Sustainable Development Education, Research and Innovation

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1 Sustainable Development Education, Research and Innovation Vision for Knowledge Economy Professor Maged Al-Sherbiny Assistant Minister for Scientific Research Towards Science, Technology and Innovation 20/11/2009 H.C.S.T S.T.D.F Political Leadership M.O.S.R Research centers n= 362 Researchers and Scientists n= 98,000 73% in University 13% in Institutes 14% in Industry Civil Community n= 77 million Towards Science, Technology and Innovation 20/11/2009 1

2 Importance of S&T indicators Methodology for the Evaluation of the Egyptian S&T Landscape Module 1: Demand on S&T Challenges and Potentials for the Egyptian S&T System Work Package 1: Assessment of Industrial Needs Work Package 2: Technology Foresight Process for selected Technologies Analysis of Status Quo Future Activities Module 2: Performance of S&T Capabilities and Efficiency of the Egyptian S&T System Work Package 3: Analysis of National R&D Indicators Work Package 4: Performance of University Research Work Package 5: Performance of Non-University Research Institutes Work Package 6: Assessment of Technology Transfer and Regional Distribution of Technology Supply Module 3: Solution Design Principles for S&T Strategic Policy Work Package 7: Assessment of the Relevant Framework Conditions of S&T in Egypt (Educational system, ICT Infrastructure, Financial System, Patent system, Tax System, Competition Policy, Socio-cultural Embedding of S&T) Work Package 8: Design Principles of Institution Building, Reorganisation and Support Work Package 9: Design Principles for the Incentive Structure Work Package 10: Design Principles for Technology Transfer and Regional Development Strengthening SME Work Package 11: Design Principles for Strengthening International Cooperation in R&D Work Package 12: Proposals for Activities Accompanying the Implementation of S&T Strategic Policy 2

3 Project Approach Methodology Three modules on a time scale Module 1 Demand on SRT Module 2 Performance on SRT Module 3 Design Principles for the Egyptian SRT Strategic Policy Time Importance of S&T indicators Helping to describe the science and technology system, Enabling better understanding of S&T structure, Enabling better understanding of the impact of policies and programs on it. Enabling to evaluate the impact of science and technology on society and the economy. 3

4 CHALLENGES S&T data are not readily available in Egypt except in government and higher education sectors If they were available, they are not in systematic manner or incomplete Data of (expenditures or R&D personnel) are difficult to obtain especially from private sectors. There is no standard method to collect data of S&T Egyptian government took several steps to collect data for science and technology indicators. Building a capacity for S&T documentation in stakeholder institutions. Planning to conduct surveys to collect science and technology data in Egypt. R&D Surveys Innovation Survey Performance Survey Efforts in S&T 4

5 Science and Technology indicators S&T Indicators Inputs R&D Expenditure R&D personal Outputs The results of R&D activities (patent, scientific publication, etc.) Science and Technology indicators R&D indicators Higher education indicators Innovation and technology indicators Knowledge indicators Competitiveness indicators 5

6 R&D Personnel Agriculture Health Industry Basic Science Education Engineering Energy Petroleum Economy Management 2.20% 4.70% 0.90% 2.20% 4.40% 4.90% 48.60% 7.00% 8.10% 17.00% The distribution of researchers on the different fields in Egypt

7 GERD GDP 20/11/2009 R&D Expenditure (Billion L.E. ) GERD GDP ( Billion L.E.) / / / / / Gross Expenditure on Research and Development Higher Education Indicators Includes numbers of Egyptian and non- Egyptian enrolled students and graduates in universities and government and private institutes. 7

8 R&D Expenditure Expenditure on education Higher Education Indicators Number of universities 8

9 Students enrolled (millions) 20/11/2009 Higher Education Indicators / / / / /2007 Students enrolled in higher education and university (including Azhar) Higher Education Indicators Thousand Male Female Total / / / /2006 University graduates (governmental and private) 9

10 Higher Education Indicators Thousand human science medical science Basic science Engineering Science Agricultural science Relative distribution of graduates (governmental - private) according to the specialization Innovation and Technology Indicators The indicators include 4P's : Publications, Patents, Prototypes and Product. They are considered as outputs of science and technology indicators 10

11 4P s Concept Indirect Experience Gained through International Cooperation Direct Impact of International Cooperation Knowledge Based Economy Products Prototypes S&T Role in Knowledge Based Community Patents Publications Scientific Research Current Status of Scientific Research S&T Research not Involving International Cooperation Innovation and Technology Indicators Research published in International Journals 11

12 Innovation and Technology Indicators Number of patents granted by the Egyptians from different patent office 12

13 Knowledge indicators Includes Fixed and Mobile Telephone, Number of Internet User and National award Knowledge Indicators Fixed and mobile telephone and number of internet user 13

14 Knowledge Indicators IT clubs in Egypt Knowledge Indicators IT companies in Egypt 14

15 Knowledge Indicators High-Technology Exports 2004 Global Competitiveness rankings 15

16 Global Competitiveness rankings The Basic requirements, GCR (out of 117 economies), Global Competitiveness Index 2007 in Egypt and some Arab countries Global Competitiveness rankings Institutions, Infrastructure, Macro economy, Health and primary education in Egypt and some Arab countries 16

17 Global Competitiveness rankings Higher education and training, Market efficiency, Technological readiness in Egypt and some Arab countries Global Competitiveness rankings Innovation factors, Gender Gap Index 2006 (out of 115 economies) in Egypt and some Arab countries 17

18 Global Competitiveness rankings Innovation, Business sophistication in Egypt and some Arab countries w w w. m s r. s c i. e g Innovation indicators Egypt,

19 Objective of innovation Survey To assess whether the enterprises working in different fields of economic activities (e.g. manufacturing and services), pay high attention to the notion of innovation and R&D or not. To assess innovation activities in management, production, and/ or the marketing processes from internal or external sources. 19

20 Methodology In order to conduct this study a random sample of around 3000 enterprises were interviewed, using a specially designed questionnaire form Methodology report Data Analysis Data Entry and Validation Coding Office Review The Data Collection Process Training of field staff Field Work Sample selection and Preparation Questionnaire Design 20

21 Results 21

22 Enterprises By Governorates Local Distribution of Enterprises in Governorates 22

23 Most important Sectors per Governorate 23

24 24

25 25

26 26

27 % of innovative enterprises % of total of the sector Within the enterprise or group Clients or customers Suppliers Competitors Conferences Consultants, commercial labs Journals, technical publications Professional or industriel associations Public research institutions Universities 20/11/2009 Innovative enterprises responsibility for the development of innovations (2008) Mainly own enterprise 9 9 Own enterprise in collaboration with others 2 0 Other enterprises or institutions Industry services Sources of information for innovation rated as highly important by innovative enterprises (2008)

28 % of innovative enterprises % of enterprises 20/11/2009 Factors Hampering Innovation Activities (2008) Lack of funds within the enterprise or group Innovation Lack of costs are too finance from high sources outside the enterprise Lack of qualified personnel Market dominated by established enterprises Unavailability of technology Uncertain demand for innovative goods or services Nodemand for Lack of market innovations information Difficulty in finding cooperation partners Existing of implemented innovations Highly important effects of innovation on outcomes for enterprises (2008) Improved quality of goods or services 66 Improved flexibility of production or service provision Increased range of goods or services Increased capacity of production or service provision Entered new markets or increased market share 47 Met governmental regulatory requirements 31 Reduced environmental impacts or improved health and safety Reduced labor costs per unit output Reduced material and energy per unit outputs 28

29 % of innovators % of innovative enterprises 20/11/2009 Innovative enterprises that received financial support for innovation activities from government sources (2008) National funding agencies Foreign government/ public sources 3.6 National government 3 Metros and municipalities 0.9 Provincial government Collaborative partnerships for innovation activities by type of partner (2008) Other enterprises in group Suppliers Clients or customers Competitors Consultants and commercial labs Public research institutes 29

30 % of innovative enterprises % innovative enterprise 20/11/2009 Enterprises with innovation activities using intellectual property rights (2008) Registered a trademark Registered an industrial design Claimed copyright Granted IPR from innovation Secured a patent in Egypt Applied for patent outside Egypt Proportion of innovative enterprises using organizational or marketing innovations (2008) Employee satisfaction organization of work External relations with other firms or public institutions Design or packaging Knowledge management systems Sales or distribution methods 30

31 Performance Indicators Egypt, 2009 LOGO Introduction For the future of the national innovation system of Egypt it is vital, that both sides, industry and research institutions know about their strengths and weaknesses in terms of innovation in order to provide suitable measures and programs for the future development and enhancement of innovation capabilities of both sides The evaluation takes place for the very first time, and universities and research centers are not well acquainted with the topic of innovation performance and the surrounding topics. 31

32 METHODOLOGY 9 Success Factors / 5 Performance Criteria Success Factors Research Applied Organization Research Performance Criteria Prerequisites Results Source: Kuhlmann, Holland; Erfolgsfaktoren der wirtschaftnahen Forschung, Success Factors for Research Institutions (Competence) Strategic Orientation Finance Structure Scientific- Technical Equipment Technology Management Research institutes Human Resources Industry Relationship Organization and Management Relationship to Science Communicative Competence 32

33 5 Performance Criteria for Research Institutions (Output) Strategic Business Field Planning & Industry Need Human Resources; Science and Technology Equipment Research Institute Scientific & Technological Competence Profit Situation Success in the Solutions of Economic Problem 33

34 34

35 35

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39 النسبة المئوية 20/11/2009 Performance of Researchers البحبث < > 0 عدد % عدد النقبط أداء جيد أداء متميز أداء متوسط 39

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