ' -- f : "` y!tf )90 `\ aappp,yawpantn - Y lalalnrlne' AaM - - _ ', J e, f /, -, mg, _ w t,_f 4+/4Mf!',+4wÍ'4í 08AR 7+ :,r:atf+f',,, yiw,ffi, _ «µy _, ` ' ra,=n w;; T F»,4«'7 ":::µ Zw 50 - _ u w ti w Mh '' L wi Y w! ",4wY-pW M 4-_- '' i ": :;: 4» \\\, lt}4 it -t r -+4}Ñy7 ` _ 4_ pw:2 p\\\ 444 \;, }} ~ 20 -, { 0 - w,la \ \\\ _ : «, k r y,, _,,M i, i, - {`h y4a n ^ Yq" `f _,, ' + 4 J ri a, \\\'--, 4 ` i h y, { 4:: y w 4- =`e ' \ + - HK, \ i,f 4y A,MMYY ryayk :, lir \4'h,+-Ww, µlll / a J M "--r r \\'Vlr ' r',t y 6 - V, ',Z ;++-a+ ;-r - +4 i 4Ttr '+' _\\\, {^ 'r: t ' ` M \\, ; «yµ i5,r +Y Mi 4 (il ",,» N rr),3 '-4 ;l ',w ;+ i,t4-4-7,',44"' =+,!;44 \`` 4 \\ ^, - w 4 ^ i :tl' -, + tly: /H \\ \\\ ;n,;,f: Wwf:4w i -F,, t %M, t f Tfk4t 3 P^i7C tñ, `-\,74!' 547j rf + i,m ; Ww,,+ +,4- fn,w «y,,, -r+ ry F:t y i ir t4 l T i ;, M" if r ikfill»,lw -,-i, t+ i: ym :,r,s f +' 4 + t, ' H, ;< a f 4 +y U':tazrti" ; y -4 -,"2",4,4;--44:-,, ;, /MOYwR wat` Ww : 4 _ \\ 2 «fw i44i, '-- 0+!r+-+- n+ fm4h, : 44 4-,-, + +,/ ' f4n{f 44,,444-, wwt' H MM--/++ /-44 y M /, / " 4 { wh,, h y * / { 4 tn, «--' w Y + wy4+'' + +-" f { + ' -,-y4h r4 ' 4 NrYY4_, + - r ' +, 44i4yNtr4w +ir:m+ i5,,+,+r+ :w } Y,} { 4tV :jr t j4+444%w f444,m -tiw- H + _ / :4N w {+ 4,{ +/hr4/ nh4++m,/w- ::,w,y,4,, /t 4r -,t, 4,4, ', :,, a - r _ (, M:fnw, _, n phn'r waa MABWapHaNMatla#ptNMaMaaa ' 4liytlyiVaalµFalp/aMaOMY 96 MZONt _ 4 --4,+M4 ian8pn tp'w - BBRpay Ng _,,` L, ' `, +-,--,+ t f++ Aapyapyyyppyyp;;aa{rryN{ l NYNWt-z alanen 4, r, _ 7» /, AaaCaa - ; _, 6 {iir, +4} {tt{ tttz i' ;Ñ:f x i k'^w 4f,4 *4r -'+-v-"rt - o :4" _ 4:ú «,,w( +is'" : +{á: imi,» 4,;4 i' alli4ry '+4-`liltlYlh - : rr+ iwwit j*>ytwh f,'t++i: w 4ifwé ' ( w( ', _,,, :a3 0 4 {, xix 444 ;ims }M a,, - t ' 4N*,i,H, -4, ; }{ r{ 44' +W 45' + T4i }t4,4 4 i:{/y Y:' -, 44- ff-$-0 - ri -{ -7 44tl +»+4wMfy-,---,-44,- « ,"fl Íh 0 3 'Ct,,t H - 4 im' {' ' +{ liwr4mi rp J si- - i:,r h- wll ` tr 44 i L,M ` Lj «i q^ r ` rt f - H) 'yyyµ,' 4- j/ r' rlyµ F ; +4, ' 4;N N ;,fwm O N:*4, t, cr ry '+e ' 2 H 4+ 4 i p, Y4- t,wy},+- 440, y, -Kf a f+{, / f/ t,i yi i + W 4 H 44 Lr f -+N- 7 t,wf' D il +N,,4, rfl4 M / j Ñ i wnn,w-,,f " WmN y {, Rt-ifh, _ 4 f w +: t 9 +{,, 44,NN!! 4 - -, H W, W M{ r } w! hw twll _» r +M : 4,44: 4+4 4, 7,f,4t44w r;,, :s7+r4*^h,;r-;,, r, r + 4 _ f_ 5 4 y,m: 5 W --t"--,44,i ' i i - -,, 4 `,- 4_, '-,' 7-0 i t NN ṛ, { KLOMETERS FROM ANTENNA 0 GRAPH -A 986 NATONAL ASSOCATON OF BROADCASTERS

28 O KLOMETERS FROM ANTENNA l t t, ', : :g,p ii{4i,}it Jr-Jji' y Yf 0 GROUND WAVE FELD STRENGTH VERSUS DSTANCE khz COMPUTED FOR 580 khz e 5 AND GROUND CONDUCTVTES EXPRESSED N ms/m, ' _ \\\ / J',_ , o v-( '0' t:ydi y t r' y, A! mác ~ n, Qi RZCriCt -^,,, t:t ROiiilCíCR Wü --r i (it r`c{t, i:?,, rilm ' lériliiknéigí 4 ` +; i" ME {re-f-ci-,yr 7CLjjtE ;j{j: - -7,i, if![!i Ei ti,, MiCtGN F`,T t:;{?:,:tlrr y,, =+ j!ti;,:w _ fi 70 00, t,tj _ ^l_ KLOMETERS FROM ANTENNA,4m GRAPH 2 r 986 NATONAL ASSOCATON Of BROADCASTERS

29 , µ:w4f:r"4-4: 44 _4 ijr' t f'µ r+---, 500 +,Y-rt _- 4444: wyi f c í MNA- FROM ANTENNA J,,,;;,,r,,!t, f q '4''' +r+ 44}2 `^M,^7+M!; r- ry M R myh- _ : 4 Yi r 44, 4,0,,-,r,,,,,,, + 5" { i N r', ' 4,-;)' M r447,: it iiili l:i it+ ií i,,, «i,rl _,' :_,ty4gf { K +t 't r(l t ti}}t,, ; +M 4:í"' ': ;:µhp4tin µ, + wy; - GROUND WAVE FELD STRENGTH VERSUS DSTANCE khz COMPUTED FOR 580 khz < =5 AND GROUND CONDUCTVTES EXPRESSED N ms/m «"_ 70 -, ti +w 60, 50 r-, 40 ii - -r n- t ' 4, i' -f twu+itl: i it `, 44N'',, 4ir-r,f J roo Á -4-' iy4- _yr i ^-^^'"-', - ^^ ^4 30 -' --_ ;S' ' «-J, f 7i7 i ' : 4 í 20, r ` -T +feí44 w N N4N 44* o `,jm :,, 7 5 t:i ' 09, , 03 '~' : *-* :+r 4 t -«, íh i : # i r fim4 4H`,44,,, 44 ri w :4 4, 'i TTy, yhi,, 4' 44444,44, / 44+{ 4{,4- -4HH 4f4,4 'x,' 4, i, 'fr, 444N!' «YN 4444r y,44,4 «w4 44x -+,'i:' 4 >:r N4- _+, + ', j6,-,or 4H,!+44+i {,N ya5 H ::44x4- ^,- --"t ' ,4 i4hf!x 4,:i,F H, í4w M M "'Fy'- r4 i y-«- :44444wN+,4,0 4 y pfw fffpitu 4 f : -µ4 44«4::4;44 NRY íekpfpiliillníieiyrhfi NwYRMM8NiYtN W `lir-"4«, NÍA w4 {M4W +ti Ar ;:;ii /:E'f:alr Mt " - EM 4,-TMt, 4 N:^ N: +i+ w, Hi ' }}4 - S 4r *, i+ 4-4 r {, - 4µ4«_NYMNN _ Nxx'lxxC nm _ - rw xx _-_ 02 + ^N µn::x 4!-í w/,,-/,, 444, MN,rH + 4,! 4! '44«h, 444,,t4-4r,' 44 +r «, 4r44,i 4M4m!-xl' +a 4 4, '4 w4 --4 í, :,n:ri4!lrf' 0 4u4:4 : µr4, 4r-ifi4^ fit;:4y:ln r,, f44,4i4µ 44,4yí}"4-4-4"44::!4+ i,hr,fiíii,, ÉN -' +i : KLOMETERS FROM ANTENNA GRAPH 2-A , NATONAL ASSOCATON OF BROADCASTERS

30 l l2 3 KLOMETERS FROM ANTENNA _ l l l j-» GROUND WAVE FELD STRENGTH VERSUS DSTANCE khz COMPUTED FOR 670 khz 5 AND GROUND CONDUCTVTES EXPRESSED N mslm cc W -- w E 07 CD 05 J 0,4? ;\ 42 -} \ , 5 0 \i\\, _\\ \í * T " ; "rri r+, +-+r, r Í KLOMETERS FROM ANTENNA GRAPH NATONAL ASSOCATON OF BROADCASTERS

31 ( ` ar/ia6>adastaamüditiacbi - í~mme`ié0lpi ifdillemmrm0 >a J jbrüla RelBatÁit ' i F Nf r r,rr f==t= KLOMETERS FROM ANTENNA, :,:YtCG7faSiRAtaün"= > _ li 5 ÍMO t T "MM BEREffleallME N2~0=ZMZOK AD=Z iilc'u,áá GROUND WAVE FELD STRENGTH VERSUS DSTANCE khz COMPUTED FOR 700 khz (= 5 AND GROUND CONDUCTVTES EXPRESSED N ms/m "ME o ~NM»ftli;aiism MASEZ T 02~~ a N , «003-;-'r M =UM lly PER ' ' tit ! roaamaasaala mnaaa aam~naaakra»flucillx i~migim MOM ' KLOMETERS FROM ANTENNA GRAPH NATONAL ASSOCATON OF RR0A0CASTERS

32 r 000 l Í i KLOMETERS FROM ANTENNA GROUND WAVE FELD STRENGTH VERSUS DSTANCE khz COMPUTED FOR 740 khz F - 5 AND GROUND C0N0UCTVTES EXPRESSED N ms/m / d Gkc kih ///2o / 5 ' /,0,8 7 / i r i r Turnr r KLOMETERS FROM ANTENNA d GRAPH NATONAL ASSOCATON OF BROADCASTERS

33 KLOMETERS FROM ANTENNA 5 i i 8 i ' GROUND WAVE FELD STRENGTH VERSUS DSTANCE khz COMPUTED FOR 740 khz 5 ANO GROUND CONDUCTVTES EXPRESSED N ms/m ^ ^ T r r r D KLOMETERS FROM ANTENNA GRAPH 7-A 986 NATONAL ASSOCATON OF BROADCASTERS

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KLOMETERS FROM ANTENNA GRAPH 9-A 0ÍH, NATONAL ASSOCATON OF BROADCASTERS

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GRAPH 6-A 03, NATONAL ASSOCATON OF BROADCASTERS

36 KLOMETERS FROM ANTENNA l l 0 20 l G ROUND WAVE FELD STRENGTH VERSUS DSTANCE khz COMPUTED FOR 470 khz (= 5 AND CONDUCTVTES EXPRESSED N m5/m / r Í t KLOMETERS FROM ANTENNA GRAPH NATONAL ASSOCATON OF BROADCASTERS

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38 7385(a) - (e) J 7385 Computation of interference and overlap (a) Measured values of radiation are not to be used in calculating overlap, interference, and coverage () n the case of an antenna which is intended to be non -directional in the horizontal plane, and ideal non -directional radiation pattern shall be used in determining interference, overlap, and coverage, even if the antenna is not actually non - directional (2) n the case of an antenna which is directional in the horizontal plane, the radiation which shall be used in determining interference, overlap, and coverage is that calculated pursuant to 7350 or 7352, depending on whether the station has a standard or modified standard pattern (3) n the case of calculation of interference or overlap to (not from) a foreign station, the notified radiation shall be used, even if the notified radiation differs from that in paragraphs (a)() or (2) of this section (b) For signals from stations operating on clear channels, skywave interference shall be determined from the appropriate formulas and Figures la (or lb) and 6a contained in 7390 (c) For signals from stations operating on regional and local channels, skywave interference is determined from the formulas and Figures 2 and 6a of 7390 (Certain simplifying assumptions may be made in the case of Class V stations on local channels See note to 7382(a)(4) (d) The formulas in 739O(d) depicted in Figure 6a of 7390, entitled "Angles of Departure versus Transmission Range" are to be used in determining the angles in the vertical pattern of the antenna of an interfering station to be considered as pertinent to transmission by one reflection To provide for variation in the pertinent vertical angle due to variations of ionosphere height and ionosphere scattering, the curves 4 and 5 indicate the upper and lower angles within which the radiated field is to be considered The maximum value of field strength occurring between these angles shall be used to determine the multiplying factor to apply to the 0% skywave field intensity value determined from the formulas in 739O(b)(2), 739O(c)(2), of Figure 2 of 7390 as appropriate The multiplying factor is found by dividing the maximum radiation between the pertinent angles by 00 mv/m (Curves 4 and 5 include factors which represent the variation due to variation of the effective height of the E -layer and scattering) (e) Example of the use of skywave curves for stations operating on clear channels: Assume a Class station with which interference may be expected is located at a distance of 724 kilometers from a proposed Class station The critical angles of radiation as determined from Figure 6a of 7390 are 96 and 63 f the vertical pattern of the antenna of the proposed station, in the direction of the other station, is such that between the angles of 96 and 63 above the horizon the maximum radiation is 260 mv/m at one kilometer, the value of the 50% field, as read from Figure la of 7390, is multiplied by 26 to determine the interfering field intensity of the location in question n order to obtain the value of the 0% field, this value is then increased by 9 db For calculations involving Class -N stations, Figure lb and 3dB are employed instead of Figure la and 8 db 7/24/85 73 AMS -7-

39 -7-385(f) - (k)() o O (f) For stations operating on regional and local channels, interfering skywave field intensities shall be determined in accordance with the procedure specified in (d) of this section and illustrated in (e) of this section, except that Figure 2 of 7390 is used in place of Figure la and lb and the formulas of 7390 n using Figure 2 of 7390, one additional parameter must be considered,ie, the variation of received field with the latitude of the path (g) Figure 2 of 7390, "0 percent Skywave Signal Range Chart," shows the signal as a function cf the latitude of the transmission path, which is defined as the geographic latitude of the mid -point between the transmitter and receiver When using Figure 2 of 7390, latitude 35 should be used in case the mid -point of the path lies below 35o North and latitude 50 should be used incase the mid -point of the path lies above 50 North (h) n the case of an antenna which is intended to be non -directional in the horizontal plane, the vertical distribution of the relative fields should be computed pursuant to section 7360 n the case of an antenna which is directional in the horizontal plane, the vertical pattern in the great circle direction towards the point of reception in question must first be calculated n cases where the radiation in the vertical plane, in the pertinent azimuth, contains a large lobe at a higher angle than the pertinent angle for one reflection, the method of calculating interference will not be restricted to that just described, but each such case will be considered on the basis ofthe best knowledge available (i) Example of the use of skywave curves for stations operating on regional and local channels: t is desire to determine the amount of interference to a Class station at Portland, Oregon, caused by 'another Class station oflos Angeles, California The Los Angeles station is radiating a signal of 90 mv/m at kilometer, in the horizontal plane, in the great circle direction of Portland, using a 05 wavelength antenna The distance is 328 kilometers From Figure 6a of 7390, the upper and lower pertinent angles are 7 and 35 and, from Figure 5 of 7390, the maximum radiation within these angles is 99% of the horizontal radiation or 892 mv/m at one kilometer The mid -point latitude of the transmission path is 3980 N and, from Figure 2 of 7390, the 0% skywave field at 328 kilometers is 0050 mv/m for 00 mv/m radiated ;Multiplying by 892/00 to adjust this value to the actual radiation gives 0277 mv/n as to the interfering signal strength At 20 to ratio, the limitation to the Portland station is to the 55 mv/m contour (j) When the distance is large, more than one reflection may be involved and due consideration must be given each appropriate vector in the vertical pattern, as well as the constants of the earth where reflection takes place between the transmitting station and the service area to which interference may be caused (k) n performing calculations to determine permissible radiation from stations operating pre -sunrise or post -sunset in accordance with 7399, calculated diurnal factors will be multiplied with the values of skywave signals for such stations obtained from Figure la or Figure 2 of 7390 () The diurnal factor is determined using the time of day at the mid -point of path between the site of the interfering station and the point at which interfesrenca3 is being calculated Diurnal factors are computed using the formula D =a+bf+cf +df where: Dfrepresents the diurnal factor, F is the frequency in MHZ, a;b,c, and d are constants obtained from the tables in paragraph (k)(2) A diurnal factor greater than one will not be used in calculations and interpolation is to be used between 'calculated values where necessary For reference purposes, curves for pre -sunrise and post -sunset diurnal factors are contained in Figures 2 and 3 of /24/85 73AMS -8-

40 &385(k)(2) 0 (2) Constants used in calculating diurnal factors for the pre -sunrise and post - sunset periods are contained in paragraph (k)(2)(i) and (ii) rspectively The columns labeled Tmp represents the number of hours before and after sunrise and senset at the path midpoint (i) Presunrise Constants T,r a b c d = _ _ SR (ii) Post Sunset Constants T, a b c d _ : SS _ _ o 0/27/83 73AM Standard -8a-

41 ( 7386(a)() - (2)(ii) o Establishment of effective field at one mile (a) Section 7345 provides that certain minimum field strengths are acceptable in lieu of the required minimum physical heights of the antennas proper Also, in other situations, it may be necessary to determine the effective field The following requirements shall govern the taking and submission of data on the field strength_pr9d_uced: () Beginning as near to the antenna as possible without including the induction field and to provide for the fact that a broadcast antenna is not a point source of radiation (ndt less than one wave length or 5 times the vertical height in the case of a single element, ie, nondirectional antenna or 0 times the spacing between the elements of a directional antenna), measurements shall be made on eight or more radials, at intervals of approximately 02 kilometers up to 3 kilometers (87 miles) from the antenna, at intervals of approximate) kilometer from 3 kilometers (87 miles) to 0 kilometers (62 miles from the antenna, at intervals of approximately 3 kilometers from 0 kilometers (62 miles) to 25 or 34 kilometers (55 miles or 20 miles) from the antenna, and a few additional measurements if needed at greater distances from the antenna Where the antenna is rurally located and unobstructed measurements can be made, there shall be as many as 8 measurements on each radial However, where the antenna is located in a city where unobstructed measurements are difficult to make, measurements shall be made on each radial at as many unobstructed locations as possible, even thought the intervals are considerably less than stated above, particularly within 3 kilometers of the antenna n cases where it is not possible to obtain accurate measurements at the closer distances (even out to 8 or 0 kilometers due to the character of the intervening terrain), the measurements at greater distances should be made at closer intervals (t is suggested that "wave titlt" measurements may be made to determine and compare locations for taking field strength measurements, particularly to determine that there are no abrupt changes in ground conductivity or that reflected waves are not causing abnormal strengths (2) The date required by subparagraph () of this paragraph should be plotted for each radial in accordance with either of the two methods set forth below: () Using log -log coordinate paper, plot field intensities as ordinate and distance as abscissa (ii) Using semi -log coordinate paper, plat field intensity times distance as ordinate on the log scale and distance as abscissa on the linear scale 7/24/85 73AMS -9-

42 7386ía)(3) (b)c7) (3) However, regardless of which of the methods in paragraph (a)(2) of this section is employed, the proper curve to be drawn throught the points plotted shall be determined by comparison with the curves in 7384 as follows: Place the sheet on which the actual points have been plotted over the appropriate Graph in 7384, hold to the light if necessary and adjust until the curve most closely matching the points is found This curve should then be drawn on the sheet on which the points were plotted, together with the inverse distance curve corresponding to that curve The field at kilometer for the radial concerned shall be the ordinate on the'inverse distance curve at kilometer (4) When all radials have been analyzed in accordance with paragraph (a)(3) of this section, a curve shall be plotted on polar coordinate paper from the fields obtained, which gives the inverse distance field pattern at kilometer The radius of a circle, the area of which is equal to the area bounded by this pattern, is the effective field (See 734) (5) n analyzing the results of a partial proof of performance as defined in 7354 when the data are insufficient for independent graphical analysis, either of two analysis methods may be used n such cases, either the arithmetic average or logarithmic average of the ratios of field strength at each measurement point along each radial to the corresponding field strength in the latest complete proof of performance may be utilized to establish the inverse distance fields (The logarithmic average for each radial is the antilogarithm of the mean of the logarithms of the ratios of field strength (new to old) for each measurement location a given radial) along (6) The antenna power of the station shall be maintained at the authorized level during all field measurments The rower determination will be made using the direct method as described in 735(a) with instruments of acceptable accuracy specified in 7325 (b) Complete data takenin conjunction with the field intensity measurements shall be submitted to the Commission in affidavit form including the following: ()' Tabulation by number of each point of measurement to agree with the map required in (2) below; the date and time for each measurement, the field strength (E) the distance from the antenna (D) and the product of the field Strengthand distance (ED) ( if data for each radial are plotted or semi -logarithmic paper, see above) for each point of measurement (2)? p showing each point of measurement numbered to agree with tabulation required above (3) Description of method used to take fieldstrength measurements (4+) The family of theoretical curves used in determining the curve for each radial properly identified by conductivity and dielectric constants (5) The curves drawn for each radial and the field 3 treng th pattern (6) The antenna resistance at the operating frequency (7) Antenna current or currents maintained during field $ treng th measurements -J 3/3/86 73AMS -20-

43 (b) o O 7397 Linitation on daytime radistion (a)() Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (a)c2) and (3) of this section, no authorization will be granted for Class facilities if the proposed facilities would radiate during the period of critical houea (the two hours after local sunrise and the two hours before local sunset) toward any point on the 0mV/m contour of a co -channel US Class -A or -8 station, at or below the pertinent verticalangle determined from Curve 4 of Figure 6a of 7390, values in excess of those obtained as provided in paragraph (b) of this section (2) The limitation set forth in paragraph (a)() of this section shall not apply in the following cases: (i) Any Class facilities authorized before November 30, 959; or (ii) For Class stations authorized before November 30, 959, subsequent changes in facilities which do not involve a change in frequency, an increase in radiation toward any point on the 0mV/m contour of a co -channel US Class -A or -3 station, or the move of transmitter site materially closer to the 0mVm contour of such Class -A or -3 station (3) f a Class station authorized before November 30, 959, is authorized to increase its daytime radiation in any direction toward the 0mV/m contour of a co -channel Class -A or -3 station (without a change in frequency or a move of transmitter site materially closer to such contour), it may not during the two hours after local sunrise or the two hours before local sunset, radiate in such directions a value exceeding the higher of; (i) The value radiated in such directions with facilities last authorized before November 30, 959, or (ii) The limitation specified in paragraph (a)(i) of this section (b) To obtain the maximum permissible radiation for a Class station on a given frequency (fkc) from 640 kc/s through 990 khz multiply the radiation value obtained for the given distance and azimuth from the 500 kc chart (Figure 9 of 7390) by the appropriate interpolation factor shown in the K500 column of paragraph (c) of this section; and multiply the radiation value obtained for the given distance and azimuth from the 000 khz chart (Figure 0 of 7390) by the appropriate interpolation factor shown in the K000 column of paragraph (c) of this section Add the two products thus obtained; the result is the maximum radiation value applicable to the Class station in the pertinent directions For frequencies from 00 khz to 580 khz obtain in a similar manner the proper radiation values from the 000 kc and 600 kc charts (Figures 0 and of 7390), multiply each of these values by the appropriate interpolation factor in the K'000 and K'600 columns in paragraph (c) of this section, and add the products o 2/4/84 73 AM STANDARDS -20a-

44 o (c) nterpolation factors 73i87(c) - r(2) () Frequencies below 000 khz f khz K500 K 000 f khz K 500 K 000 o 64o o o o o o o 0360 c 68o o ,,J o o 030o o o o o o (2) Frequencies above 000 K'000 K'600 f' K'000 K' o o , o /3/86 73 AM STANDARDS 2-23

45 J 73i (a) (b) (2) (iii) Minimum antenna heights or field strength requirements -(a) Section requires that all applicants for new, additional, or different broadcast facilities and ail licensees requesting authority to move the transmitter of an existing station, shall specify a radiating system, the efficiency of which complies with the requirements of good engineering practice for the class and power of the station (b) The specifications deemed necessary to meet the requirements of good engineering practice at the present state of the art are set out in detail below () The licensee of a standard broadcast station requesting a change in power, time of operation, frequency, or transmitter location must also request authority to install a new antenna system or to maxe changes in the existing antenna system which will meet the minimum height requirements; or submit evidence that the present antenna system meets the minimum aquirements with respect to field intensity, oefore favorable consideration will be given thereto (See 7306) n the event it is proposed to mace substantial changes in an existing antenna system, the changes shall be such as to meet the minimum height requirements or will be permitted subject to the submission of field intensity measurements showing that it meets the minimum requirements with respect to effective field intensity (2) These minimum actual physical vertical heights of antennas permitted to be instilled are shown by curves A, B, and C of Figure 7 of as follows: (i) Class V stations and stations in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Roco and the USVirgin slands on 230, 240, 340, 400, 450 and 490 khz that were formerly Class V and were redesignated as Class pursuant to Section 7326(b), 45 meters or a minimum effective field strength of 24mV/m for lkw (2mV/m for 025kW) (This height applies to a Class V station on a local channel only Curve A shall apply to any Class V stations in the 48 conterminous states that are assigned to Regional channels) (ii) Class -N and Class stations, and Class stations other than those covered in Section 7389(b)(2)(i), a minimum effective field strength of 282mV/m for kw iii) Class -A, and -B stations, a minimum effective field strength of 362 mv/m for kw G 3/3/86 73AMS -24-

46 7389(b)(3) - (6) (3) The heights given on the graph for the antenna apply regardless of whether the antenna is located on the ground or on a building Except for the reduction of shadows, locating the antenna on a building does not necessarily increase the efficiency and where the height of the building is in the order of a quarter wave the efficiency may be materially reduced (4) At the present development of the art, it is considered that where a vertical radiator is employed with its base on the ground, the ground system should consist of buried radial wires at least one-fourth wave length long There should be as many of these radials evenly spaced as practicable and in no event less than 90 (20 radials of 035 to 04 of a wave length in length and spaced 3 is considered an excellent ground system and in case of high base voltage, a base screen of suitable dimensions should be employed) (5) n case it is contended that the required antenna efficiency can be obtained with an antenna of height or ground system less than the minimum specified, a complete field intensity survey must be supplied to the Commission showing that the field intensity at a mile without absorption fulfills the minimum requirements (See 97386) This field survey must be made by a qualified engineer using equipment of acceptable accuracy (6) The main element or elements of a directional antenna system shall meet the above minimum requirements with respect to height or effective field intensity No directional antenna system will be approved which is so desigsled that the effective field of the array is less than the minimum prescribed for the class of station concerned, or in case of a Class station less than 90 percent of the ground wave field which would be obtained from a perfect antenna of the height specified by Figure 7 of 7390 for operation on frequencies below 000 kilocycles, and in the case of a Class or station less than 90 percent of the ground wave field which would be obtained from a perfect antenna of the height specified by Figure 7 of for operation on frequencies below?50 kilocycles 3/3/86 73AMS -25-

47 O 7390(a) - (e) 7390 Enáineering charts and related formulas (a) This section consists of tae following Figures: la, lb, 2, r3, 5, 68, 7, 8, 9, 0,, and 3 Additionally, formulas that are directly related to graphs are included b Figure la depicts 50% field strength values (F(50)) ) For distances greater than 4250 kilometers, the following formula may be used to compute 50% field strength values: Fc - antilog d/000- yv/m 20 where: F=50% skywave field strength values (F(50) de= path distance in kilometers (2) 0% field strength values F(0) are derived from Figure la by the following formula: F(0)=F(50) + 8 db db(mv/m) (3) The field strength value in Figure la at 00 km also is to be used for distance less than 00 km However, the actual great -circle distance is to be used in determining angle of departure (c) Figure lb depicts 50% field strength values F(50) for calculations involving Alaskan stations () The following formula also may be used for computing field strength values for such applications: Fc=95-20oga-20 ((d+300)/000) 54 db( uv/m) where: F=50% skywave filed strength values F(50) in db ( uv/m) (lc= path distance in kilometers (2) 0% field strength values F(0) are derived from Figure lb from the following formula: F(0) F(50)+3 db microvolts per meter (d) Figure 6a depicts angles of departure versus transmission range These angles may also be computed using the following formulas: A =tan'' (K cot+ d) d (e) n the event of disagreement between computed values using the formulas shown above and values obtained directly from the figures, the computed values will control Where: d is distance in kilometers n= for 50% field strength values n=2 or 3 for 0% field strength values and Where: K= K2= K= Note-Computations using these formulas should not be carried beyond 0 degree degrees Note - t might not hurt to check with FCC first to see if the charts as reproduced here in, due to their small scale, may be used in connection with material submitted to them 3/3/86 73 AMS- -26-

48 ab74 G s! T,4i t * 2 r! innir/2 i:arp4eaia 4aPe`?aaeiaeeeaaPa3 'Unit:* #iisi it gb Éi! a2 /t a - wee ggt2/ //i/ tiilz2it aai4:2tit! t2s i/#ttt2ie iiitei /i// # #i / / ( 92! al Mil li#=i :glil!llliili!! i3illlilllálli;llimili=lliilllii!! áá ##ala#l!# ## á##elfill #P3#9lilf##!#!N##li##!#!###!,###i#f#! WAi s!ª 05- ii J i3 i iiiilif0i Oi ifi i i 0 iil ii :: i3 0 s ii iiiiii sg:/035s:s 30a 2R, 4 zp0 aaa=s 2rrf!f f/ t!/ rl2f rtie N l,d,i33 aiti,di4liv $-!$gaa32 aiii#tti : 3O f' WW i3_ = _ilg::4m!4li!!:! íi mg! mi :íi:! _::::s $ ss Éi s é: : a s=_ 3 : :M9 ;Mli = #! f f ##s MP,á##li a:laaal! :3 º! aaf#f:i: - : C, i,i- l:illíi'3l$3=ü 7 a 39 f 9' S:' = ai Z3Z: aaa asi:s: PE Za a::i - : :'::=:::::il: :: _ = := 3= imp :ay ::::::::: =3=;:i::i===: ` HND3::::: :=:3:==== - -s\ aape#ay F\>;' 43SiS ta!ar\r2hrl/iprllsrfif!!! s24s4,:5/45sas!a!,4t Mt/i f/f3i/t/ta//i!t/i t/t/i7ttttlsrralli/iiii!#!i/_iii i9atl/#4es# : 6 = ' ::= =4t eiasel s#4' s3s=á4## ii 'gs943s33#s##aniufefl4flfelfy N l f2lil/f2f2/ffefm2ff!#ifllgaf#efoffs9e///el#ieleaie3e g=áii=li%3siéfiéalllfila3c`-isii3uiiiniilfilillfiifillii[ihiiiihh 0 iiliilllifi#ii i3e3i iiii4iilli íi la=l::=_=4si;;lglmi 5Mlníii:u:ülliMigMiiÍEl::llllua:diill ia'4a+9qt i0 ry94±!40 agss f i(al!,,tt rf / tt!r! /r t R:322,20/ itlrlrt!\!r#i i:#ib4ºeae44r r e,3é#==83 2át3i/ii844±± lites iie2!s2ttet tett2iafts tifse/ l2ii/iltta#ia/tt!!m22sf#e/it itlfti/i_l'ett2gi2ttaltt z/ á\"2"252"22" -s ái=t9le sa t#i 3###aRii!!s'--lisiá###áullil! s #, ilfl H N Offfeffel #elle fre/ /!#t s f a ellil, f2f3# flsi-ág2áifll i'=ilii=i3=i-iii50#m lil=_==gi9i9illiifeii MEd" 0 iiii flll!/i i0lli4i;ni3 SillilEilli #444=34 =ilsgl ig3i54li$lielilégli:!lillll#le lllli!!i!! i: :i!! Ei! ; aas aá$ 8-3 glll$ll84 i'!4gl!! s_ +! a s a =_s=as: 3 ss :_ S6g:l:llº=_::_a_-l's-=saiif! tllh:::lasl:!!!l=:l:!l::6 =_=_- Lard s= =-: "a 3 a E! a6$:3a3 : z33 3 s a ra oa i: : ii:: ii i a s 35 4 E::sa: s :-: 3:g asa _ea a : : aa i0ilii i:: i : =3:iii ; ::: :ii::= :ia_::::::::?:=::e:::::::::::::::::e;e ::i:=:::ss!wp2 Pd,4Y=44:ia=3sCi'3:,asem= --aaae3,4f26n/la 22h/t/2/ae/raaasiSgEE,-;ti\Pal44,eeiecn ",4aP '80/i/E2i9;is3P=G Riittá==ll3EºSQ±slááá#3t3sái=_ªSB#liflOlifill/lfiflf#tflfllilfflftli:sfilffe/E/#e e#ifetesiifllfsliitlsl4f/grá3ales4e#4áe2i# giri si=llii4sii=i=i=-'=-ililfss`liiiii=lli/iilliii Li litiif:!ifiliiiii3#s'4i3iielsiilleialiii=il :!l:! Rgn_i72x=2a is:42z95'at 4lli,ssrlRellrf/lii2,lfs2/2,/it:u i Gseaa =Psre:Sesls3/8sitP,t/&s\* t 5-:=2e#R8#'=á=P=>á,4º,42Li/ONaer2tstt/tittlttet/ets_/Oaiiéillt23f2tSlits4?=2sta3Cte'fnt0t rin": : ==l!sá:: ii-agil_ =!sgf a-s #i P M : M aw ::: -:: :a:_:al lllaé ic:z:áss ;== : = x ' i4x 2te422eite s2rsei''i-!tinut/ge,z NeetttUt N2Usseiettsititt2settOi HetE4/letel+,alttlltt\i\,4\RP,Ptetttt/est tettatlg#,i222 ita] etfseflllifelise3fsifesefleesi tisoel/felelahfsehlnlele/efefff#lile/bufleelsfihs/llnelelflü#slfoflet#\tepl#iet3tilielltflelielflet3f tllisllfl# n ta3,,s42 li!!l4ellliil0is}:;!ptl!l!!im :lill!!lliáliéllm=,lilllliil Sl4\P744p4P PEs, r-r!\lp34 24,/,b lr, 4 tsn s%t22t>2822s2t2ieaelstosi#;=3t6esltt:-'2tte2i22tltettfai2a2 t!s:et/s#i!ittil6tsaar2l'sa2tltil2l2222s!i'si!iltre22 'lr n!u if uulel!#!#/e4tafllle!#esu,tfflt44#illil/eieiefll44q#/f6#ii i43iiii9iiiil_i33i=iüiíiitak::!iu_lli fii00ih0iielliili_ibliiiillllliiiiiii =Míllllliii/i=s=_Q4gáii:3i3Eiillg:::iliiiilliliilllelleMiUe :: liiiiiifi:i!lliliiil!liillli llsiliiililii Mii3ialá3é==i:gi ssss _:="-a :=$ªl-sl='-g _ 0 a ss3: sa s a '_ 33 a a 2slass:Ei :===::e====:3á='='= --- = illffieblal=i:s=s 3' á íé=e3i 's:'' /=ááái 3ía -:: i i 6á á':áá :'r :::::::::::::::! :i e:: : = : : : :: Oblinc (RRi4) e

49 ; ' i -; i ' :EM { ' r i _sss _ al o O' n 0 S db uv/ - i nị ' Rater f Í' i iltí} i i' -' f{ ;: d is less krs, FGURE lb [L'- } } é is evaluated to + } k "' i jl f ~revel, the actu t l"j is to be used angle of departur i illl r 'Ll i -Í :! li} E than 250 rj 'L { - i r d 250 k T't - '; _:: -,r;i N,; Í _ ' rl value of b -,!-r', iii, ir,rj_ t}, CKYMAVE CURVES MR -_ TE C t determining, i ; NG-WttTUDE AREAS - ',,-, -4 i -T T loo N/a at Re,_u 2 flours After Sunset tt i`t i - - :_ j; 4 t Í!; ~! } Í 7 >! i } ;;i;; i'f ;iil; ÍÍ J i i:- j 4" : }^'-r ' ' i_,_ 'i'': 'iy`iy-,'jl ; yi ',, -`l Í} r} i '» TT- ',,L_, 7 -,i---;+ r'^-c ;'l;f,{ i: ++ 4, ' *Íll `Y _';{,' i t i 0t_ t -i N -}!' (7 ' '` ` (t r '' ;i -! ``i r,- `j (+,{j, ü ' Ti '{; ' - i Ly/wi ihp i r li i!i ; i, (HT, i ^ "lluillhilil, t Si/SC i -,f - ppppwww ma a r, Ri; J r '' f : u' + Nwq/w! + i ` ;? tt in fk ``T -, -+ - }'- ;! L, l ṙl, - " + ;;i Í " { ;i" }i i it- ' -4!- ; _ Íj } i; a j i }L i m ; (! r ;; ' - }+i i ; :-,: _ LiLx í, w,4-t: r_ 0, _ r-et s 4 J - :- _L i y `!' '' ', nw, c; 0 wwwtffmb; r wwmw ;-, -r } Í T}; 2aq dd h L d d,,4- S,-"- - (! µ,t i j- t t, 4 Í 4 -_ i ft i i 'tlyóoi y Í{ p L' ` r,;'' 0o/f - ` -, - r 4! Íit ;' - -t-' Í - F` ( ; N-'- ',, _, 'i : r! _ - f* j _Íii ' 7 l K tfeters wi * uii i inn _ ;, t --r :, ; y! ' t7 tr -t y;-', :- - -, - 'Jf(»! 2pk -+ ; ea `'i} :,!,-r{{ -L * i l + +T- Sp4 l, -- _ l;l{ T, :TT=i} i- --r' ' i 4500 snort ' _ o 73 AM Standard Figure -lb-

50 S33203C N 3C(V N0d-CN HVd 0 O er P CO Q LO O gt8= E E g BgEmS N 9 O ñ pe O O O 9 mmm,_ d gd; (w/a^) 47Eu"3S PO:d n9n/>s 555,_ 5 5 ; O 9 O 7/24/85 73AMS Figure 2

51 FCC 390, FGURE R3 J

52 a %v i 0 o, -0,94 s ; 0, 00, rtt if,li' tr iii tttt ii t r Neu mo jj N s j /, j Í 4Í Í4 Í 4 ji

53 - 4 j - 4 o o i ----! ANGLES OF DEPARTURE VERSUS TRANSMSSON RANGE ó N for use n computing 50% signals 2 and 3 for use in computing 0% signals o N o co L e tan - (kn cot 44454) d d o 0 where: k (he 9656 km) k2 gm (he 2070 km) k (he ' 7242 km) m E o O C N - O o V C lo _ ' - - _: : ---=:: _ :== : _= - i - : _ i } _ - J --' _' _' -_--? - -- t -_ :j- -'---::',:7-; - -- ^- - -X--5::,-:- -_ ' - O ' o oco o O o '- t : - i -,--_-i,:-_- ';: ` - _ : _: ^= ' ' ' +"-_- í : ' : ' : ' - ' --_7" T ' ' p r - -- ' - --' ,-,-,--:-- -' - _ ' :- : ^ '_ =4 _- ---z:--:--i ' --f=72-- : _ i - y :" o O o O O' m O, e _ O o o ti C Departure Angle in Degrees FCC FGURE 6a o N 7/24/85 73AMS Figure 6a

54 M ;s s s ::::::::::::! tiiiii i: i=:c== SHE s Et;;ei:! N i '::i : = o= w : :r :2',:oi::= ::s t:::':: N t':::i'::a:y = t::te:i:::t:ii=: N t::t ':' /:: 'i t :e 4 4 :i :C e iii%*=ii= :du :E5:04,s : MNN 5:+ s:, 3: -, fl L :u::: :: 2:a3: N Y Y YY tt::i:i N :liiefi:i=i: ""' aa:4lc s= 9=t:t a gr r::=e::::ñ: ta =i5:: _ a :--!! 'E = Y! e: : : : _ - MK= 2srss : =r :YMÑ:t w s=i= :t= ', _ t _: _:: ii:: S: : al t i mmes imem'''(iaink'summk'','' 4~;' = sts :ii?p'il:iiºi

55 -;::: :::ss=e: if Ell :s =_ :::;::::::::EE ::s s i u EEEis:t: :mu -4P : E:::::: : : : ::::e :s, ss:ese:s= s s ieee= E:E si:: =se:::eet s= i::::_:;:: z::eeeeea ::_:_ : L: ::s EiEE=E=EEEE:EEEgiE ss :::EEE=eea:sEEEéii :feeieeeeeeees : = - - :E=g:éEEsEEEEEEE:::: ss r s = S S:Li : i :i EEEEE:EEEEEi iieeee::: Ea EEE EE=EEEsE== Ea = r:se a:::i"' i= s s EEEEEi EEEE E :: :': : ==u::s si i:e::, s:ss ÉEEEEEE:: 'EEEEEEa:a:::e mum:: :::=:EPEEEEEEEEEE:'sEEEE:E ::::s i :: : a::s::s:: s s s EsEésEEEEE s r: =s 3 s:t! =E!l::::' ::E::: i 00, =::=:Ls seeeeees::::'::ss::s=: :iee::::e::eeeee at : E :EEEE:a= E, :E::s :E- ;i:::r eticol JE: : : =i L=! : 'E i:ee::: : _ : s ;: ;E= _ E:á:s-- :sé, iese:e3:r as E s::eee::e E::::E:EEs= i= HAM s s!:: : '8E =EEE 9EEs=E iee =EE;EEE E s _E_ s ::::::s EEiE0EEE==': s:e:a:ess : : l:::asee:::= :EE :=E:E s a! ss!i s : v, s s s = : 80 l s9s _ : :: ss s, s 70 ; : 60 W : _ : 50 ; s : s 700! 40 : : ; : 600 : Antenna Height in Wavelength (Curve A ) Frequency ( Curve 8) G 7390 FGURE 8

56 Millivolts Per Meter s ó 2 E ' t//r,lrardllllfu nnnnn - nlnnll tll/u:w'lruttnnlnnllluui :MUM llllnu //urdn:nllrin/nllllramn:nuluu;l! unnlnlnllnm ll /////,/5!'i/i 'd / Mi' /urrmnt:n,n/nf di: / '//,'/ óllllli// dllll iiiii /m/, /',//t!,,, E : ' ' /r;í; ÍÍÍÚÍÍÍiiiiiéiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiÚÍ Í i iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiíúí i ÍÍÍ iiii iii iiiiiiiiiiíqíífí Íiii/,i,4i 'u /J'lllllll!//!tal '/i!!tr'llllllll:tlll, lllltllllllll, /, /,,/ d, t /'//!/'/:, m /''/!'ót: 'dp ui Ul/r'dllll'b'',;nuP% /' '/v/:r4; la' /////!//',l: A'/7/','4r:'d / tlllm ug'rr/',m,n/van;nn;up, l /J'/'J5///' udt; n'i m lill,/ //!''/tií!'d M li/!'/i'ói:;, /,:,, llllilllll;lllll dllll, ll NN Rnnn,/nlP,nm;mll'lllul'i E na /''nit'uji:'d l'/d/,/í;: Z/ ' N ''di::; nn l'r/'//',nru6n:',u t l innnl W// '',,'i Ell,M/',llllrl ''/ 'd; M ', amuse muumuu rmt', t Ntl'ullr,lllt!n n/u M/ /', HU 4' tttu / Pnr/', d' ll ' // Z,4 i' // l' ll /' ' n NEWS // HM digit ' Eli Wag g E ' / WHM 't, OHM M i t l Minn WW,' o Distance from 0 M0 Contour in Mi/es, r,

57 ~ -o,, «~~"% ~h_ ~Ea v_ A- -"Mk- -" ill`-"lil~ a uiligill mg "; h_ 32~iiraPiellam b \ illii-~5~99~ 0 he i kb- kb_ him_ O '`g Ñlkam_ Mil a : vis_ - lbwi_ Niíi F_ o_ Mia"MaghtareigegaiMiLTL t- _H hámiii~i ga WMNWPRbi925 NMCSONEWS~ ERR -- g : ls= mia '~ : _ -- als_ ü -u _ xxo M e axg8em =aaxxxces mil ==8R=:Waiiimam:= mag i:=::=:::iliii:ili3:i:iiiiiiii:9:i:iiise :::::: iiiiiiiii i i:: ' 99 ': t EMENEEu RZm=====AMMEMEffiiiii~~ ~6al s::m::: " =! a9aéé UMW! =Eggi==xangfiglgalliggliiligii =5=========a=3= =EMMEMZEZEM===2: = w= xxx kiiiiii~ =iii=i=== o-_-x= x- EREs - -EF - : ' : ' 4 «: ' ' ' : ' : :r- -"MUM

58 t PERMSSBLE DAYTME RADATON FOR CLASS STATONS 0, khz c """ r`; it r,t,_,r=:;_í Azimuth 730 FGURE AM Standard

59 7390 C! it - - ' : ,-_= =-,-,-=-' =-=--='----- wwar G=w==v-_- OEM iemm= rr- wwwc=s ks==awukr+ - rui-iii rttyet Nr'"fflf:ÍáliiÍiÍiiii i mum - ' n:;ii{iiü n vs _ --- iswtis=ifcáwiiªs_ámsomnoas PP' fsºsf iq ;;; e:i::pm ss ~~ ' a - H ;illi ie,tii;i r -fizaw-~er,- -- r,, i==s r---- -_ í=iegsaarrso~ rwawssww WWW:`"-ws""-~ WDM swssa-a sri 7i''! fl!inifl!ai!wo=p" Y!_:*_!!MflwllN s_ew ssams-ns=_ss:wisrsss _ Z ' :acif ===c7, 8i8ii:iili:RÁaf: 'tlf:in::anf:p_'nin UlfRualw,-mnU:::EN O:mimu ºf,Mp_ toll'mouou50ii:{:{u Nino weelo,a- i~mn - filmilglfllnlelii ::::::::alai i!i!iim/iile:iifii : /il89rifñüilff Abti Foetal qlvtn in trms Ot hour wila -- -_ tie! to 9l;!' Frequency n KHz Figure 3 C 0/27/83 73 AM Standard

60

61 TABLE OF CONTENTS FM TECHNCAL STANDARDS 7330 FM definitions 733 Field strength contours 7332 Topographic data 7333 Prediction of coverage 7334 Field strength measurements 7335 F7 transmitter location 7336 FM antenna systems 7337 Transmission system r_eauirements 7338 FM blanketing interference 7339 F7 multiplex subcarrier technical standards ndicating instruments - specifications 73322! sterophonic sound transmission standards Engineering charts 73 27'S -T-

62 47330 MU FM TECHtCAL STANDARDS 5733l0 FM broadcast technical definitions (a) Antenna height above average terrain (HAAT) HAAT is calculated by: determining the average of the antenna heights above the terrain from 3 to 6 kilometers (2 to 0 miles) from the antenna for each 45 degrees of azimuth starting with True North (a different antenna height will be determined in each direction from the antenna): and computing the average of these separate heights n some cases less than eight directiond may be used (See 7333(d)) Where circular or elliptical polarization is used, the antenna height above average terrain must be based upon the height of the radiation of the antenna that transmits the horizontal component of radiation Antenna power gain The square of the ration of the root - mean -square (RMS) free space field strength produced at kilometer in the horizontal plane in millivolts per meter for kw antenna input power to 224 mv/m This ratio is expressed in decibels (db) f specified for a particular direction, antenna power gain is based on that field strength in the direction only The term "center frequency" ammo: Center frequency () The average frequency of the emitted wave when modulated by a sinusoidal signal (2) The frequency of the emitted wave without modulation Composite baseband signal A signal which is composed of all program and other communications signals that frequency modulated the FM carrier Effective radiated paver The term "effective radiated paver" means the product of the antenna parer (transmitter output power less transmission' line loss) times () the antenna paver gain, or (2) the antenna field gain squared Where circular or elliptical polarization is employed, the term effective radiated parer is applied separately to the horizontal and vertical components of radiation For allocation purposes, the effective radiated paver authorized is the horizontally polarized component of radiation only Equivalent sotropically radiated lower (E') The term "equivalent isotropically radiated power (also known as effective radiated paver above isotropic) means the product of the antenna input power and the antenna gain in a given direction relative to an isotropic antenna F Blanketing Blanketing is that form of interference to the reception of other broadcast stations which is caused by the presence of an F" broadcast signal of 5 d9u (562 mv/m or greater signal strength in the area adjacent to the antenna of the transmitting station The 5 dbu contour is referred to as the blanketing contour and the area within this contour is referred to as the blanketing area 2/4/84 73FMS --

63 7330(a) - (b) FM broadcast band The band of frequencies extending from 88 to 08 p'hrtz, which includes those assigned to noncommercial educational broadcasting FM broadcast channel A band of frequencies 200 k$z wide and designated by its center frequency Channels for FM broadcast stations begin at 88 MH Z and continue in suc-essive steps of 200 k HZ to and including 079 MdTz FM broadcast station A station employing frequency modulation in the FM broadcast band and licensed primarily for the transmission of radiotelephone emissions intended to be received by the general public Field strength The electric field strength in the horizontal plane Free stpace field strength The field strength that would exist at a point n the absence of waves reflected from the earth or other reflecting objects Frequency departure The anoint of variation of a carrier frequency or center frequency fran its assigned value Frequency deviation The peak difference between the instantaneous frequency of the modulated wave and the carrier frequency Frequency Modulation A system of modulation where the inatantaneous radio frequency varies in proportion to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulilting signal (amplitude of modulating signal to be measured after pre -emphasis, if used) and the instantaneous radio frequency is independent of the frequency of the modulating signal Frequency swing The peak difference between the maximum and the minimum values of the instantaneous frequency of the carrier wave during modulation Multiplex transmission The term '?multiplex transmission" medns the simultaneous transmission of two or more signals within a single channel Multiplex transmission as applied to FM broadcast stations means the transmission of facsimile or other signals in addition to the regular broadcast signals Percentage modulation The ratio of the actual frequency deviation to the frequency deviation defined as 00% modulation, expressed in percentage Fbr FM broadcast stations, a frequency deviation of + 75 khz is defined as 00% modulation (b) Stereophonic sound The radio information carried by plurality of channels arranged to afford the listner a sense of the spatial distribution of soond sources Sterophonic sound broadcasting includes, but is not limited to, biohonic (two, channel), triohonic (three channel) and quadrophonic (four channel) program service /4/84 73Ff'S -a-

64 7330(b) - (d) Stereophonic sound broadcasting Cross talk An undesired signal occurring in one channel caused by an electrical signal in another channel FM stereophonic broadcasting The transmission of stereophonic program by a single FM broadcast station utilizing the main channel and a stereophonic subchannel Left (or right signal The electrical output of a microphcne or combination of microphones placed so as to convey the intensity, timo, and location of sounds originating predominately to the listener's left (or right) of the center of the performing area Left (or right) stereophonic channel The left (or right) signal as electrically reproduced in reception of FM stereophonic broadcasts Main channel The band of frequencies from 50 to 5,000,Hz which frequency modulate the main carrier Pilot subcarrier A subcarrier that serves as a control signal for use in the reception of FM stereophonic sound broadcasting Stereophonic seperation The ratio of the electrical signal caused in sound channel A to the signal caused in sound channel B by the transmission of only a channel B signel Channels A and B may be any two channels of a stereophonic sound broadcast transmission system Stereophonic sound subcarrier A subcarrier within the FM broadcast baseband used for transmitting signels for stereophonic sound reception of the main broadcast program service Stereophonic sound subchannel The band of frequencies from 23KHz to 99kHz containing sound subcarriers and their associated sidebands Facsimile Available line The portion of the total length of scanning line that can be used specifically for picture signals, ndex of cooperation The product of the number of lines- per inch, the available line length in inches, and the reciprocal of the line -use ration (eg, 0 5x82x8/7-984) Line -use ratio The ration of the available line to the total length of scanning line Optical density The logarithm (to the base 0) of the radio of indicent totransmítted or reflected light Rectilinear scanning The process of scanning an area in a predetermined sequence of narrow straight parallel strips (c) Visual transmissions Communications or message transmitted on a subcarrier intended for reception and visual presentation on a viewing screen, teleprinter, facsimile printer, or other form of graphic display or record (d) Control and telemetry transmissions Signels transmitted on a multiplex subcarrier intended for any form of control and switching functions or for equipment status data and aural or visual alarms 733 Field strength contours (a) Applications for FM broadcast authorization must show two field strength contours These are the 70 dbu (36mv/m), 60 dbu ( my/m) These contours indicate only the approximate extent of coverage over average terrain and in the absence of interference Under actual conditions, the true coverage may vary greatly from these esimates because the terrain over any specific path is expected to be different from the average terrain on which the field strength chart was based Because of these factors the estimated contours give no assistance of service to any specific percentage of receiver 2/4/94 73 FMS -2-

65 733Q(a)- 7332(d) O locations within the distances indicated (b) The field strength contours provided for in this section shall be considered for the following purposes only: () n the estimation of coverage resulting from the selection of a particular transmitter site by an applicant for an FM broadcast station (2) n connection with problems of coverage arising out of application of (3) n determining compliance with 7335(a) concerning the minimum field strength to be provided over the principal community to be served C 7332 Topographic data (a) n the preparation of the profile graphs previously described, and in determining the location and height above mean sea level of the antenna site, the elevation or contour intervals shall be taken from United States Geological Survey Topographic Quadrangle Maps, United States Army Corps of Engineers Maps or Tennessee Valley Authority maps, whichever is the latest, for all areas for which such maps are available f such maps are not published for the area in question, the next best topographic information should be used Topographic data may sometimes be obtained from state and municipal agencies The data from the Sectional Aeronautical Charts (including bench marks) or railroad depot elevations and highway elevations from road maps may be used where no better information is available n cases where limited topographic data can be obtained, use may be made of an altimeter in a car driven along roads extending generally radially from the transmitter site (b) The Commission will not ordinarily require the submission of topographical maps for areas beyond 5 miles from the antenna site, but the maps must include the principal city or cities to be served f it appears necessary, additional data may be requested (c) The US Geological Survey Topography Quadrangle Sheets may be obtained from the US Geological Survey Department of the nterior, Washington, D C The Sectional Aeronautical Charts are available from the US Coast and Geodetic Survey, Department of Commerce, Washington, D C These maps may also be secured from branch offices and from authorized agents or dealers in most principal cities (d) n lieu o generated except i point or better to the data processed ear interpolation antenna site must f maps, the average t n cases of dispute, u pographic data file for intermediate poi techniques The heig be obtained manually errain elevation sing elevations f The file must be nts along each ra ht above mean sea using appropriate may be computer rom a 30 second identified and dial -using linlevel of the topographic maps 0 3/29/95 73FmS -3-

66 7333(a) (c)() o 733l3 Prediction of coverage (a) All predictions of coverage made pursuant to this section shall be made without regard to interference and shall be made only on the basis of estimated field strengths (b) Predictions of coverage shall be made only for the same purposes as relate to the use of field strength contours as specifid in 733 (c) n predicting the distance to the field strength contours, the F(50,50) field strength chart, Figure of must be used The 50% field strength is defined as that value exceeded for 50% of the time () The F(50,50) chart gives the estimated 50% field strengths exceeded at 40% of the locations in db above uv/m The chart is based on an effective power radiated from a half -wave dipole antenna in free space, that produces an unattenuated field strength at kilometer of about 07 db above uv/m (224 mv/m) FN CD3/28/85 / g 5 73FMS -3a-

67 C l

68 4333(e) (2) - (d) (4) (2) To use the chart for other powers, the sliding scale associated with the chart should be trimmed and used as the ordinate scale This sliding scale is placed on the chart with the appropriate gradation for power n line with the horizontal 40 db line on the chart The right'edge of the scale is placed in line with the appropriate antenna height gradations, and the chart then becomes direct reading (in uv/m and in db above uv/s) for this power and antenna height Where the antenna height is not one of those for which a scale is provided, the signal strength or distance is deterained by interpolation between the curves connecting the equidistant scale Dividers may be used in lieu of the sliding scale n predicting the distance to the field strength contours, the effective radiated power to be used is that in the horizontal plane in the pertinent direction n predicting other field strengths over areas not in horizontal plane, the effective radiated power to be used is the power in the direction of such areas; the appropriate vertical plane radiation pattern must, of course, be considered in de - termini -a-4 this power r (d) The antenna height to bc used with this chart is the height of the radiation center of the antenna above the average terrain along the radial in question n determining the average elevation of the terrain, the elevations between 3 and 6 kilometers from the antenna site are used () Profile graphs must be drawn for eight radials beginning at the antenna site and extending 6 kilometers therefrom The radials should be drawn for each 450 of azimuth starting with True North At least on radial must include the principal community to be served even though it may be more than 6 kilometers from the antenna site However in the event none of the evenly spaced radials include the principal community to be served, and one or more such radials are drawn in addition, these radials must not be used in computing the antenna height above average terrain (2) Where the 3 to 6 kilometers portion of a radial extends in whole or in part over a large body of water or extends over foreign territory but the 50 uv/m contour encompasses land area within the United States beyond the 6 kilometers portion of the radial, the entire 3 to 6 kilometers portion of the radial must be included in the computation of antenna height above average terrain However, where the 5u uv/m contour does not so encompass United States land area and (i) the entire 3 to 6 kilometers portion of the radial extends over large bodies of water or foreign territory, such radial must be completely omitted from the computation of antenna height above average terrain, and (ii) where a part of the 3 to 6 kilometers portion of a radial extends over large bodies of water or foreign territory, only that part of the radial extending from the 3 kilometers sector to the outermost portion of land area within the United States covered by the radial must be used in the computation of antenna height above average terrain (3) The prfile graphs for each radial should be plotted by contour intervals of from 2 to 30 meters and, where the data permits, at least 50 points of elevation (generally uniformly spaced) should be used for each radial n instances of very rugged terrain where the use of contour intervals of 30 meters would result in several points in a short distance, 60 or 20 meter contour intervals may be used for such distances On the other hand, where the terrain is uniform or gently sloping the smallest contour interval indicated on the topographic map should be used, although only relatively few points may be available The profile graph should indicate the topography accurately for each radial, and the graphs should be plotted with the distance in kilometers as the abscissa and the elevation in meters above mean sea level as the ordinate The profile graphs should indicate the source of the topographical data used The graph shoull also show the elevation of the center of the radiating system The graph may be plotted either on rectangular coordinate paper or on special paper that shows the curvature of the earth t is not necessary to take the curvature of the earth into consideration in this procedure as this factor is taken care of in the chargs showing signal strengths The average elevation of the 3 kilometer distance between 3 and 6 kilometers from the antenna site should then be determined from the profile graph for each radial This may be obtained by averaging a large number of equally spaced points, by using a planimeter, or by obtaining the median elevation (that exceeded for 50% of the distance) in sectors and averaging those values (4) Examples of HAAT calculations: (i) The heights above average terrain on the eight radials are as follows: 9/4/83 73 F7[ Standard -4-

69 7333(d)(4) - (h) Meten 0' 20 /5' ' 85 35' 90 80' ' ' 40 35' 85 The antenna heigh above terrain (defined in 7330(a)) is computed as follows: ( )/8=85 meters (ii) Same as M except the 0o radial is entirely over sea water The antenna height above average terrain is computed as follows (note that the divisor is 7 not 8): ( )/7=80 meters (iii) Same as (i), except that only the first 0 kilometers of the 90 radial are in the United States; beyond 0 kilometers the 90 radial is in a foreign country The height above average terrain of the 3 to 0 kilometer portion of the 90 radial is 05 meters The antenna height above average terrain is computed as follows (note that the divisor is 8 not 75): ( )/8=75 meters (e) n cases where the terrain in one or more directions from the antenna site departs widely from the average elevation of the 3 to 6 kilometer sector, the prediction method may indicate contour distances that are different from what may be expected in practice For example, a mountain ridge may indicate the practical limit of f---\ service although the prediction method may indicate otherwise n such cases, the prediction method should be followed, but a supplemental showing may be made concerning -_J the contour distances as determined by other means Such supplemental showings should describe the procedure used and should include sample calculations Maps of predicted coverage should include both the coverage as predicted by the regular method and as predicted by a supplemental method When measurements of area are required, these should include the area obtained by the regular prediction method and the area obtained by the supplemental method n directions where the terrain is such that antenna heights less than 3U meters for the 3 to 6 kilometer sector are obtained, an assumed height of 30 meters must be used for the prediction of coverage However, where the actual contour distances are critical factors, a supplemental showing of expected coverage must be included together with a description of the method used in predicting such coverage n special cases, the FCC may require additional information as to terrain and coverage (f) The effect of terrain roughness on the predicted field strength of a signal at points distant from an FM transmitting antenna is assumed to depend on the magnitude of a terrain roughtness factor (h) which, for a specific propagation path, is determined by the characteristics of a segment of the terrain profile for that path 40 kilometers in length located between 0 and 50 kilometers from the antenna The terrain roughness factor has a value equal to the distance, in meters, between elevations exceeded by all points on the profile for 0% and 90% respectively, of the length of the prfile segment (See 7333:x, Figure 4) (g) f the lowest field strength value of interest is initially predicted to occur over a particular propagation path at a distance that is less than 50 kilometers from the antenna, the terrain profile segment used in the determination of terrain roughness factor over that path must be that included between points 0 kilometers from the transmitter and such lesser distances No terrain roughness correction need be applied Qwhen all field strength values of interest are predicted to occur 0 kilometers or less from the transmitting antenna (h) Profile segments prepared for terrain roughness factor determinations are to be plotted in rectangular coordinates, with no less than 50 points evenly spaced within the segment using data obtained from topographic maps with contour intervals of approximately 5 meters (50 feet) or less it available 9/4/83 73FM Standard -4a-

70 7333 (i) (i) The field strength charts (73333, Figures -la) were developed assuming a terrain roughness factor of 50 meters, which is considered to be representative of average terrain in the United States Where the roughness factor for a particular propagation path is found to depart appreciably from this value, a terrain roughness correction (0 F) should 9/4/83 73 FM Standard -5-

71 7333(i) (b)(2) be applied to field strength values along this path, as predicted with the use of these charts The magnitude and sign of this correction, for any value of 4h, may be determined from a chart included in Section as Figure 5 (j) Alternatively, the terrain roughness correction may be computed using the following formula: 4F = (e h)( + f/300) Where: 4 F = terrain roughness correction in db = terrain roughness factor in meters f = frequency of signal in megahertz (MHz) 7334 Field strength measurements (a) Except as provided for in 73209, FM broadcast stations shall not be protected from any type of interference or propagation effect Persons desiring to submit testimony, evidence or data to the Commission for the purpose of showing that the technical standards contained in this subpart do not properly reflect the levels of any given type of interference or propagation effect may doso only in appropriate rule making proceedings concerning the amendment of such technical standards Persons making field strength measurements for formal submission to the Commission in rule making proceedings, or making such measurements upon the request of the Commission, shall follow the procedure for making and reporting such measurements outlined in paragraph (b) of this section n instances where a showing of the measured level of a signal prevailing over a specific community is appropriate, the procedure for making and reporting field strength measurements for this purpose is set forth in paragraph (c) of this section (b) Collection of field strength data for propagation analysis () Preparation for measurements (i) On large scale topographic maps, eight or more radials are drawn from the transmitter location to the maximum distance at which measurements are to be wade, with the angles included between adjacent radials of approximately equal size Radials should be oriented so as to traverse representative types of terrain The specific number of radials and their orientation should be such as to accomplish this objective (ii) Each radial is marked, at a point exactly 6 kilometers from the transmitter and, at greater distances, at successive 3 kilometer intervals Where measurements are to be conducted over extremely rugged terrain, shorter intervals may be used, but all such intervals must be of equal length Accessible roads intersecting each radial as nearly as possible at each 3 kilometer marker are selected These intersections are the points on the radial at which measurements are to be made, and are referred to subsequently as measuring locations The elevation of each measuring location should approach the elevation at the corresponding 3 kilometer marker as nearly as possible (2) Measurement procedure All measurements must be made utilizing a receiving antenna designed for reception of the horizontally polarized signal component, elevated 9 meters above the roadbed At each measuring location, the following procedure must be used: 9/4/83 73FM Standard -5a-

72 7334(b) (2) (i) - (b) (3) (iii) (i) The instrument calibration is checked (ii) The antenna is elevated to a height of 9 meters (iii) The receiving antenna is rotated to determine it the strongest signal is arriving from the direction of the transmitter (iv) The antenna is oriented so that the sector of its response pattern over which maximum gain is realized is in the direction of the transmitter {v) A mobile run of at least 30 meters is made, that is centered on the intersection of the radial and the road, and the measured field strength is continuously recorded on a chart recorder over the length of the run (vi) The actual measuring location is marked exactly on the topographic map, and a written record, keyed to the specific location, is made of all factors which may affect the recorded field, such as topography, height and types of vegetation, buildings, obstacles, weather, and other local features (vii) f, during the test conducted as described in paragraph (b)(2)(iii) of this section, the strongest signal is found to come from a direction other than from the transmitter, after the mobile run prescribed in subparagraph (b)(2)(v) of this section is concluded, additional measurements must be made in a "cluster" of at least five fixed points At each such point, the field strengths with the antenna oriented toward the 7- transmitter, and with the antenna oriented so as to receive the strongest field, are measured and recorded Generally, all points should be within 60 meters of the center point of the mobile run (viii) f overhead obstacles preclude a mobile run of at least 30 meters, a "cluster" of five spot measurements may be made in lieu of this run The first measurement in the cluster is identified Generally, the locations for other measurements must be within 60 meters of the location of the first (3) Method of reportiñ9 measurements A report of measurements to the Commission shall be submitted in affidavit form, in triplicate, and should contain the following information: (i) Tables of field strength measurements, which, for each measuring location, set forth the following data: (a) Distance from the transmitting antenna (b) Ground elevation at measuring location (c) Date, time of day, and weather (d) Median field in dbu for dbk, for mobile run or for cluster, as well as maximum and minimum measured field strengths (e) Notes describing each measuring location (ii) US Geological Survey topographic maps, on which is shown the exact location at which each measurement was made The original plots shall be made on maps of the largest available scale Copies may be reduced in size for convenient submission to the Commission, but not to the extent that important detail is lost The original maps shall be made available, if requested f a large number of maps is involved, an index map should be submitted (iii) All information necessary to determine the pertinent of the transmitting installation, including frequency, geographical coordinates of antenna site, rated and actual power output 9/4/83 73FM Standard -5b-

73 7334(b) (3) (iii) -(c) (2) (iv) of transmitter, measured transmission line loss, antenna power gain, height of antenna above ground, above mean sea level, and above average terrain The effective radiated power should be computed, and horizontal and vertical plane patterns of the transmitting antenna should be submitted (iv) A list of calibrated equipment used in the field strength survey, which, for each instrument, specifies its manufacturer, type, serial number and rated accuracy, and the date of its most recent calibration by the manufacturer, or by a laboratory Complete details of any instrument not of standard manufacture shall be submitted (v) A detailed description of the calibration of the measuring equipment, including field strength meters, measuring antenna, and connecting cable (vi) Terrain profiles in each direction in which measurements were made, drawn on curved earth paper for equivalent 4/3 earth radius, of the largest available scale (c) Collection of field strength data to determine FM broadcast service in specific communities () Preparation for measurement (i) The population (P), of the community, and its suburbs, if any, is determined by reference to an appropriate sourge, eg, the 970 US Census tables of populations of cities and urbanized areas (ii) The number of locations at which measurements are to be made shall be at least 5, and shall be approximately equal to 0(P) 2, if this product is a number greater than 5 (iii) A rectangular grid, of such size and shape as to encompass the boundaries of the community is drawn on an accurate map of the community The number of line intersections on the grid included within the boundaries of the community shall be at least equal to the required number of measuring locations The position of each intersection on the community map determines the location at which a measurement shall be made (2) Measurement procedure All measurements must be made using a receiving atcnna designed for reception of the horizontally polarized signal component, elevated 9 meters above ground level (i) Each measuring location shall be chosen as close as feasible to a point indicated on the map, as previously prepared, and at as nearly the same elevation as that point as possible (ii) At each measuring location, after equipment calibration and elevation of the antenna, a check is made to determine whether the strongest signal arrives from a direction other than from the transmitter (iii) At 20 percent or more of the measuring locations, mobile runs, as described in paragraph (b) (2) of this section shall be made with no less than three such mobile runs in any case The points at which mobile measurements are made shall be well separated Spot measurements may be made at other locations (iv) Each actual measuring location is marked exactly on the map of the community, and suitably keyed A written record shall be maintained, describing for each location, factors which may affect recorded field, such as the appropriate time of measurement, weather 9/4/83 73FM Standard -5c-

74 7334(c)(2)(iv) (c) topography, overhead wiring, heights and types of vegetation, buildings and other structures The orientation with respect to the measuring location shall be indicated of objects of such shape and size as to be capable of causing shadows or reflections f the strongest signal recorded was found to arrive from a direction other than that of the transmitter, this fact shall be recorded (3) Method of reporting measurements A report of measurements to the Commission shall be submitted in affidavit form, in triplicate, and should contain the following information: (i) A map of the community showing each actual measuring location, specifically identifying the points which mobile runs were made (ii) A table keyed to the above map, showing the field strength at each measuring point, reduced to dbu for the actual effective radiated power of the station Weather, date, and time of each measurement shall be indicated (iii) Notes describing each measuring location (iv) A topographic map of the largest available scale on which are marked the community and the transmitter site of the station whose signals have been measured, which includes all areas on or near the direct path of signal propagation (v) Computations of the mean and standard deviation of all measured field strengths, or a graph on which the distribution of measured field strength values is plotted (vi) A list of calibrated equipment used for the measurements, which for each instrument, specifies its manufacturer, type, serial number, and rated accuracy and the date of its most recent valibratiónby the manufacturer, or by a laboratory Complete details of any instrument not of standard manufacture shall be submitted (vii) A detailed description of the procedure employed in the calibration of the measuring equipment, including field strength meters, measuring antenna, and connecting cable 7335 Transmitter location (a) The transmitter location shall be chosen s- that, on the basis of the effective radiated power and antenna height above average terrain employes, a minimum field of 70 db above strength one uv/m, or 36 mv/m, will be provided over the entire principal community' to be served Note - The requirements of paragraph (a) of this section do not apply to noncommercial educational FM broadcast stations (b) The transmitter location should be chosen to maximize coverage to the city of, license while minimizing interference This is normally accomplished by locating in the least populated area available while maintaining the provisions of parapraph (a) of this section n general, the transmitting antenna of a station should be located in the most sparsely populated area available at the highest elevation available The location of the antenna should be so chosen that line - of -sight can be obtained from the antenna over the principle city or cities to be served; in no event should there be a major obstruction in this oath (c) The transmitting location should be selected so that the my/m contour encompasses the urban population within the area to be served t is recognized that topography, shape of the desired service area, and population distribution may make the choice of a transmitter location difficult n such cases consider - 4/8/86 73 PS -5d-

75 73c 35 (c) L; graphical location of the transmitter is permitted; however, the necessity for a high elevation for the antenna may render this problem difficult n general, the transmitting antenna of a station should be located at the most central point at the highest elevation available n providing the best degree of service to an area, it is usually preferable to use a high antenna rather than a lower antenna with increased transmitter power The location should be so chosen that line -of -sight can be obtained from the antenna over the principal city or cities to be served; in no event should there be a major obstruction in this path (c) The transmitting location should be selected so that the my/m, contour encompasses the urban population within the area to be served t is recognized that topography, shape of the desired service area, and population distribution may make the choice of a transmitter location difficult n such cases consider -?: --/ 7/6/75 73FM Standard -5e-

76 335(c) (d) ation may be given to the use of a directional antenna system, although it is generally prefereable to choose a site where a nondirec$ional antenna may be,jmployed (d) n cases of questionable antenna locations it is desirable to ccrdu2t propagation tests to indicate the field intensity expected in the principal Jitf or cities to be served and in other areas, particularly where severe shadow problems may be expected n considering applications proposing the use of such locations, the Commission may require site tests to be made Such tests should in - elude measurements made in accordance with the measürénént procedures described ín7334 and full data thereon shall be supplied to the Commission The test transmitter should employ an antenna having a height as close as possible to the proposed antenna height, using a ballon or other support if necessary and feasible nformation concerning the authorization of site tests may be obtained from the Commission upon request (e) Cognizance must of course be taken regarding the possible halard of the proposed antenna structure to aviation and the proximity of the proposed site to airports and airways Procedures and standards with respect to the Commission's consideration of proposed antenna structures which will serve as a guide to persons intending to apply for radio station licenses are contained in Part 7 of this chapter (Construction, Marking, and Lighting of Antenna Structures) C 7336 Antenna systems (a) t shall be standard to employ horizontal polarization; however, circular or elliptical polarization may be employed if desired Clockwise or counterclockwise rotation may be used The s'pplemental vertically polarized effective radiated power required for circular or elliptical polarization shall in no event exceed the effective radiated power authorized (b) Deleted (c) Directional antennas A directional antenna is considered to be an antenna that is designated or altered for the purpose of obtaining a noncircular radiatioi pattern Directional antennas may not be used for the purpose of reducing minim mileage, separation requirements but may be employed for the purpose of improving service or for the purpose of using a particular site; directional antennas with a ratio of maximum to minimum radiation in the horizontal plane of more than 5 decibels will not be permitted (d) Applications for directional antennas Applicatinns proposing the use of directional antenna systems must be accompanied by the following: 5/26/86 73 FMS -6-

77 7336(d) (h) () Complete description of the proposed antenna system, including: (i) A description of the means whereby the directivity is proposed to be obtained, and (ii) The means (such as a rotatable reference antenna) whereby the operational antenna pattern will be determined prior to licensed operation and maintained within proper tolerances thereafter (2) Horizontal and vertical plane radiation patterns showing the free space field strength in mv/m at mile and effective radiated power in dbk for each direction f directivity was computed, the method by which the radiation patterns were computed, including formulae used, sample, calculations and tabulations of data f the directivity was measured, the method employed should be fully described, including the equipment used and the resultant measured data shall be tabulated Sufficient vertical patterns shall be included to indicate clearly the radiation characteristics of the antenna above and below the horizontal plane Complete information and patterns shall be provided for antes of L00 from the horizontal plane and sufficient additional information included on that portion of the pattern lying between / 0 and the zenith and -0 and the nadir, to conclusively demonstrate the absence of undegirable lobes in these areas The horizontal plane pattern shall be plotted on polar coordinate paper with reference to True North The vertical plane pattern shall be plotted on rectangular coordinate paper with reference to the horizontal plane (3) Name, address, and qualifications of the éñgineer making the calculations (e) Applications proposing the use of FM transmitting antennas in the immediate vicinity (ie 60 meters or less) of other FM or TV broadcast antennas must include a showing as to the expected effect, if any, of such approximate operation (f) n cases where it is proposed to use a tower of a standard broadcast station as a supporting structure for an FM broadcast antenna, an application for construction permit (or modification of construction permit) for such standard broadcast station must be filed for consideration with the FM application, only in the event the overall height of the standard broadcast station tower changes Applications may be required for o,her classes of stations wnen their towers are to be used in connection with FM stations (g) When an FM broadcast antenna is mounted on a nondirectional standard broadcast antenna, new resistance measurements must be made of the standard broadcast antenna after installation and testing of the FM broadcast antenna During the installation and until the new resistance determination is approved, the standard broadcast station licensee should operate by the indirect method of power determination The FM broadcast license application will not be considered until the application form concerning resistance measurements is filed for'the standard broadcast station C (h) When an FM broadest antenna ismounted on an element of a standard broadcast directional antenna, a full engineering study concerning the effect of the FM broadcast antenna on the directional pattern must be filed with the application concerning the standard broadcast station Depending upon the 9/4/83 FM STANDARD -7-

78 c 7336(h) individual case, the Commission may require readjustment and certain field intensity measurments of the standard broadcast station following the completion of the FM broadcast antenna system (i) When the proposed FM antenna is to be mounted on a tower in the vicinity of an AM station directional antenna system and it appears that the operation of the directional antenna system may be affected, an engineering study must be filed with the FM application concerning the effect of the FM antenna on the AM directional radiation pattern Field measurements of the AM station may be required prior to and following construction of the 8M station antenna, and readjustments made as necessary (j) nformation regarding data required in connecting with standard broadcast directional antenna systems may be found in 7350 of this chapter (See also Standard Broadcast Technical Standars) 7337 FM transmission system requirements (a) FM broadcast stations employing transmitters authorized after January, 960 must maintain the bandwidth occupied by their emissions in accordance with the specification detailed below FM broadcast stations employing transmitters installed or type accepted before January, 960, must achieve the highest degree of compliance with these specifications practicable with their existing equipment n either case, should harmful interference to other authorized stations occur, the licensee shall correct the problem promptly or cease operation (b) Any emission appearing on a frequency removed from the carrier by between 20 khz and 240 khz inclusive must be attenuated at least 25 db below the level of the unmodulated carrier Compliance with this requirement will be deemed to show the occupied bandwidth to be 240 khz or less (c) Any emission appearing on a frequency removed from the carrier by more than 240 khz and up to and including 600 khz must be attenuated at least 35 db beldw the level of the unmodulated carrier (d) Amy emission appearing on a frequency removed from the carrier by more than 600 khz must be attenuated at least 43 plus 0 Log (Power, in watts) db below the level of the unmodulated carrier, or 80 dlg, whichever is the lesser attenuation (e) Preemphasis shall not be greater than the impedance -frequency characteristics of a series inductance resistance network having a time constant of 75 microseconds (See upper curve of Figure 2 of 73333) C 7338 Fm blanketing interference Areas adjacent to the transmitting antenna that receive a signal with a strength of 5 d8u (562 mv/m) or greater will be assumed to be blanketed n determining the blanketed area, the 5 d9u contour is determined by calculating the inverse distance field using the effective radiated power of the maximum radiated lobe of the antenna without condidering its vertical radiation pattern or height For directional antennas, the effective radiated power in the pertinent bearing shall be used 5/26/86?3FMS 8-6

79 7339(a) - (d) C (a) The distance to the 5 d8u contour is determined using the following equation: D (in kilometers) = 0394/p D (in miles) _ )245íP Uhere P is the maximum effective radiated power (ERP), measured in kilowatts, of the maximum radiated lobe (b) Permittees or licensees who commence program tests, replace their antennas oarequest facilities modifications and who are issued a new Construction Permit on or after January, 985, must satisfy all complaints of blanketing interferencewhich are received by the station during a one year period The period begins with the commencement of program tests, or commencement of programming utilizing the new antenna Resolution of complaints shall be at no cost to the complainant These requirements specifically do not include interference complaints resulting from malfunctioning or mistuned receivers, imporperly installed antenna systems, or the use of high gain antennas or antenna booster amplifiers mobile receivers and non-rf devices such as tape recorders or hi-fi amplifiers (phonographs) are also excluded (c) A permittee colleocating with one or more existing stations and beginning program tests on or after January, 995, must assume full financial responsibility for remedying new complaints of blankering interference fdr a period of on year Two or more permittees that concurrently collocate on or after January, 985, shall assume shared responsibility for remedying blanketing complaints within the blanketing area unless an offending station can be readily determined and then that station shall assume full financial responsibility (d) Following the one year period of full financial obligation to satisfy blanketing complaints, licensees shall provide technical information or assistance to complainants or remedies for blanketing interference 2/4/94 73 FMS -6a-

80 7339(a) (f) 7339 FM multiplex subcarrier technical standards (a) The technical specificatfons in this Section apply to ail transmissions of FM multiplex subcarriers except those used for sterophonic sound broadcasts under the (b) Modulation Any form of modulation may be used for subcarrier operation (c) Subcarrier baseband () During monophonic program transmissions, multiplex subcarriers and their significant sidebands must be within the range of 20kHz to 99 khz (2) During sterophonic sound program transmissions (see 73322), multiplex subcarriers and their significant sidebands must be within the range of 53 khz to 99kHz (3) During periods when broadcast programs are not being transmitted, multiplex sigebands must be within the range of 20kHz to 99kHz (d) Subcarrier injection () during monophonic program transmissions modulation of the carrier by arithmetic sum of all sub - carriers may not exceed 30% referenced to 75 khz modulation deviation However, the modulation of the carrier by the arithmetic sum of all sub - carriers above 75 khz may not modulate the carrier by more than 0% (2) During stereophonic program transmissions, modulation of the carrier by the arithmetic sum of all subcarriers may not exceed 20% referenced to 75kHz modulation deviation However, the modulation of the carrier by the arithmetic sum of all subcarriers above 75kHz may not modulate the carrier by more than 0% (3) Dúring periods when no broadcast program service is transmitted, modulation of the carrier by the arithmetic sum of all carriers may not exceed 30% referenced to 75kHz modulation deviation However, the modulation of the carrier by the arithmetic sum of all subcarriers above 75kHz may not modulate the carrier by more than 0% (4) During periods when no broadcast program service is transmitted, modulation of the carrier by the arithmetic sum of all subcarriers above 75kHz may not exceed 0% and modulation of the carrier by the arithmetic sum of all subcarriers may not exceed 30%, referenced to 75kHz deviation (e) Subcarrier generators may be installed and used with a type accepted FM broadcast transmitter without specific authorization from the FCC provided the generator can be connected to the transmitter without requiring any mechanical or electrical monifications in the transmitter Fir exciter circuits (f) Stations installing multiplex subcarrier reansmitting equipment must ensure the proper suppression of spurious or harmonic radiations See 7337, and f the subcarrier operation causes the station's transmissions not to comply with the technical provisions for FM Briadcast stations or causes harmful interference to other communication services, the licenses or permittee must correct the problem promptly or cease operation The licensee may be required to verify the corrective measures with supporting data Such data lust be retained at the station and be made available to the FCC upon request 5/26/86 73 FMS -7-

81 (c) ndicating insturments-specifications See 7325 (Subpart H) 7332 Deleted FM Steronophonic sound transmission standards (a) An FM Broadcast station shall not use 9íz plus or minus 20 Hz, except as the sterophonic system meeting the following parameters: () The modulating signal for the main channel consists of the sum of the right and left signals (2) The pilot subcarrier at 9 khz plus or minus 2 Hz, must frequency modulate the main carrier between the limits df 8 and 0 percent (3) One sterophonic subscrrier must be the second harmonic of the pilot subcarrier (ie 38 khz) and must cross the time axis with a positive slope simultaneously with each crossing of the time axis by the sub - carrier Additional sterophonic subcarriers are not precluded (4) Double sideband, suppressed -carrier, amplitude modulation of the sterophonic subcarrier at 38 khz must be used (5) The sterophonic subcarrier at 38 khz must be suppressed to a level less than % modulation of the main carrier (6) The modulating signal for the required sterophonic subcarrier must be equal to the difference of the left and right signals (7) The following modulation levels apply: (i) When a signal exists in only one channel of a two channel (biphonic) sound transmission, modulation of the carrier by audio components within the baseband range of 50 khz shall not exceed 45% and modulation of the carrier by the sum of the amplidude modulation subcarrier in the baseband range of 23 khz to 53 khz shall not exceed 45% (ii) When a signal exists in only one channel of a sterophonic sound transmission having more than one sterophonic subcarrier in the baseband, the modulation of the carrier by audio components within the audio baseband range of 23 khz to 99 khz shall not exceed 53% with total modulation not to exceed 90% (b) Stations not transmitting stereo with the method described in (a), must limit the main carrier deivation caused by any modulating signals occupying the band 9 khz plus or minus 20 Hz to 25 Hz (c) All stations, regardless of the sterophonic transmission system used, must not exceed the maximum modulation limits specified in (b)(2) Stations not using the method described in (a), must limit the modulation of the carrier by audio components within the audio baseband range of 23 khz to 99 khz to not exceed 53% Engineering charts 5/26/86 73FMS -8-

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85 O 7 NNltlllÍ ií ease Wi ñ fi i 9:::iiñti n/// Íi ñtryryrymnlli',,rn/ryry/tt' w milí'ñ'lppúyyl::::, N7MN Nllf mew t NMz::Yw Ú:Ñmtl;Ütl ll Mil Ümxllli:=:;: ' t ) tnlllll pn la 't ml iíiiitntnni '' U U u ilílriimlll::ii: ann an/nm YY V tlllllln lllll lñtúlñ rñúñiilitlñllwli allele 5 STANDARD PRZ-EMPHASS CURVE iúü'mp m:itií''/í iiql/: ií Pain ; úútlrlctl-i:i ::: TME CONSTANT 75 MCROSZCONDS n 4 (Solid Line) ÍÍnmll Hill lttllllll mnnr MLLELAM 3 /E lt le L llllltlll i óu M lel 9 nttlltl Frequency Response Limita iiúiitíl twlnníéiiiiiiatnm Shown by use of anunntann nenatl e worm Solid and Dashed Lines 0 a 5 4 s _a -a mum n /r N b xymom ww tl u nrn/ nn NN N V eel ÍteeÍ fnnlnllryryryryryry NNNNNN N:wlrn/llnlt :::::Í::f ÍÜL ihm ::i: //Ññúillii no mo 5E NtN e rl N n tl //;p :ÜMt H MfYNrangir" Y //f ' Mime wwra ::::::::ii:li;;r ii:::::rrrrñü:i: a es aim,iq piijau weimiew lu yqp iiiinipwpqjjy'yp j,=::::ú ÜÍ:ÍfÍNN: MUNwwriÑWiilñliN:iiiiiiili a 7 i::il :::: iü,:l:ii nuíi irírruliii :::::arr : r 0 iiiri'n NNepi::Milim:::::i;ür;;irrlwWwñium::liil 6 iiiiiw:i:il iwww:i =/liiiliüyúl riiilrnnnqy i::p =;;,s3í Hamm llltll N Ytll YN ÍÍilldlú i::: anííí :::::r:::my ;::ÍNNYYt:::: NtlM:: N inn YM NNNu n s ' mil Í YYq' NÍNWY'mum n lnl::::- xllt Y Y NYazOltl/! N lage úwnmlíí::_ Y a z / N M xnnazzzl lnllllltll allnnnn xyyz Y 'poolroomw! YÍ i :in ::::::N:::':a::::: llllll YN xywyl ': Y N:iiiiiiiú üi: NTM!!Y YY' x tl x W Ala 44ryry lldy t / l/txttílaa fíntnlfflxlflnn nlllllll /,!! xtnnnnn xnnllylry nnnul: :i; "ÜtÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍii:::" mu muumuu op v mama maze um mil C::: Í/xMY ÍÍ/lW ' gill N gin flnzp' "'"N lif N NxadlN a lltllllt Mamma $0 J ""' N/n till dn r / um pin eau mlll lll : um V lltllltll Y Nlltllnlll N ÍÍRl) t /i ttltltí/ lllt Wi xllllmllltld a lllllllltlíí in/ tttz ttya N / n g{ iq e amina Np Mnd:::%: Myy lflllltlmll i llnnyn lllltlllllll ll tueyfyi 'y:le M {Nt /iy tl llltfí/,f ÍÍtÍÍÍÍÍi:: am' /m x00i,tt t utnixuunuunm nnnm nlunlnunc:lyd nm mum unnual unlnlumuulr /thllllllrm Y/ /N min +:N` w:/llltlllllllw nd` llnl nn Y:7:: llll N UdytllPOWER tn':w tn 0:24; Ut U n Í'llllal llllltlllll tftntllllllllllul 'nn tlllll uullxxmny 'Nlll llllllllltll Nluallaama Niemen lllnnnlnlammlln NN '/tnu UN /f ,000 5, Cycle Per Second FM YWHel t/r: ::: NW::: ; UYHaf Q/L He = M M NY - * w Owe a inill:::iliiiiwlllititlryll / ` : ::::: Figure 2 STANDARD

86 o C,

87 TV TECHNCAL STANDAEDS 7368 Definitions Transmission standards and changes Field strength contours Prediction of coverage Transmitter location and antenna system Field strength measurements Transmission system requirements ndicating instruments Operating power MONTORNG EQUPMENT Frequency measurements 7369 Mosulation monitors Reserved Reserved Requirements for type approval of TV modulation monitors Reserved Tables Engineering charts /9/80 TV Standards

88 7368A - E TV TECHNCAL STANDARDS 7368 Definitions Amplitude modulation (AM) - A system of modulation in which the envelope of the transmitted wave contains a component similar to the wave form of the signal to be transmitted Antenna electrical beam tilt The shaping of the radiation pattern in the vertical plane of a transmitting antenna by electrical means so that maximum radiation occurs at an angle below the horizontal plane Antenna height above average terrain The average of the antenna heights above the terrain from two to ten miles from the antenna for the eight directions spaced evenly for each 45 degrees of aximuth starting with True North (n general, a different antenna height will be determined in each direction from the antenna The average of these various heights is considered the antenna height above the average terrain n some cases less than 8 directions may be used See 73684(d) Where circular or elliptical polarization is employed the antenna height above average terrain shall be based upon the height of the radiation center of the antenna which transmits the horizontal component of radiation Antenna mechanical beam tilt The intentional installation of a transmitting antenna so that its axis is not vertical, in order to change the normal angle of maximum radiation in the vertical plane Antenna power gain The squre of the ratio of the root -mean -square free ;pace field intensity produced at one mile in the horizontal plane, in millivoltper meter for one kilowatt antenna input power to 376 my/m This ratio should be expressed in decibels (db) (f specified for a particular direction, antenna power gain is based on the field strength in that direction only) Aspect ratio The ratio of picture width to picture hhight as transmitted Aural transmitter The radio equipment for the transmission of the aural signal only Aural center frequency (a) The average frequency of the emitted wave when modulated by a sinusoidal signal; (2) the frequency of the emitted wave without modulation BTSC Broadcast Television systems committe recommendation for Multichannel television sound transmission and audio processing as defined in FCCBulletin OST 60 Baseband Aural transmitter input signals between 0 and 20 khz Blanking level The level of the signal during the blanking interval, except the interval during the scanning synchronizing pulse and the chrominance subcarrier synchronizing burst Chrominance - The colorimetric difference between any color and a reference color of equal luminance, the reference color having a specific chromaticity Chrominance subcarrier - The carrier which is modulated by the chrominance information Color transmiston - The transmission of color television signals which can be reproduced with different values of hue, saturation and luminance Effective radiated power The product of the antenna input power and the antenna power gain This product should be expressed in kw and in d8 above K!J (f specified for á particular direction, effective radiated power is based on the antenna power gain in that direction only The licensed effective radiated power is based on the maximum antenna power gain When a station is authorized to use a directional antenna beam tilt, the direction of the maximum effective radiated power will be specified) Where circular or elliptical polarization is employed, the term effective radiated power is applied separately to the horizontally and vertically polarized components of radiation For assignment purposes, only the effective radiated power authorized for the horisontally polarized component 73TVS_ will be considered ivs 3/28/85

89 o 73 68(E) - (L) Equivalent isotrophically radiated power (ERP) The term "equivalent isotropically radiated power" (also known as "effective radiated power above isotropic") means the product of the antenna input power and the antenna gain in a given direction relative to an isotropic antenna Field Scanning through picture area once in chosen scanning pattern n the line interlaced scanning pattern of 2 to, the scanning of alternate lines of the picture area once Frame - Scanning all of the picture area once n the line interlaced scanning pattern of two to one, a frame consists of two fields Free space field strength - The field strength that would exist at a point in the absence of waves reflected from the earth or other reflecting objects Frequency departure The amount of variation of a carrier frequency or center frequency from its assigned value G Frequency deviation The peak difference between the instantaneous frequency of the modulated wave and the carrier frequency Frequency modulation (FM) - A system of modulation where the instantaneous radio frequency varies in proportion to the instantaneous amplitude of tl'e modulating signal (amplitude or modulating signal to be measured after pre -emphasis, if used) and the instantaneous radio frequency of the modulating signal Frequency swing The peak difference between the maximum and the minimum values of the instantaneous frequency of the carrier wave during modulation nterlaced scanning - A scanning process in which successively scanned lines are spaced an integral number of line widths, and in which the adjacent lines are scanned during successive cycles of the field frequency RE Standard Scale - A linear scale for measuring, in RE units, the relative amplitudes of the components of a television signal from a zero reference at blanking level, with picture information falling in the positive, and synchronizing information in the negative domain NOTE: When a carrier is amplitude modulated by a television signal in accordance with 73682, the relationship of the RE standard scale to the conventional measure of modulation is as follows: Level RE, Standard Scale (units) Modulation Percentage Zero carrier 20 0 Reference white Blanking 0 75 Synchronizing peaks (maximum carrier level) Luminance - Luminance flux emitted, reflected, or transmitted per unit solid angle per unit projected area of the source n 5/25 04 TV STANDARD - 2 -

90 7368 (M) - (S) Main channel The band of frequencies from 50 to which frequency modulate the main aural carrier 5,000 Hertz Monochrome transmission - The transmission of television signals which can be reproduced in gradations of a single color only Multichannel Television Sound (NTS) Any system of aural transmission that utilizes aural`baseband operation between 5 khz and 20 khz to convey information or that encodes digital information in the viedo portion of the television signal that is intended to be decoded as audio information Multiplex transmission (aural) - A subchannel added to the regular aural carrier of a television broadcast station by means of frequency modulated subcarriers Negative transmission 4 Where a decrease ín initial light intensity causes an increase in the transmitted power Peak power - The power over a radio frequency cycle corresponding Ln amplitude to synchronizing peaks Percentage modulation As applied to frequency modulation the ratio of the actual frequency deviation to the frequency deviation defined as 00% modulation expressed in percentage For the aural transmitter of TV broadcast stations, a frequency deviation of +25 khz is defined as 00% modulation Pilot subcarrier A subcarrier used in the reception of TV sterophonic aural or other subchannel broadcasts Polarization - The direction of the electric field as radiated fro^ the transmitting antenna Program related data signal - A signal, consisting of a series or pulses representing data, which is transmitted simultaneously with rind directly related to the accompanying television program Reference black level - The level corresponding to the specified na::imum excursion of the luminance signal in the black direction Reference white level of the luminance signal The level corresponding to the specified maximum excursion of the luminance signal in the white direction Scanning - Process of analyzing successively, according to a predetermined method, light values of picture elements constituting total picture area Scanning line - A single continuous narrow strip of picture area containing highlights, shadows, and halftones, determined by the process )f scanning 0/9/84 TV STANDARD - 2a

91 -368 (S) - S73682(a)(5) Standard television signal - A signal which conforms to the television transmission standards Synchronization - The maintenance of one operation in step with another Television broadcast band - The frequencies in the band extending from 54 to806 megahertz which are assignable to television broadcast stations These frequencies are 54 to 72:aegehertz (channels 2 through 4), 76 to 88 megahertz (channels 5 and 6), 74 to 26raeg ahe rtz (channels 7 through 3), and 470 to 806 megahertz (channels 4 through 69) Television broadcast station - A station in the television broadcast band transmitting simultaneous visual and aural signals intended to be received by the general public Television channel - A band of frequencies 6 negahert7 wide in the television broadcast band and designated either by number or by the extreme lover and upper frequencies Television transmission standards - The standards which determine the characteristics of a television signal as radiated by a television broadcast station Television transmitter - The radio transmitter or transmitters for the transmission of both visual and aural signals Vestigial sideband transmission - A system of transmission wherein one of the generated sidebands is partially attenuated at the transmitter and radiated only in part Visual carrier frequency - The frequency of the carrier which is modulated by the picture information Visual transmitter - The radio equipment for the transmission of the visual signal only Visual transmitter power - The peak power output when transmitting a et'tn;ard television signal C Transmission standards (a) Transmission standards () The wideth of the television broadcast channel shall be 6MHz (2) The visual carrier frequency shall be nominally 25 Miz above the lower boundary of the channel (3) The aural center frequency shall be 45 MHz higher than the visual carrier frequency (4) The visual transmission amplitude characteristic shall be in accordance with the chart designated as Figure 5 of 73699: Provided, however, That for stations operation an Channel 5-6 9and employing a transmitter with maximum peak visual pacer output of kilowatt or less the visual transmission amplitude characteristic may be in accordance with the chart designated as Figure 5(a) of (5)The chrominance subcarrier frequency is 63/88 times precisly 5 MHz ( MHz) The tolerance is * 0Hz and the rate of frequency drift not excedd 0 Hz per second (cycles per second squared) 9/7/32 73 TV STANDARDS - 3

92 73682(a)(6) (a)(4) C C (6) For monochromeand color transmissions the number of scanning lines perframe shall be 525, interlaced two to one in successive fields The horizontal scanning frequency shall be 2/455 times the chrominance subcarrier frequency; this corresponds nominally to 5,750 herts (with an actual value of 5, hertz) The vertical scanning frequency is 2/525 times the horizontal scanning frequency; this corresponds nominally to 60 hertz (the actual value is 5994 hertz) For monochrome transmissions only, the nominal values line and field frequencies may be used (7) The aspect ratio of the transmitted television picture shall be 4 units horizontally to 3 units vertically (8) During active scanning intervals, the scene shall be scanned from left to right horizontally and from top to bottom vertically, at uniform velocities (9) A carrier shall be modulated within a single television channel for both picture and synchronizing signals The two signals comprise different modulation ranges in amplitude in accordance with the following: (i) Monochrome transmissions shall comply with synchronizing waveform specifications in Figure 7 of (ii) Color transmissions shall comply with the synchronizing waveform specifications in Figure 6 of (iii) All stations operating on Channels 2 through 4 and those stations operating on Channels 5 through 69 licensed for a peak visual transmitter output power greater than one kilowatt shall comply with the picture transmission amplitude characteristics shown in Figure 5 of (iv) Stations operating on Channels 5 through 62 licensed for a peak visual transmitter output power of one kilowatt or less shall comply with the picture transmission amplitude characteristic shown in Figure 5 or 5a of (0) A decrease in initial light intensity shall cause an '_r-reaee n radiated power (negative tranemissicr) (il) The referenge black level shall be represents(' by a definite carrier level, independent of light and shade in the picture (2) The blanking level shall be transmitted at percent of the peak carrier level (3) The reference white level of the luminance signal shall be percent of the peak carrier level (4) t shall be standard to employ horizontal polarization However, circular or elliptical polarization may he employed if desired, in which case clockwise (right hand) rotation, as defined in the EEE Standard Definition 42A65-3E2, and transmission of the horizontal and vertical components in time and space quadrature shall be used For either omnidirectional or directional antennas the licensed effective radiated power of the vertically polarized component may not exceed the licensed effective radiated power of the hotizontally polarized component For directional antennas, the maximum effective radiated power of the vertically polarized component shall not exceed the maximum effective radiated power of the hotizontally polarized component -in anv specified horizontal or vertical direction (5) The effective radiated power of the aural transmitter must not exceed 22% of the peak radiated power of the visual transmitter 8/8/ 73 TV STANDARDS -4-

93 73682(a)(6) - (7) (6) The Teak -to -peak va:iation of transmitter output within one frame of video signal due to all causes, including hum, noise, and low -frequency response, measured at both scanning synchronizing peak and blanking level, shall not exceed 5 percent of the average scanning synchronizing peak signal amplitude This provision is subject to change but is considered the beet practice under the present state of the art, t will not be enforced pending a further determination thereof (7) The reference black level shall be separated from the blanking level by the setup interval, which shall be percent of the video range from blanking level to the reference white level 7/26/77 TV STANDARD -4a-

94 C 73682(a)(8) (a)(20) (8) For monochrome transmission, the transmitter output shall vary in substantially inverse logarithmic relation to the brightness of the subject No tolerances are set at this time This provision is subject to change but is considered the best practice under the present state of the art t will not be enforced pending a further determination thereof (9) The color picture signal shall correspond to a luminance component transmitted as amplitude moculation of the picture carrier and a simultaneous pair of chrominance components transmitted as the amplitude modulation sidebands of a pair of suppressed subcarriers in quadrature (20) Equation of complete color signal (i) The color picture signal has the following composition: Wl i 2 re : M = E Y, + Q sin ( W t + 33 ) + ES cos (Wt + 33 )) c E = 0 (E E ) (E E ) Q' B' Y' R' Y' E' -027 (EB' Eye ) (ER, EYE ) E n 030 E E + 0 E Y' R' G' B' For color -difference frequencies below 500Z(see (iii) below), represented by: EM = E + (EB - E ) Y' sin (,Jt + Í+ the signal can be - EY ) cos (ER, (ii) The symbols in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph have the J uilowing significance: EM is the total video voltage, corresponding to the scanning of a particular picture element, applied to the modulator of the picture E f is the gamma -corrected voltage of the monochrome (black and white) portion of the color picture signal, corresponding to the given picture element NOTE: Forming of the high frequency portion of the monophrome signal in a different manner is permissible and may in fact be desirable in order to improve the sharpness on saturated colors E, and E are the amplitudes of two orthogonal components of t le chrominance signal corresponding respectively to narrow -band and wide -band axes ER,, EG, and EBt are the gamma -corrected voltages corresponding to red, green, ana blue signals during the scanning of the given picture element J is the angular frequency and is 277' times the chrominance subcarrier frequency of the ( 4/66 73 TV STANDARD -5-

95 73682(a)(20) (a)(2'á) The portion of each expression between brackets in (i) represents the chrominance subcarrier signal which carries the chrominance information The phase reference in the EM equation in (i) is the phase of the burst + 80`' as shown in Figure 8 of The burst corresponds to amplitude modulation of a continuous sine wave (iii) The equivalent bandwidth assigned prior to modulation to the color difference signals EQ+ and ES are as follows: Q- channel bandwidth: At 400ldlí less than 2 db down At 5000z less than 6 db down At 600 khz at least 6 db down 0- channel bandwidth: At 32Z less than 2 db down At 36Z at least 20 db down (iv) The gamma corrected voltages ERt, EG, and EBB are suitable for a color picture tube having primary colors with the following chromaticities in the CE system of specification: x Red (R) Green (G) Blue (B) and having a transfer gradient (gamma exponent) of 22 associated with each primary color The voltages E En, and EB, may be respectively of the form ER4, EBl// and ED 4; although other forms may be used with advances in the state of the art NOTE: At the present state of the art it is considered inadvisable to set a tolerance on the value of gamma and correspondingly this portion of the specification will not be enforced (v) The radiated chrominance subcarrier shall vanish on the reference white al' the scene NOTE: The numberical values of the signal specification assume that this condition will be reproduced as CE lluminant C (x = 030, y = 036) (vi) E, ", ES, and the components of these signals shall match each other in time to 005,#secs (vii) The angles of the subcarrier measured with respect to the burst phase, when reproducing saturated primaries and their complements at 75 percent of full amplitude, shall be within + 0 and their amplitudes shall be within + 20 percent of the values specified above The ratios of the measured amplitudes of the subcarrier to the luminance signal for the same saturated primaries TV Standard

96 ,' 73682(a) (20) (vii) - 736p2(27) (i i ) id their complements shall fall between the limits of 08 and 2 of the clues specified for their ratios Closer tolerance may prove to be practicable and desirable with advance in the art (2) The interval beginning with line 7 and continuing through line 20 of the vertical blanking interval of each field may be used for the transmission of test signals, cue and control signals and identification signals, subject to the conditions and restrictions set forth below Test signals may include signals designed to check the performance of the overall:_ trandmission system or its individual components Cue and control signals shall be related to the operation of the TV broadcast station dentification signals may be transmitted to identify the broadcast material or its source and the date and time of its origination Figures 6 and 7 of Section identify the numbered lines referred to in its subparagraph (i) Modulation of the TV transmitter by such signals shall be confined to the area between the reference white level and the blanking level, except where test signals include chrominance subcarrier frequencies, in which case positive excursions of chrominance components may exceed reference white, and negative excursions may extent into the synchronizing area n no case may the modulation excursions produced by test signals extend beyond peak -of - sync, or to zero carrier level (ii) The use of test, cue and control signals shall not result in significant degradation of the program transmissions of the TV broadcast station, nor produce emissions outside of the frequency band occupied for normal program transmissions (iii) Test signals or cue and control signals may mt be transmitted during hat portion of each line devoted to horizontal blanking (iv) Regardless of other provisions of this subparagraph, line 9, in each field, may be used only for the transmission of the reference signal described in Figure 6 of (22)(i) All of Line 2, Field and the first half of Line 2, Field 2 may be used for the transmission of a program related data signal which, when decoded, provides a visual depiction of information simultaneously being presented on the aural channel Such data signal shall conform to the format described in Figure 7a of Section and maybe transmitted during; all periods of regular operation (A) A reference pulse for a decoder associated adaptive multipath eaualizer filter may replace the data signal every eighth frame The reference pulse shall conform to the format described in Figure 7h of Section (B), A decoder test signal consisting of data representing a repeated series of alphanumeric characters may be transmitted at times when no program related data is being transmitted (C) A framing code to be used by the data decoder may be transmitted durinr the first half of Line 2, Field 2 when data, reference pulse and test signals are present See Figure 7c of Section for a description of the format for the framing code (D) The data signal shall be coded using a non -return -to -zero (NRZ) format and shall employ standard ASC 7 bit plus parity character codes (ii) At times when Line 2 is not being used to transmit a program related data signal, data signals which are not program related may be,transmitted, PROVDED: the same data format is used and the information to )e displayed is of a broadcast nature 8/25/_8 73 TV STANDARDS -6a=

97

98 73682(22)(iii) (24)(vi) (iii) The use of Line 2 for transmission of other dntn si?nnls conform in7 to other formats may be used subject to prior authorization b-' the Commission (iv) The data signal shall cause no significant der*radation to nn-' nortion of the visual signal nor produce emissions outside the authorized television channel (v) Transmission of visual emergency messages pursuant to r",ection shall take precedence and shall be cause for interruntinr- tr^nsmission of data signals permitted under this subnarae;raph (23) Specific scanning lines in the vertical blanking interval may be used for the purpose of transmitting telecommunications signals in accordance with 73646, subject to certain conditionss (i) Telecommunications may be transmitted on Lines 0-8 and 20, all of Field 2 and Field Modulation level shall not exceed 70 RE on lined 0 and 2: and 80 RE on lines 3-8 and 20 (ii) No observable degratat ion may be cauded to any portion of the visual or aural signals (iii) Telecommunications siq nals must not produce emissions outside the authorized television channel ba ndwidth Digital data pulses must be shaped to limit spectral energy to the nominal video baseband (iv) Transmission of emerge ncy visual messages oursuant to 7350 must take precedence over and shall b e cause for interrupting a service such as teltext that provides a visual d epiction of information simultaneously transmitted on the aural channel (v) A reference pulse for a decoder associated adaptive equalizer filter designed to improve the decoding of telecommunications signals may be inserted on any portion of the vertical blanking interval authorized for data service, in accordance with the signal levels set forth in paragraph (a)(23)(í) of this section (vi) All limes authorized for telecommunications transmission may be used for other purposes upon prior approval by the Commission 0/28/86 73TVS

99 C C g73682(b)_ (c)( (b) Subscrintion TV technkcal systems The FCC may specify, as nart of the advance approval of the technical system for transmittina- encoded subscript - on nro7raomino, deviations from the power determination procedures, onesatinm power levels, aural or video haseband signals, modulation levels or other characteristics of the transmitted sic-nal as otherwise specified in to apnro e such oiler -: deviations stall be solely at the discretion of the 70C (c) TV multiplex subcarrier/sterophonic aural transmission standards () The modulating signal for the main channel shall consist of the sum of the sterophonic (biphonic, quasraphonic, etc) input signals (2) The instantaneous frequency of the baseband sterophonic sub - carrier must at all times be within the range 5 khz to 20 khz Either amplitude or frequency modulation of the sterophonic subcarrier may be used (3) One or more pilot subcarriers between 6 khz and 20 khz may be used to switch a TV receiver between the sterophonic and monophonic reception modes or to activate a sterophonic audio indicator light and one or more subcarriers between 5 khz and 20 khz may be used for any other authorized purpose except that stations employing the BTSC system of sterophonic sound transmission and audio proc'essino; may transmit a pilot subcarrier at 5,?34 Hz± 2 Hz Other methods of multiplex subcarrier or sterophonic aural transmission systems must limit energy at 5,734 Hz ± 20 Hz, to no more than = 025 khz aural carrier deviation (4) Aural baseband information above 20 khz must be attenuated 40 db referenced to 25 khz main channel deviation of the aural carrier (5) For required transmitter performance, all of the requirements of 73687(b) shall apply to the main channel, with the transmitter in the multiplex subcarrier or sterophonic aural mode (6) For electrical performance standards of the transmitter, the requirements of 73687(b) apply to the main channel (7) iultiplex subcarrier or sterophonic aural transmi&ion systems must not exceed 25 khz main channel deviation of the aural carrier (3) The arithmetic sum of non-multiphonic baseband signals bétiber 5 khz and 20 khz must not exceed * 50 khz deviation of the aural carrier (9) Total modulation of the aural carrier must not exceed + 75 Hz this Subpart Any decisionat-n C 8/R/94 73 TV Standard -7_a-

100 (b) c Field strength contours (a) n the authorization of TV stations, two field strength contours are considered These are specified as Grad A and Grade B and indicate the approximate extent of coverage over average terrain in the absence of interference from other television stations Under actual conditions, the true coverage may vary greatly from these estimates because the terrain over any specific path is expected to be different from the average terrain on which the field strength charts were based The required field strength, F (50-50), in decibels above one micro -volt per meter (dbu) for the Grade A and Grade B contours are as follows: Grade A (dbu) Grade B (dbu) Channels Channels Channels (b) t should be realized that the F (50-50) curves when used for Channels 4-6 9are not based on measured data at distances beyond about 30 miles Theory would indicate that the field strengths for Channels 4-69 should decrease more rapidly with distance beyond the horizon than for Channels 2-6, and modification of the curves for Channels 4-69 may be expected as a result of measurements to be made at a later date For these reasons, the curves should be used with appreciation of their limitations in estimating levels of field strength Further, the actual extent of service will usually be less than indicated by these estimates due to interference fran other stations Because of these factors, the predicted field strength contours give no assurance of service to any specific percentage of receiver locations within the distances indicated n licensing proceedings these variations will not be considered (c) The field strength contours will be considered for the following purposes only: () n the estimation of coverage resulting from the selection of a particular transmitter site by an applicant for a TV station (2) n connection with problems of coverage arising out of application of (3) n determining compliance with (a) concerning the minimum field strength to be provided aver the principal community to be served Prediction of coverage - (a) All predictions of coverage made pursuant to this se con shall be made without rsgard to interference and shall be made only on the basis of estimated field intensities The peak power of the visual signal is used in making predictions of coverage (b) Predictions of coverage shall be made only for the same purposes as relate to the use of field strength contours as specified in 73683(d) C5//85 73 TV STANDARDS - 8

101 73684(c) C (c) n predicting the distance to the field strength contours, the F (50-50) field strength charts (Figures 9 and 0 of 73699) shall be used f the 50% field strength is defined as that value exceeded for 50% of the time, the F (50-50) charts give the estimated 50% field strengths exceeded at 50% of the locations in db above mv/m The charts are based an an effective power of kw radiated fran a half - wave dipole in free space, which produces an unattenuated field strength at mile of about 03 db above mv/m (376 millivolts per meter) To use the charts for other powers, the sliding scale associated with the charts should be trimmed and used as the ordinate scale This sliding scale is placéd an the charts with the appropriate gradation for power in line with the horizontal 40 db line on the charts The right edge of the scale is placed in line with the appropriate antenna height gradations, and the charts then became direct reading (in uv/m and in db above uv/m) for this power and antenna height Where the antenna height is not one of those for which a scale is provided, the signal strength or distance is determined by interpolation between the curves connecting the equidistant points Dividers may be used in lieu of the sliding scale () n predicting the distance to the Grade A and Grade B field strength contours, the effective radiated power to be used is that radiated at the vertical angle corresponding to the depression angle between the transmitting antenna center of radiation and the radio horizon as determined individually for each azimuthal direction concerned The depression angle is based on the difference in elevation of the antenna center of radiation above the average terrain and the radio horizon, assuming a smooth spherical earth with a radius of 5,280 miles, and shall be determined by the following equation: All = 0053/7 Where: A/k is the depression angle in degrees H is the height in feet of the transmitting antenna radiation center above average terrain of the 2-0 mile sector of the pertinent radial This formula is empirically derived for the limited purpose specified herein ts use for any other purpose may be inappropriate (2) n cases where the relative field strength at the depression angle determined by the above formula is 90% or more of the maximum field strength developed in the vertical plane containing the pertaining radial, the maximum radiation shall be used (3) n predicting field strengths for other than the Grade A and Grade B contours, the effective radiated power to be used is to be based on the appropriate antenna vertical plane radiation pattern for the aximuthal direction concerned (4) Applicants for new TV stations or changes in the facilities of existing TV stations must submit to the FCC a showing as to the location of their stations' or proposed stations' predicted Grade A and Grade B contours, determined in accordance with This showing is to include maps showing these contours, except where applicants have previously submitted material to the FCC containing such information and it is found upon careful examination that the contour locations indicated therein would not change, on any radial, when the locations are determined under this Section n the latter cases, a statement by a qualified engineer to this effect will satisfy this requirement and no contour maps need be submitted (C 73 TV STANDARDS - 8a - 9/28/79

102 3684 (d) C (d) The antenna height to be used with these charts is the height of the radiation center of the antenna above the average terrain along the radial in question n determining the average elevation of the terrain, the elevations between 2 and 0 miles from the antenna site are employed Profile graphs shall be drawn for 8 radials beginning at the antenna site and extending 0 miles therefrom The radials should be drawn for each 45 degrees of azimuth starting with True North At least one radial must include the principal community to be served even though such community may be more than 0 miles from the antenna site However, in the event none of the evenly spaced radials include the principal community to be served and one or more such radials are drawn in addition to the 8 evenly spaced radials, such additional radials shall not be employed in computing the antenna height above average terrain Where the 2 to 0 mile portion of a radial extends in whole or in part over large bodies of water as specified in paragraph (e) of this section or extends over foreign territory but the Grade B intensity contour encompasses land area within the United States beyond the 0 mile portion of the radial, the entire 2 to 0 mile portion of the radial shall be included in the computation of antenna height above average terrain However, where the Grade B contour does not so encompass United States land area and () the entire 2 to 0 mile portion of the radial extends over large bodies of water or foreign territory, such radial shall be completely omitted from the computation of antenna height above average terrain, and (2) where a part of the 2 to 0 mile portion of a radial extends over large bodies of water or over foreign territory, only that part of the radial extending from the 2 mile sector to the outermost portion of land area within the United States covered by the radial shall be imployed in the computation of antenna height above average terrain The profile graph for each radial should be plotted by contour intervals of from 40 to 00 feet and, where the data permits, at least 50 points of elevation (generally uniformly spaced) should be used for each radial n instances of very rugged terrain where the use of contour intervals of 00 feet would result in several points in a short distance, foot contour intervals may be used for such distances On the other hand, where the terrain is uniform or gently sloping the smallest contour interval indicated on the topographic map (see paragraph (g) of this section) should be used, although only relatively few points may be available The profile graphs should indicate the topography accurately for each radial, and the graphs should be plotted with the distance in miles as the abscissa and the elevation in feet above mean sea level as the ordinate The profile graphs should indicate the source of the topographical data employed The graph should also show the elevation of the center of the radiating system The graph may be plotted either on rectangular coordinate paper or on special paper which shows the curvature of the earth t is not necessary to take the curvature of the earth into consideration in this procedure, as this factor is taken care of in the charts C TV Standards (9)

103 73684jd) (g) showing signal intensities The average elevation of the 8 -mile distance between 2 and 0 miles from the antenna site should then be determined from the profile graph for each radial This may be obtained by averaging a large number of equally spaced points, by using a planimeter, or by obtaining the median elevation (that exceeded for 50 percent of the distance) in sectors and averaging those values NOTE The Commission will, upon a proper showing by an existing station that the application of this rule will result in an unreasonable power reduction in relation to other stations in close proximity, consider requests for adjustment in power on the basis of a common average terrain figure for the stations in question as determined by the Commission (e) n instances where it is desired to determine the area in square miles within the Grade A and Grade B field intensity contours, the area may be determined from the coverage map by planimeter or other approximate means; in computing such areas, exclude () areas beyond the borders of the United States, and (2) large bodies of water, such as ocean areas, gulfs, sounds, bays, large lakes, etc, but not rivers (f) n cases where the terrain in one or more directions from the antenna site departs widely from the average elevation of the 2 to 0 mile sector, the prediction method may indicate contour distances that are different from what may be expected in practice For example, a mountain ridge may indicate the practical limit of service although the prediction method may indicate otherwise n such cases the prediction method should be followed, but a supplemental showing may be made concerning the contour distances as determined by other means Such supplemental showing should describe the procedure employed and should include sample calculations Maps of predicted coverage should include both the coverage as predicted by the regular method and as predicted by a supplemental method -When measurements of area are required, these should include the area obtained by the regular prediction method and the area obtained by the supplemental method J n directions where the terrain is such that negative antenna heights or heights below 00 feet for the 2 to 00 mile sector are obtained, an assumed height of 0 feet shall be used for the prediction of coverage where the actual contour distance However are critical factors, a -supplemental showing of expected coverage must be included togather with a description of the method employed in predicting such coverage n special cases, the Commission may require additional information as to terrain and coverage (g) n the preparation of the profile graphs previously described, and in determining the location and height above sea level of the antenna site, the elevation or contour intervals shall be taken from the United States Geological Survey Topographic Quadrangle Maps, United States Army Corps of Engineers maps or Tennessee Valley Authority maps, whichever is the latest, for all areas for which such are available maps f such maps are not published for the area in question, the next best topographic information should be used Topographic data may sometimes be obtained from State and municipal agencies Data from Sectional (including bench marks) Aeronautical Charts or railroad depot elevations and highway elevations from road maps may be used where no better information is available where limited topographic n cases data is available, use may be made of an altimeter in a car driven along roads extending' generally transmitter site radially from the Ordinarilly the Commission will not require the submission of topographical maps for areas beyond 5 site, but the miles from the antenna maps must include the principal community to be served 3/29/85 73TVS -0-

104 Alternatively, 73684(g) - (k) () f it appears necessary, additional data May be requested United States Geological Survey Topographic Quadrangle Maps may be obtained from the Department of the nterior, Geological Survey, Washington, DC Sectional Aeronautical Charts are available from the Department of Commerce, Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington, DC n lieu of mans, the average terrain elevation may be computer generatpd, except in cases of dispute, using elevations from a 30 second, point or better topographic data file The file must be identified and the data processed fat intermediate points along each radial using linear interpolation techniques The height above mean sea level of the antenna site must be obtained manually using appropriate topographic maps (h) The effect of terrain roughness on the predicted field strength of a signal at points distant from a television broadcast station is assumed to depend on the magnitude of a terrain roughness factor (4 h) which, for a specific propagation path, is determined by the characteristics of a segment of the terrain profile for that path 25 miles in length, located between 6 and 3 miles from the transmitter The terrain roughness factor has a valueequalto'the difference, in meters, between elevations exceeded by all points on the profile for 0 percent and 90 percent, respectively, of the length of the profile segment (see Figure 0d) (i) f the lowest field strength value of interest is initially predicted to occur over a particular propagation path at a distance which is less than 3 miles from the transmitter, the terrain profile segment used in the determination of the terrain roughness factor over that path shall be that included between points 6 miles from the transmitter and such lesser distance No terrain roughness correction need be applied when all field strength values of interest are predicted to occur 6 miles or less from the transmitter (j) Profile segments prepared for terrain roughness factor determinations should be plotted in rectangular coordinates with no less than 50 points evenly spaced within the segment, using data obtained from topographic maps, if available, with contour intervals of 50 feet, or less (k) The field strength charts (73699 Figs 9-0c) were developed assuming a terrain roughness factor of 50 meters, which is considered to be representative of average terrain in the United States Where the roughness factor for a particular propagation path is found to depart appreciably from this value, a terrain roughness correction ( F) should be applied to field strength values along this path as predicted with the use of these charts The magnitude and sign of this correction, for any value of A h,may be determined from a chart included in as Figure 0e, with linear interpolation as necessary, for the frequency of the UHF signal under consideration () : the terrain roughness correction may be computed using the following formula: Q F = C ( 4 h) ( + f/300) 3/23/35 73TV Standards --

105 73684(k) () (c) -,Where: F = terrain roughness correction in db C = a constant having a specific value for the use with each set of field strength charts: 9 for TV channels for TV Channels for TV channels 4-69 h = terrain roughness factor in meters f = frequency of signal in megahertz (mhz) Transmitter location and antenna system-- (a) The transmitter location shall be chosen so that, on the basis of the effective radiated power and antenna height above average terrain employed, the following minimum field strength in decibels above one _uvm (dbu) will be provided over the entire principal community to be served: Channels 2-6 Channels 7-3 Channels dbu 77 dbu 80 dbu (b) Location of the antenna at a point of high elevation is necessary to reduce to a minimum the shadow effect on propagation due to hills and buildings which may reduce materially the intensity of the station's signals n general, the transmitting antenna of a station should be located at the most central point at the k hest elevation available To provide the best degree of service to an area, it is usually preferable to use a high antenna rather than a low antenna with increased transmitter power The location should be so chosen that line -of -sight can be obtained from the antenna over the principal community to be served; in no event should there be a major obstruction in this path The antenna must be constructed so that it is as clear as possible of surrounding buildings or objects that would cause shadow problems t is recognized that topography, shape of the desired service area, and population distribution may make the choice of a transmitter location difficult n such cases, consideration may be given to the use of a directional antenna system, although it is generally preferable to choose a site where a non -directional antenna may be employed (c) n cases of questionable antenna locations it is desirable to conduct propagation tests to indicate the field intensity expected in the principal community to be served and in other areas, particularly where severe shadow problems may be expected n considering applications proposing the use of such locations, the Commission may require site tests to be made Such tests should be made in accordance with the measurement procedure in and full data thereon must be supplied to the Commission Test transmitters should employ an antenna having a height as close as possible to the proposed antenna height, using a balloon or other support if necessary and feasible nformation concerning the authorization of site tests may be obtained from the Commission upon request 9/7/82 73TV Standards -lla-

106 73685(d) (h) (2/ (d) Present information is not sufficiently complete to establish "blanket areas" of television broadcast stations A "blanket area" is that area adjacent to a transmitter in which the receiption of other stations is subject to interference due to the strong signal from this station The authorization of station construction in areas where blanketing is found to be excessive will be on the basis that the applicant will assume full responsibility for the adjustment of reasonable complaints arising from excessively strong signals of the applicant's station or take other corrective action (e) An antenna designed or altered to produce a noncircular radiation pattern in the horizontal plane is considered to be a directional antenna Antennas purposely installed in such a manner as to result in the mechanical beam titlting of the major vertical radiation lobe are included in this category Directional antennas may be employed for the purpose of improving service upon an appropriate showing of need Stations operating on Channels 2-3 will not be permitted to employ a directional antenna having a ratio of maximum to minimum radiation in the horizontal plane in excess of 0 decibels Stations operating on Channels 4-69 with transmitters delivering a peak visual power output of more than kilowatt may employ directive transmitting antennas with a maximum to minimum radiation in the horizontal plane of not more than 5 decibels Stations operating on Channels 4-69 and employing transmitters delivering a peak visual power output of kilowatt or less are not limited as to the ratio of maximum to minimum radiation (f) Applications proposing the use of directional antenna systems must be accompanied by the following: () Complete description of the proposed antenna system, including the manufacturer and model number of the proposed directional antenna (2) Relative field horizontal plane pattern (horizontal polarization only) of the proposed directional antenna A value of 0 should be used for the maximum radiation The plot of the pattern should be oriented so that 0 corresponds to true North Where mechanical beam tilt is intended, the amount of tilt in degrees of the antenna vertical axis and the orientation of the downward tilt with respect to true North must be specified, and the horizontal plane pattern must reflect the use of mechanical beam tilt (3) A tabulation of the relative field pattern required in (2), above The tabulation should use the same zero degree reference as the plotted pattern, and be tabulated at least every 0 n addition, tabulated values of all maxima and minima, with their corresponding azimuths, should be submitted (4) Horizontal and vertical plane radiation patterns showing the effective radiated power, in dbk, for each direction Sufficient vertical plane patterns must be included to indicate clearly the radiation characteristics of the antenna above and below the horizontal plane n cases where the angles at which the maximum vertical radiation varies with aximuth, a separate vertical radiation pattern must be provided for each pertinent radial direction (5) All horizontal plane patterns must be plotted to the largest scale possible on unglazed letter -size polar coordinate paper (main engraving approximately 7" x 0") using only scale divisions and subdivisions of, 2, 25, or 5 times 0 -nth All vertical plane patterns must be plotted on unglazed letter -size rectangular coordinate paper Values of field strength on any pattern less than 0% of the maximum field strength plotted on that pattern must be shown on an enlarged scale (6) The horizontal and vertical plane patterns that are required are the patterns for the complete directional antenna system n the case of a composite antenna composed of two or more individual antennas, this means that the patterns for the composite antenna, but not patterns for each of the individual antennas, must be submitted (g) Applications proposing the use of television broadcast antennas within 60 meters (200) feet of other television broadcast antennas operating on a channel within 20 percent in frequency of the proposed channel or proposing the use of television broadcast antennas on Channels 5 or 6 within 6,0 meters (200) feet of FM broadcast antennas, must include a showing as to the expected effect, if any, of such proximate operation (h) Where a simultaneous use of antennas or antenna structures is proposed, the following provisions shall apply: () n cases where it is proposed to use a tower of a standard broadcast station as a supporting structure for a television broadcast antenna, an appropriate 3/23/85 73 TV STANDARDS -2-

107 73685(h)() (b)()(ii) application for changes in the radiating system of the standard broadcast station must be filed by the licensee thereof A formal application (FCC Form 30)will be required if the proposal involves substantial change in the physical height or radiation characteristics of the standard broadcast antennas; otherwise an informal application will be acceptable (n case of doubt, an informal application (letter) together with complete engineering data should be submitted) An application may be required for other classes of stations when the tower is to be used in connection with a television station (2) When the proposed TV antenna is to be mounted on a tower in the vicinity of an AM station directional antenna system and it appears that the operation of the directional antenna system may be affected, an engineering study must be filed with the TV application concerning the effect of the TV antenna on the AM directional radiation pattern T'ield measurements of the AM stations may be required prior to and following construction of the TV station antenna, and readjustments made as necessary (i) Deleted Field strength measurements (a) Except as provided for in 7362, television broadcast stations shall not be protected from any type of interference or propagation effect Persons desiring to submit testimony, evidence or data to the Commission for the purpose of showing that the technical standards contained in this subpart do not properly reflect the levels of any given type of interference or propagation effect may do so only in appropriate rule making proceedings concerning the amendment of such technical standards Persons making field strength measurements for formal submission to the Commission inrulemaking proceedings, or making such measurements upon the request of the Commission shall follow the procedures for making and reporting such measurements outlined in paragraph (b) of this section n instances where a showing of the measured level of a signal prevailing over a specific community is apprioriate, the procedure for making and reporting field strength measurements for this purpose is set forth in paragraph (c) of this section (b) Collection of field strength data for propagation analysis () Preparation for measurements (i) On large scale topographic maps, eight or more radials are drawn from the transmitter location to the maximum distance at which measurements are to be made, with the angles included between adjacent radials of approximately equal size Radials should be oriented so as to traverse representative types of terrain The specific number of radials and their orientation should be such as to accomplish this objective (ii) At a point exactly 6 kilometers (0miles) from the transmitter, each radial is marked, and at greater distances at successive 32 kilometers (2 mile) intervals Where measurements are to be conducted at UHF, or over extremely rugged terrain, shorter intervals may be employed, but all such intervals shall be of equal length Accessible roads intersecting each radial as nearly as possible at each 32 kilometer (2 mile) marker are selected 8/23/85 73TV Standards -3-

108 73686(b) () (ii) - (b) (3) (i) (d) These intersections are the points at which measurements are to be made, and are referred to subsequently as measuring locations The elevation of each measuring location should approach the elevation at the corresponding 32 kilometer (2 mile) marker as nearly as possible (2) Measurement procedure The field strength of the visual carrier shall be measured with voltmeter capable of indicating accurately the peak amplitude of the synchronizing signal A measurements shall be made utilizing a receiving antenna designed for reception of the horizontally polarized signal compoennt, elevated 9 meters (30feet) above the roadbed At each measuring location the following shall be employd (i) The instrument calibration is checked (ii) The antenna is elevated to a height of 30 feet (iii) The receiving antenna is rotated to determine if the strongest signal is arriving from the direction of the transmitter (iv) The antenna is oriented so that the section of its response pattern over which maximum gain is realized is in the direction of the transmitter' (v) At mobile run of at least 305 meters (00 feet) is made, which is centered on the intersection of the radial and the road, and the measured field strength is continuously recorded on a chart recorder over the length of the run (iv) The actual measuring location is marked exactly on the topographic map, and awritten record, keyed to the specific location, is made of all factors which may affect the recorded field, such as topography, height and type of vegetation, buildings, obstacles, weather, and other local features (vii) f, during the test conducted as described in paragraph (b)(2)(iii) of this section, the strongest signal is found to come from a direction other than from the transmitter, after the mobile run prescribed in paragraph (b)()(v) of this section is concluded, additional measurements shall be made in a "cluster" of at least five fixed points At each such point, the field strengths with the antenna oriented toward the transmitter, and with the antenna oriented so as to receive the strongest field, are measured and recorded Generally, all points should be within 50 meters (200 feet) of the center point of the mobile run (viii) f overhead obstacles preclude a mobile run of at least 00 feet, a "cluster" of five spot measurements may be made in lieu of this run The first measurement in the cluster is identified Generally, the locations for other measurements shall be within 6 meters (200 feet) of the location of the first (3) Method of reporting measurements A report of measurements to the Commission shall be submitted in affidavit form, in triplicate, and should contain the following information (i) Tables of field strength measurements, which, for each measuring location, set forth the following data: (a) Distance from the transmitting antenna (b) Ground elevation at measuring location (c) Date, time of day, and weather (d) Median field in dbu for 9 dbk, for mobile run or for cluster, as well as maximum and minimum measured field strengths -8/23/85 73TV Standards -4-

109 73686(b)(3)(i) (c)(2)(i) (e) Notes describing measuring location (ii) US Geological Survey topographic maps, on which is shown the exact location at which each measurement was made The original plots shall be made on maps of the largest available scale Copies may be reduced in size for convenient submission to the Commission, but not to the extent that important detail is lost The original maps shall be made available, if requested f a large number of maps is involved, an index map should be submitted (iii) All information necessary to determine the pertinent characteristics of the transmitting installation, including frequency, geographical coordinates of antenna site, rated and actual power output of transmitter, measured transmission line loss, antenna power gain, height of antenna above ground, above mean sea level, and above agerage terrain The effective radiated power should be computed, and horizontal and vertical plane patterns of the transmitting antenna should be submitted (iv) A list of calibrated equipment used in the field strength survey, which, for each instrument, specifies its manufacturer, type, and serial number and rated accuracy, and the date of its most recent calibration by the manufacturer, or by a laboratory Complete details of any instrument not of standard manufacture shall be submitted (v) Detailed descriptions of the calibration of the measuring equipment, including field strength meters, measuring atenna, and connecting cable (vi) Terrain profiles in each direction in which measurements were made, drawn on curved earth paper for equivalent 4/3 earth radius, of the largest available scale (c) Collection of field strength data to determine television service in specific communities () Preparation for measurement (i) The population (P) of the community, and its suburbs, if any, is determined by reference to an appropriate source, eg, the 970 US Census tables of population of cities and urbanized areas (ii) The number of locations at which measurements are to be made shall be at least 5, and shall be approximately equal to 0(P)á, if this product is a number greater than 5 (iii) A rectangular grid, of such size and shape as to encompass the boundaries of the community is drawn on an accurate map of the community The number of line intersections on the grid included within the boundaries of the community shall be at least equal to the required number of measuring locations The position of each intersection on the community map determines the location at which a measurement shall be made (2) Measurement procedure The field strength of the visual carrier shall be measured, with a voltmeter capable of indicating accurately the peak amplitude of the synchronizing signal All measurements shall be made utilizing a receiving antenna designed for reception of the horizontally polarized signal component elevated 30 feet 9 meters above street level Each measuring location shall be chosen as close as feasible (i) 8/23/85 73TV Standards -5-

110 73686 (c) (2) (i) - (c) (3) to a point indicated on the map, as previously prepared, and at as nearly the same elevation as that point as possible (ii) At each measuring location, after equipment calibration and elevation of the antenna, a check is made to determine whether the strongest signal arrives from a direction other than from the transmitter (ii) At 20 percent or more of the measuring locations, mobile runs, as described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section shall be made, with no less than three such mobile runs in any case The points at which mobile measurements are made shall be well separated Spot measurements may be made at other measuring points (iv) Each actual measuring location is marked exactly on the map of the community, and suitable keyed A written record shall be maintained, describing, for each location, factors which may affect the recorded field, such as the approximate time of measurement, weather topography, overhead wiring, heights and types of buildings, vegetation, and other structures Theorientation with respect to the measuring locations shall be indicated of objects of such shape and size as to be capable of causing shadows or reflections f the strongest signal received was found to arrive from a direction other than that of the transmitter, this fact shall be recorded (3) Method for reporting measurements A report of measurements to the Commission shall be submitted in affidavit form, in triplicate, and should contain the following information (i) A map of the community showing each actual measuring location, specifically identifying the points at which mobile runs were made, (ii) A table keyed to the above map, showing the field strength at each measuring point, reduced to dbu for the actual effective radiated power of the station Weather, date, and time of each measurement shall be indicated (iii) Notes describing each measuring location (iv) A topographic map of the largest available scale on which are marked the community and the transmitter site of the station whose signals have been measured, which includes all areas on or near the direct path of signal propagation (v) Computations of the mean and standard deviation of all measured field strengths, or a graph on which the distribution of measured field strength values is plotted (vi) A list of calibrated equipment used for the measurements, which for each instrument, specifies its manufacture, type, serial number and rated accuracy, and the date of its most recent calibration by the manufacturer, or by a laboratory Complete details of any instrument not of standard manufacture shall be submitted (vii) A detailed description of the procedure employed in the calibration of the measuring equipment including field strength meters measuring antenna, and connecting cable 7/6/75 73TV Standards -5a-

111 73687(a) - (a)(2) Transmission System requirements (a) Visual transmitter () The field strength or voltage of the lower sideband, as radiated or dissipated and measured as described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, shall not be greater than -20dB for modulating frequency of 25 MHz or greater and in addition, for color, shall not be greater than -42 db for a modulating frequency of MHz (the color subearrier frequency) For both monochrome and color, the field strength or voltage of the upper side - band as radiated or dissipated and measured as described in parapraph (a)(2) of this section shall not be greater than -20 db for a modulating frequency of 475 MHz or greater For stations operating on channels 5-69 and employing a transmitter delivering maximum peak visual power output of kw or less, the field strength or voltage of the upper and lower sidebands, as radiated or dissipated and measured as described in paragraph (a)(2) of this sectiºn, shall depart from the visual amplitude characteristic (Figure 5a of 73699) by no more than the following amounts: (for color trans- -2 db at 05 MHz below visual carrier frequency; -2 db at 05 MHz above fisual carrier frequency; -2 db at 25 MHz above visual carrier frequency; -3 db at 20 MHz above visual carrier frequency; -6 db at 30 MHz above visual carrier frequency; -2 db at 35 MHz above visual carrier frequency; -8 db at 358 MHz above visual carrier frequency mission only) The field strength or voltage of the upper and lower sidebands, as radiated or dissipated and measured as described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, shall not exceed a level of -20 db fora modulating frequency of 475 MHz or greater f interference to the reception of other stations is caused by out -of -channel lower sideband emission, the technical requirements applicable to stations operating on Channels 2-3 shall be met (2) The attenuation characteristics of a visual transmitter shall be measured by application of a modulating signal to the transmitter input terminals in place of the normal composite television video signal The signal applied shall be a composite signal composed of a synchronizing signal to establish peak output voltage plus a variable frequency sine wave voltage occupying the inter',al between synchronizing pulses (The "synchronizing signal" referred to in this section means either a standard synchronizing wave form or any pulse that will properly set the peak) The axis of the sine wave in the composite signal observed in the output monitor shall be maintained at an amplitude 05 of the voltage at synchronizing peaks The amplitude of the sine wave input shat: be held at a constant value This constant value should be such that at no modulating frequency does the maximum excursion of the sine wave, observed in the composite output signal monitor, exceed the value of 075 of peak output voltage The amplitude of the 200 kiloher tzsideband shall be measured and designated zero db as a basis for comparison The modulation signal frequency shall then be varied over the desired range and the field strength or signal voltage c,f the corresponding sidebands measured As an alternate method of measuring, in those cases in which the automatic d -c insertion can be replaced by manual control, the above characteristic may be taken by the use of a video sweep generator and without the use of pedestal synchronizing pulses The d -c level shall be set -' for midcharacteristic operation 5/26/86 73TVS -6-

112 (4) C 73697(a)(3) (b)(3) (3) A sine wave, introduced at those terminals of the transmitter which are normally fed the composite color picture signal, shall produce a radiated signal having an envelope delay, relative to the average envelope delay between 035 and 020 EHz of zero microseconds up to a frequency of 30 MHz & then linearly decreasing to 48 MHzo as to be equal to -07o/secs at 358 7z The tolerance on the envelope delay shall be secs at 35830Z The tolerance shall increase linearly to +0/'sec down to 2 MHZand remain at +0 r sec down to o2 5z (Tolerances for the interval of 00 to 02 are not specified at the present time) The tolerance shall also increase linearly to +0,sec at x+8 MHz The radio frequency, signal, as radiated, shall have an envelope as would be produced by a modulating signal in conformity with and Figure 6 or 7 of 73699, as modified by vestigial sideband operation specified in Figure 5 of 3699 For stations operating on Channels 5-69 the radio frequency signal as radiated, shall have an envelope as would be produced by a modulating signal in conformity with and Figures 6 or 7 of (5) The time interval between the leading edges of successive horizontal pulses shall vary less than one half of one percent,of the average interval However, for color transmissions, 73682(a)(5) and 73682(a)(6) shall be controlling (6) The rate of change of the frequency of recurrence of the leading edges of the horizontal synchronizing signals shall be not greater than 05 percent per second, the frequency to be determined by an averaging process carried out over a period of not less than 20, nor more than 00 lines, such lines not to include any portion of the blanking interval However, for color transmissions, 73682(a)(5) and 73682(a)(6) shall be controlling (b) Aural transmitter () Pre -emphasis shall be employed as closely as practicable in accordance with the inpedance-frequency characteristic of a series inductance -resistance network having a time constant of 75 microseconds (See uooer curve of Fig 2, 73699) (2) f a limiting or compression amplifier is employed, precaution :liouid he maintained in' its connection in the circuit due to the use of pre -emphasis in ;,e transmitting system (3) Aural modulation levels are specified in consistent /3/95 73TVS -7-

113 73697(c) - (d) C (c) Requirements applicsi3e to both visual and aural transmitters () Automatic' means shall be provided in the visual transmitter to maintain the carrier frequency within one kilo(hertaf the authorized frequency; automatic means shall be provided in the aural transmitter to maintain the carrier frequency 45 megacycles above the actual visual carrier frequency within one kilohertz (2) The transmitters shall be equipped with suitable indicating instruments for the determination of operating power and with other instruments necessary for proper adjustment, operation, and maintenance of the equipment (3) Adequate provision shall be spade for varying the output power of the transmitters to compensate for excessive variations in line voltage or for other factors affecting the output power (4) Adequate provisions shall be provided in all component parts to avoid overheating at the rated maximum output powers (d) Construction n general, the transmitters shall be mounted either on racks and panels or in totally enclosed frames protected as required by the provisions of the National Electrical Code concerning transmitting equipment at radio and television stations, and as set forth below: /3/85 73TVS -8-

114 73687(4)() (4)(4) () Means shall be provided for sating all tuning adjustments, requiring voltages in excess of 350 volts to be applied to the circuit, from the front of the panels with all access doors closed (2) Proper bleeder resistors or other automatic means shall be ine rlied across all the capacitor banks to lower any voltage which may remain accessible with access door open to less than 350 volts within two seconds after the access door is opened (3) All plate supply and other high voltage equipment, including transformers, filters, rectifiers and motor generators, shall be protected so as to prevent injury to operating personnel (i) Commutator guards shall be provided on all high voltage s- tating machinery Coupling guards should be provided on motor generators (ii) (iii) Power equipment and control panels of the transmitters shall meet the above requirements (exposed 220 -volt AC switching equipment on the front of the power control panels is not recommended but is not prohibited) Power equipment located at a television broadcast station not directly associated with the transmitters (not purchased as part of same), such as power distribution panels, are not subject to the provisions of this subpart (4+) The following provisions shall be applicable to metering equipment: (i) (ii) All instruments having more than,000 volts potential to ground on the movement shall be protected by'a cage or cover in addition to the regular case (Some instruments are designed by the manufacturers to operate safely with voltages in excess of,000 volts on the movement f it can be shown by the manufacturer's rating that the instrument will operate safely at the applied potential, additional protection is not necessary) n case the plate voltmeters are located on the low potential side of the wiltiplier resistors with the high potential terminal of the instruments at or less than,000 volts above ground, no protective case is required, However, it is good practice to protect voltmeters subject to more than 5,000 volts with suitable TV STAMARaB (9)

115 C (d) (4) (ii) (g) over -voltage protective devices across the instrument terminals in case the winding opens (iii) Transmission line meters and any other radio frequency instrument which may be necessary for the operator to read shall be so installed as to read easily and accurately without the operator having to risk contact with circuits carrying high potential radio frequency energy (e) wiring and shielding () The transmitter panels or units shall be wired in accordance with standard practice, such as insulated leads properly cabled and supported, coaxial cables, or rigid bus bar properly insulated and pro'zected (2) Wiring between units of the transmitters, with the exception of circuits carrying radio frequency energy or video energy, shall be installed in conduits or approved fiber or metal raceways to protect it from mechanical injury G (3) Circuits carrying radio frequency or video energy between units shall be coaxial cables, two wire balanced lines, or properly shielded lines (4) All stages or units shall be adequately shielded and filtered to prevent interaction and radiation (f) Deleated and reserved (g) nstallation () The installation of transmitting equipment shall be made in suitable quarters (2) Suitable facilities shall be provided for the welfare and comfort of the operator (h) Reserved C 2//83 73 TV STANDARDS -20-

116 73687( (c) (i) operation --() Spurious emissions, including radio frequency harmonics, shall be maintained at as low a level as the state of the art permits As measured at the output terminals of the transmitter (including harmonic filters, if required) all emissions removed in frequency in excess of 3 Mc above or below the respective channel edge shall be attenuated no less than 60 db below the visual specified in this transmitted power (The 60 db value for television transmitters rule should be considered as a temporary requirement which may be increased at a later date, especially when more higher -powered equipment is utilized Stations should, therefore, give consideration to the installation of equipment with greater attenuation than'60 db) n the event of interference caused to any service greater attenuation will be required (2) f a limiting or compression amplifier is used in conjunction with the aural transmitter, due operating precautions should be maintained because of pre - emphasis in the transmitting system (j) Studio equipment --Studio equipment shall be subject to all the above requirements where applicable, except,as follows: () fproperly covered by an underwiiter's certificate, it will be considered as satisfying safety requirements (2) The pertinent provisions of the National Elec,rical Code concerning transmitting equipment at radio and television stations shall apply for voltages only when in excess of 500 volts (3) No specific requirements are made relative to the design and acoustical treatment of studios However, the design of studios, particularly the main studio, shall be compatible with the required performance characteristics of television C ndicating instruments (a) Each TV broadcast station shall be equipped with indicating instrements which conform with the specifications described in 7325 for measuring the operating parameters of the last radio stage of the visual transmitter and with such other instruments as are necessary for the proper adjustment,operation and maintenance of the visual transmitting system (b) The function of each instrument shall be clearly and permanently shown on the instrument itself or on the panel immediately adjacent thereto (c) n the event that any one of these indicating instruments becomes defective, when no substitute which conforms with the required specifications is available, the station may be operating without the defective instrument pending its repair/replacement for a period not in excess of 60 days without further authorization of the Commission, Provided, 8/9/85 73TVS -2-

117 73688(c)() () f the defective instrument is the transmission line meter used for determining the output power by the direct method, the operating power shall be determined or maintained by the indirect method whenever possible or by using the operating parameters of the last radio stage of the transmitter during the time the station is operated without the transmission line meter (2 f conditions beyond the control of the licensee prevent the restoration of the meter to service within the above allowed period, informal request in accordance with may be filed with the Engineer in Charge of the radio district in which the station is located for such additional time as may be required to complete repairs of the defective instrument 3689 Operating power (a) Determination See (b) Maintenance See (c) Reduced power See /28/T5 73TV Standards 22-23

118 C Frequency measurements See Visual modulation monitors Each TV station must have measuring equipment for determining that the transmitted visual signal conforms to the provisions of this Subpart The licensee shall decide the monitoring and measurement methods or procedures for indicating and controlling the visual signal Reserved Deleted Reserved Tables See next page 2//83 73 TVS 24-28

119 73698 tables C TAeLs TALLA -MN4T=a TO D=OMAL TUTS OT A D=O= Minutes Degrees Minuta Degnss a eo x ?gins -CmtlDaeA BEOONDe TO DLCtAL TALTe or A D=OL=E 8eoonQe Depress Seconds Degrees a ' za ' , /9/85 73TVS -29-

120 r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r i r i r - r i r r r r r i i r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r V'C'r0^NMYNr:'n'0000o r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r a) ' ''M N NCl rr,r:: l r AMNhF!~`M{9Ñ: E7M4MMMMMxMe7M! «;' ~:rutl2r` tc tl too {C tt ppp NEGrM20'Jl7ieN!O^Mt+ffVYltiNrrÑí'CiÑ2ñNñOOrNOdltEtOCLñnÁFAññññA000CgCG,,,,rr,rr,r,rrr rr,rrrr rrrr rr,,rr, lrll rrrrrrr ^ vr ir) r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r' r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r 5a)4 O r - ri ri 5 ea m r rn U ; (CVley+f NClNÑCVNÑCVe+fMMl+fONOMPfaSPlrr-iMPlM:tf]C-'NÑítShuihhr/:ÑrDtCrNOtOEvrOtñnÁñlññFññ0E000NOCO r r r r r r r r r r r r rr,rrrrr pypjnccuncxlar; MX é:`iéi24f"l2i: "naocnmynrena ñr"crrrnir`ñ s 3 5c"-ññññññ r r ti ti 5 5 t 5} 5 { t,'nt7 NÑCS_ Nr'Y^rOOÑp^NM7NAT''N2Y'AOCCCC^r2iptOvl'iOru NNN ^N2Y ' t MMr:c:MMMMrYYYYYYYYYYu; - N{{yy r,rtrpnnnnnnnnnnopsooop ^ NNN22NlN fvvmc>m,rrrrr r r,r,rr, rrrrr,rrr,rrrrr,rrr,r:r,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, rrrrr,,, r,rrr,rrrrrrrrrrrrr rc ClHÑNVntgGC 27N T G^2YAQC^N7C fn22 ` Cñ^N2<AOCrC 'x N '2! NÑCCN NNNNN t^tfm2eomñ2ñ TT TTYT_`' f i^ % 4C e-nnnr-nnl- r` 'vnrrer' Y4 `` orj:ao'c á^_ -ANÑNNN, ÑNFtMé^ ^ ` ' Vt lnri-lnnnnanasára r-000i- tir:tl ^' -YCfl^RrfLtO[C `v; ry Cit'5vr/;Lt`000 Crrt2TNrtr é r r r r r r rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr r r ` crn:v_3nclnfrá'ar:-' r=fir=:i;m^'i - r ytttt TTTZ i i á -r nnnnnnnnnrlm ' i ' íj (í rt4, r:rja4cr ATTrJ: ^!r ''yycclc^cli;vn2c^nfy AOCpp'vN,Ñ`YVnOC i^ nl-nna r ÑN `lnñnññnnm2cococ9l'hmm22yyy777yyy:fr^i` fnnnnnnv<'=rn-t nnnr Y ALCOVC:VÑCSClrÑ r,ac^nc`y i2ti2»2c' yylyyyyyyv:vrtrrvvccjj CrC^Nr,YAOSCC^227TC'^NO^YA AN27N -AA ÑÑÑCiÑÑÑÑh2fN7Mr0t50lrA7T GCe+fr'rYCSr^ifr2rr Tirr*5'`créLtñnñññf`tlñÍOOG]COr: 7ta[O+p N2rri nmqronrrlu9gnogpcñt97nrdrqo+ rñ{ rmitcropptl rñ ÑtpnOOCCÓNMNrCA00pp rcñ{+ NNNNNO2CVN222:222227r'YYYYbb00CNOO W roromorganaannnnnaod 00m

121 73699 Figures Consists of figures, 2, 5 through 7 inclusive (::',/ 2/26/85 73TVS -3-

122 ' O '- - '\ p, _j-)- -\ t" p,l ;-9EE -mhziu, ` A ti t -,,, - rs, sles w!wr 'álwy cµ= r}:3,il:r -,---f ac" n r!s 000ij ' t yr,`a V` n --r' / _, ' /tif `- jltw4,{ x il N- tit 't4i' F " i( ' r- '- - -, `i --:----% r _" tg j t y ;t,,--, '--'i-s-=<r`:_ :i }?;Y,_- 4:,T + e-'` ñerr,,}-t_e j4e:«-"_ ;+ ''t-7--;,- _K,, ( - r ; ', -,,,,,--ii _ :i'"a:f, # '--/i; '`ñ' ';7-f i:,,r- z 4ç* ZONE Feb 954 FCC 73699, FGURE C

123 ZONE FCC 5~29, ifibe 2 MARSH 967 TV Standard

124 DEALZED PCTURE TRANSMSSON AMPLTUDE CHARACTERSTC FREQUENCY OF CHROM NANCE SUB CARRER C H075 MHz Min MHz 42 MHz 45 MHz NNW - 6 MHz Note: Not drawn to scale FCC 73699, FGURE 5

125 -4 DEALZED PCTURE TRANSMSSON AMPLTUDE Required Attenuation = 42 db For Color Transmission Only FREQUENCY OF CHROMNANCE SUBCARRER--, MHz MHz r 42 MHz 45 MHz 6 MHz

126 ,EALN FELD LNE NUNCENS sw - t!l PAR CARRER VOLTAGE` *LANRNe N, llag LEVEL woman E PNTE LEVE ry L ZERO GRNQ- PETSM 0Z0/TAL amnn almi, MU 3-5v ore:, ~ow Ar: FELD e LEt /tar!y'r { SLANYK : L_L- HORZONTAL SYNC NEAR SLOPE OF VERTCAL OLANNNO / Ss *! / ' Nlá VST E LEVEL ZERO CAMEN--, llanrun EOVALZN! POLL, NTERVAL L tjulere SM Set ; t 4 VENT SYNC EQUALZNG PULSE PULSE NTERVAL NTERVAL TV FiNGTTRFRNG CPRTS FOR COLOR TRANSMSSON `- HORZONTAL SYNC PULSES -VERTCAL MUM /tr *MA Jw/!/- 4-OTON O ~TM +stnr OF MLA!NP Aw if TNR- +-ltart w roam t SN AaO N J 5 Field line in Field 6 Field 2 line numbers start with in Field 2 7 Refer to text for further explanatinns and toleranceq 8 During color transmissions, the c? rorinance component of the picture signal may penetrate the synchronizing region and the color burst penetrates the picture 9 Mion aximum horizontal and vertical blanking intervals are recommended values only J N FRONT (04 NAY: / 5 Fw:wM /4iM PrM,fN! L COLOR WRT / s r / PORCH SSA OF CAS NS '' - f L -TO Of PCTURE 7 OOTS! ODES P F ff -to mat miss NOTES k OF CAL SYNC,ON _ O0N4 numbers start with first equalizing pulse second equalizing pulse \- J ) df / MM S -S Q FnoTw toaolr!ttln NY: lama's M -O,OpN WAS OOQt rr H = Time trap start of one line to start of next line V = Time fran start of one field to start of next field Leading and traling edges of vertical blanking should be catplete in less than 0H Leading and trailing slopes of horizontal blanking must be steep enough to preserve minimum and maximum values of (x + y) and (z) under all conditions of picture content Dimensions marked with asterisk indicate that tolerances given are permitted only for long time variations and not for successive cycles Equalizing pulse duration must be between 045 and 055 of the duration of the horizontal synchronizing the pulse duration Color burst follows each horizontal pulse, but is anitted following the equalizing pulses and during the broad vertical pulses Color bursts to be omitted during monochrome transmission The burst frequency shall be MHz The tolerance on the frequency shall be +0 hertz with a maximum rate of change of frequency not to exceed /0 hertz per second The horizontal scanning frequency shall be 2 times the burst frequency 455 The dimensions specified for the burst determine the times of starting and stopping the burst, but not its phase The color burst consists of amplitude modulation of a continuous sine wave Dimension "P" represents the peck excursion of the luminance signal fran blanking level, but does not include the chraninance signal Dimension "S" is the sync amplitude above blanking level Dimension "C" is the peak carrier amplitude Start of Field is defined by a whole line between first equalizing pulse and preceding H sync pulses Start of Field 2 is defined by a whole line between first equalizing pulse and preceding H sync pulses u CO '/' G4

127 `TV ENGNEERNG CHARTS FOR MONOCHROME TRANSMSSON ONLY FELD LNE NUMBERS EQUALZNG V[RY SYNC EQUALZNG / SF nl 9 \ PULSE PULSEVLSE ' MAX CAMCA NTERVAL NTERVAL NTERVAL HORZONTALHORZONTAL VOLTAGE WANKNG LEVEL REFERENCE WALK LEVEL- - - REFERENCE OHM LEVEL) mm ` - ' - RA, - wme,í mime µ_ REFERENCE MNWE LEVEL ZENO ~ER OO MWMA/ -, (( { { N "2, C fuljlllu` J ORZOMTAL SLAFNi++ {- H-02 0i ictue -ltart OF FELD J M Y FELD E LNE NTNLNER7 /!r so* 0 (avertcal AAOtB 0OSV 43v?~5o/5/ MAXDOWH+ii n_! MAX Sernalo F EQUALZNG PUL L ; 4v rmc-- 0H- FH y PULSES (SYNC JJ_Jf _LLD ME('! THA nll FN START Of FELD 2 /Fie ARM A AriMV0~0~M was w ;[s! 05m LANKNO LEVEL- 000N-N- MAX VERTCAL SYNC PULSE 000AN _4 vl, -- MAX --t----y J yio OF MAX ST NC OF MAX SYNC i-f- -*---007t 0094* --- TOP OF PCTURE,U r-( P J -i á (0T520025)C T t_i ( C AMAMAMM 5-5/ NOTES ii = Tine from start of one line to start of next line 2 V = Time from start of one field to start of next field 3 Leading and trailing edges of vertical blanking should be completed in less than 0H 4 Leading and trailing slopes of horizontal blanking must be steep enough to preserve minimum and maximum values of (x + y) and (z) under all conditions of picture content *5 Dimensions marked with asterisk indicate that tolerances given are permitted only for long time variations and not for successive cycles 6 Equalizing pulse duration must be between 045 and 055 of the duration of the horizontal synchronizing pulse duration 7 Start of Field is defined by a whole line between first equalizing pulse and preceding H sync pulses 8 Start of Field 2 is defined by a half line between first equalizing pulse and preceding H sync pulses 9 Field line numbers start with first equalizing pulse in Field 0 Field 2 line numbers start with second equalizing pulse in Field 2 Refer to text for further explanations and tolerances 2 Manimum horozpnta; and vertocal blanking intervals are recommended values only (

128 C \ REFERENCE BURST CEé' EY] TV Standard Figure 8

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armr ulfmtnwrtm NNm'incarrw:rlMN:calntlselm~:capcatirWNWitnmnUY!itttlptllinmNlnNN!:mmm==N 0:m/_/tcaMw~70/ rdn-dm:wqa áo~nngn Wá NlmnttncarllM _ánnucamrint-7atnmmlmnnmnlnlnn tnpyrawfá/rr:ww W':Mit/álmNln NNNcantW'n NNttWB'ttmYlUlnllluluum!:;~ ntnilnlnintummnm mlyduvdmldawjalldmms= ir~:m':mlummnamlmcaor~mni/tr'/cacacamlln NN~~Mu lmtntt!dwll NYwcanrul!itNmiN U mllrma~r:r:dltnla mas==yrrewymnn'-dlttttcamrytlntttw'mlnmmtcap ~um int/--rmmmnn im/-rywámtíówam/innn m- rwrnnntlhltnllmm/innynnyca-mynnnunl/m ml/mwwvñmutmmñ _mm Nr~m=NNNM!~N/nNltN/tt~l///nnttittlnlnllnlaw NmN mrtnitimmi== tml'im~lmm/ntmanep eiinn~~~eleee~:wrlmmmm=-dommawr'ap ~MNM EM'Acacacamttn/W, snninmu in: O'-mmm=N NUUa-mmt=NN mi /i rlmnnmnlmoinwmmo'nintyr'waillrtlsmmn mnwnllcammnnnmarml/ /-dmmttmmiond= \'rtnttum/nr!:dtcatnrynlumtcaja l/mnamm~wmmocaatmp:~~=nnmm~0/0= YtttaaaaWá=llmttmltntWl /v:uu/lrnnntarwlno mmmm~7~~mmcar:/mmmm=ns~~nmmmtamrdninltyltmu>r nasrtmll/~l=mma:walmmmmm=nat~ ~altllmnitl%%ttll=lmltyr'larinmmnnl/ msmr ' Nmmmmum'íca0mmtntfl/rWNNNLVAr tnr-wmtltal/'nmmanntmmmm/ OnnrmllnlNltlttaf/rlllullittiñllutaulma~~ triuumlmmmrw!~~~z!í~~camanmmmr/ ~maam:mfmmmp4yulmmtlrnnnycammmlámm!annlamllp-liimmutnym,"tan tlatamlmllllnmmitnitmnaolmmmnnmlcaaattr_mlwmlttuaalwil arum ll- fiaunmotnrmmmman w/m:alnmmmca ' maaai /ul' mmmm=n~~mis=mnnelmcamrl=mr:dnnurmtra== amps=nnncacaur,lmnyy//onntaywsrsa0m/-~ /nimamamllw~tltmnl ' ~~mm Ncamllmnmt/'_dYcacaamlatln pi/mtuutn tlm'mmmn -~moar mmmm=//nmamm W f/dlncam//~ N N tuntllornmemmmnll t~m-~mml 7~~m maa ammfrndmn ~mcacacamraltylltuyy/rmmvi= seam t t -AimNl /A mnmmm~~~~m NNN~am~=t/Mm/lca-alEltlulll=nn:inllattav~~ NmNYmn/ ~SUP iamm=n=m5~~~atllna/'wmamlllll/'moslamlendeles~ ' /"~=~ mm/ / -u N mmunamito nlmmmw atlmtlop N=nt/az manta nvylm~mn Y NNca2~m/,fmltnmll m W CON aa>ca~ mnlds í YMcama: ml=nna-mynydt/t/av acalncacaalm NNr' auuf lntlim mmmi=n ~ -ale NlNmmaaal`~lmmwataa N~mm==NcacacanaldNNllit/AaltltalN' m eta! 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li nlfltllmmmm!/mmffa: A inn ffí/inn ~in: mom n:pt/nm"/mmsmm l/lllaw%aima// x/ntnfnmw:ñmmnlmltma-aanmmf~m_4tm/mmif WM/mf~- M/aminímMAMMNMitmAr:fM í ítnuímn~/:mma UtNtln~AlíA 0~300~~Z NMP~~:~~:00~~~ nmy:wattwmpnn nrtm~wt/murlntnmmmm!/mmnftf/nytln ~NMMiMMMNm/M/nntM-/m//:ttnlW'Hm f\t :tlwt/:ymrmm AMttYMfNp:MntnnMt mn/a MMNMMm/ Am MnP:rf my- nn:m Wii/mP"i sm -YtU//YWNmM~A mmtfn^fimtnnt AMMMvMMMM%N/Y'JYf/NN:/N:nt MmMMNfNíf/llrwtnxttltllimiA /mm:-y/mtytním~mmm _MtWAn/NHmmmMPí/MNmfO4NMMM!dMNr:Ntm-tm0 MPTrfffm:ntU-Amí/Mt7PMm4M MMnflfn~M/~:MtNtm N m~!ia NMNMíN//t 'NUMf/ ma WíAm'm-iA /UtMNfn//tíAqtYtttN _u-=-smnwlwntúwmmmmam>rmmtmsnmuníf!!:amt:maaima t"-mmmmm~p"f W A: AfYUN"fY d/ n:nn W:Ú-/mt/f _ ~MMNY:iWnlUmM~:MMMNNAYn/nxd!A!tAn:NN~:APÍ wmmr ímuim' W Y _ -rntumlltttltl MrrA MAMMrmY/-nt/rMf/ NM /: W tl'n/m ::-~M~WfAY- 7rw/ilnntMmw AO-MmmPí/L4P"iwmi5MMtlMmll~miA tymmm - MMMMf-wfm/YmNmJ/rmV:ATnt:/-M/ tlu M'==~5tn,"wwr~mM=rMMM~:nM~MNAOP:/tm~l MM-WY-inn:aPlsiiiiinttttNm~M NmM2m/_:YMmtlÚr=--v//WVAP^:WA=Ór_:Nxn q~'_-yfw-/:nmí/am-mutlm:nm7w t~mm/~_:xtottln MMYA\\M:rnO"HffJ/ftitnÚ:Amim/N im7p:dturtli/r n"-- _---ApYO:::rwrmmm-AMMr'rMYPÑPim:fñW:dtnNW:-m/'i 5"----;~""""---~mM--mW:"wlmrP:M-AM'mW%M Mtl-_t_tl/M~-77wMngNn«- wwm/a/mw:wnnaa_+wm waftlltr'_yt::mm:avwt:nmy'wmwjtl Am-wn0:AMP:NN/itA/i' _ --«t%lyr::::rrllnmamammmmc -:YY'z _a P:AM/:CMWimlimAíl ~Z---- wmmtn«'- -Y-_ ~_tl!am:tma{oírm-im/ _ tymmr--- --m/m'_ YMnmrMMY:NYn-:f0 P-'íO/-At/'M"imPM //ÁM/MítmMPí :rffyómr aw/y-imw/"/miv/ trt wnmrm~jm_:0r/:rp-a/'i W-/MW/0w«0 rrmmlm Z~in*~!_^- _!/t/m i -MA' i~~~~7/~7~- MM':/M/JMrnrNMn P:MN~~~% %_~A -"-r MAMO`-_r-:m:w-APS6D-NL-i mr-/ í m'j~/ W /M MlMm/r-:Wntm«mMAvMMP-'aW ryamtr::rmómr -MMMrfmM/7M:wut"NÚ%M/ "tttw/m:myr-m:hiim 4, :nn-_= MUMtmmW :7:wllmfnar-,:::-~~~"-Ar::N~:-P'ss--Nto!Nmr-~ :Ysmmtr--~!::"wMr~~íMNxí:NN-imr w-_:-yrr-qwm: tm_yxttf wyntitn NUmmAMv_7rA: m f-l'::mt/!if/:ntl:nnt:alím mmam/a'wmtntp%my-i _-N:`:::wrMMmr"--noa-_;mtP::ff%/:U/::Mttl:~/rf norww-_ MMmv::=~M-'-wW rm-ru:m'nmp'~nm Wr: -A-w rr i "in7irií rn wp tmmm7-" - -YNMM lmmlftr _wwmrfr=rmr-my-m-w:r^w/a r_- ~r_im_- ~P'/nruNMA'//" Y=7*ryMMt- xtw/nflw _-lnunn!- - iaow= r_:tli/:mi-}nu-nnsi 0~7 - Mn"-:/w' n"mm_pn WrYY--- :r~^:--rnmmm mr-mwa:mprm/ :J/-iM - lwmn::wnmti«-i -- wm::mm-mn«rf7a// r:m_-nmr::ani/e _ rymmry YuttlntmY^_- MC--Yrn::NN7M-:M::NlnMt/W ~fmy--=tnmr-^7mmrar- =-rhntni::: O--A!r:wnn::f=ín-:Nt:dm:rmsw n:wrii:/t:rn:r:nymo i --- tfm'rw- -- rwy :r--jfa--r-:n -_ /:-NM-ydP:/P::r::inÍ --r rmrrw- re--v-w+-wy+-:y^rr-rw _tl--r:w:r/r /nliry^tym::b omn--_:mylltlnnr -w7ammr_ ~- Mf7íAA-MM-:íPÑM!-Nn _L/r-_í,-jAr:x:/-_,/-_,pG N/ ' ~M:: worv--ym-n-u:d::-núí/ Mr- -7rrf--íni:Nw-N:Mlt;,rllm í/ Yw--- - nnn0_77gtypiw rtt noims-r7-:mlr;`impínv:atrn'n/vl uyndr-- MM7M/Y7-- Ynf rmnmn«=-=~:~~:-~: _P!:rw::M"%r/i -:::-:wipa /'í rnr»::: Nmmn-- nnnlr- --wr-qn::nmñ::o:cn':i/ip/-i nw::7_n_am:«7='::m rcír wir7:wnnn:"r-:nnimn -:::tl!í-::tnn/ tm r=7 nuwn%=:nny- _--W::-:w-_- my-ra --r::om:ipwjtw:nlt::/imaam YMM =HM r:f-ir:-u':m maamm - mmt- ufony:^ YnlUnur mmn7n_-:nnr::nnl m= :w:-:nt--:t/: mmmmam ~2 MME 7-r! -2/N_:rn-': mmmaam Y -w--m-=7,r/-:;' mmmaam _ -- :MttÑMMY mmmaam ::wennr- wnu ~/0=~~2 00NpAAUr tltt~mmaam mmmmmn -- r ~M EOM W uttnnmmmommmmam ' ' ~mmma nnuunl u H~mMAAM - m--nn- -r--- :::rmt nnnlltt~mmaam "- --~- _-y--- A7t :Milani txl mmmaa Ell ~MMMM ~MmAMMal WN RE m MOM M lm~mmammmmf ~mmmmamm mmmaam M~mmAMMM W ~NM n lain ~MmAM OM M lmmmamm mmmni N mm MUM Mn a !0 - _ 74_ 7-7 C a 770, 7 7 -, t -

136 r- C Ah 0 t0bmaters Few Transmitter FCC FGURE 0d v FCC - R DEFNTON OF THE TERRAN ROUGHNESS FACTOR nh ;0% 90%

137 uuuuuuuu uur uuuuuuuuuurl uuuu iuuuuuuuu W uuu usu/uu uuura /au uuuuuuuuu uuuu u uuutuuuuuuuuu uu i uuuu u MO uu i uuu u ~~ uuuuuuíuuuuuu a uuuuuuuuuuuu A u /u W W uuu Auuu0 euuuuuuuuuuuuuu uuuuuuuuu uuuura uuuuuuuuuuuuurauuu EWE u~d MEE MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMEMMEMMOMMEMMOMMOMMEMMESMOMMUMM MMMMM EWE MMMMM Ma MMMMM uuuuuuuuuuuuuw uuuuu uuuuuu'wu u u ura uuucr uuuuu uu uuuuuuuuu u uu uuuui rm iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiigiiiiiiaiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiu iiiiiii ema%sgmgmumul ggagg%ma ~~~~~ MMMMM MMMMEMMNMUMMOMMEMS~M MMMMM OEM % MOM a\ iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiii iuuuluuuuuuu uuuuuuuuuauuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu/ uu'auuu/ura uuuuunuuuuuuuuuuur/baggage i ' uruau u u uuurau/auu /u uurau u '~A iu 'A r!a au uuuuo uu/ara uu M urauumu uu ura iiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiuiiiuiimuiiiiiiiiuiiuiiiiiuuiiiii upuuuuuuuuurruuuuuuuuu ~~5~~~~~~~~~~0~~9~~~~~02 uurau' u u/iu uuuuuua7/u r AuAuuuau Riau uuuuuuuuuuuuuu uuuuuu'uuuuuuu:uuuuuuu0 'u uuuuuuuuujrluu ruuuura WZ u uuuuuuu uuuuu/uu:uu i /a/uurl ~~~~~~~~~4~ //uuu aauuuu Ruuauuuurauuu 'A4rO F' Muuurauruuu'u _~ /rauauri u Rurau:uui 4u uuu urarauuu/ri+-: _i uiuuraur'' uu LuCuLur:~uur-uuuuu g ages u5rrlauurauu ~~~~ MM M MM WWAMM MMMMM RMMPda MMMMM Mgewll MMMMM ggilmowmmemmemo a7uucauurfaruu /aj:uurígrauuuu r0 iulcaur7uuu'íuuuuu u'uu:'uu-auuuuuuu /yuu]uu/uuuur"auuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu -5 uur u'íuuu!aru':uuuuu //~O" ~~ MMMMMMMM lawdemego~0~~~~~~~~~~ ~/ucar'74uuuuuuuuuu as rr uuuu u '"auuuuuuuu rararríluu0 uuuuuuu uuraar íuuuu uuu ur- auuuurc::iuuuuuuu o ~-_uuuuuuuuuuuu uu''!auuuuuuuuuuuuuu r- :iuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu --auuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu _rrl!auuuuuu uuuuuuuuuuuuuu r4, ui'uuuuuuuumuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu ', /u0 uuuuuu uu uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu EMMEMNu M MM~~

138 ASSUMED DEAL DETECTOR OUTPUT o <n, J 2 m 3- u4-5 r 6- r ---r--,' a C Ó i MODULATNG FREQUENCY MEGAHERTZ FGURE G TV STANDARD

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