1 1 athens university of economics and business dept. of management science and technology management science laboratory - msl as Co-evolutionary Processes: A Longitudinal Study of the Computer Sector in the of Attica, Greece Ioannis N. Katsikis InnKnow - innovation and knowledge management centre management science laboratory msl dept. of management science and technology athens university of economics and business
2 2 Panorama Methodology, Design and The Empirics: Attica as a al Characteristics: Attica
3 3 Methodology, Design and The Empirics: Attica as a al Characteristics: Attica We elaborate on the notion of innovation systems, and examine the case of the Computer Sector in the of Attica, Greece Based on the coevolutionary framework of Lewin et al., (1999), we question the co-evolutionary dynamics between the sector and the region and examine the conditions under which innovation performance emerges. Study the function and development of a SIS (Computer Sector) in a RIS ( of Attica), and this within a NIS (Greece).
4 4 The Motive & the Paradox Methodology, Design and The Empirics: Attica as a al Characteristics: Attica Sectoral characteristics Innovation, knowledge intensive, age, maturity, location, documentation, etc Horizontal sector Significance Recent European Trend Chart Reports present the Hellenic Computer sector as an innovation leader in Europe. Greece appears to be an innovation leader in the Computer and Related Activities sector for years 2004, 2005, 2006, followed by Belgium and Finland.
5 5 Innovation Performance Indicators EIS-ERIS-ESIS Methodology, Design and The Empirics: Attica as a al Characteristics: Attica
6 6 Innovation Systems Approach Methodology, Design and The Empirics: Attica as a al Characteristics: Attica A Teleological approach of production systems. Built on evolutionary theories of economic and technological change, the systems of innovation literature conceptualizes innovation as an evolutionary and social process at the same time (Edquist, 2004). Innovation is stimulated and influenced by many actors and factors, both internal and external to the firm (Dosi 1988). The social aspect of innovation refers to the collective learning process between several departments of a company (for example R&D production, marketing, commercialization, etc.) as well as to external collaborations with other firms, knowledge providers, finances, training, etc. (Cooke et al. 2000).
7 7 Sectoral & al Level Methodology, Design and The Empirics: Attica as a al Characteristics: Attica Following Malerba (2001, p.6) a Sectoral System of Innovation can be defined as composed of set of heterogenous actors carrying out market and non-market interaction for the generation, adoption and use of new and established knowledge and for the creation, production and use of new and established products. A al Innovation System is a complex of innovation actors and institutions in a region that are directly related with the generation, diffusion, and appropriation of technological innovation and an interrelationship between these innovation actors. The basic - main innovation actor groups are: universities, industrial enterprises, and public research institutions etc
8 8 Evolution Theory Theoretical and Methodology, Design and The Empirics: Attica as a al Characteristics: Attica Evolution theory applied to change in organizations proceeds as a recurrent, cumulative and probabilistic progression of variation, selection and retention of forms of organization: Variation, meaning the creation of novel forms of organization, is viewed as just happening. Selection of organization occurs through the competition for scarce resources; the environment selects entities that best fit the resource base of an environmental niche. Retention involves forces (including inertia and persistence) that perpetuate and maintain certain organizational forms. If evolution would operate without mechanisms of retention, there could be an infinite creation and destruction of new organizational forms. The evolutionary lens seeks to explain how populations persist and evolve over time, according to population dynamics that need to be specified. Hence, the evolutionary theory enables depiction of global changes in organizational industries and sectors (Caron et al, 1989).
9 9 Co-evolution: Theoretical and Methodology, Design and The Empirics: Attica as a al Characteristics: Attica Co-evolution is defined (Lewin et al., 1999) as the joint outcome of managerial intentionality, environment, and institutional effects. assumes that change may occur in all interacting populations of organizations. Change can be driven by direct interactions and feedback from the rest of the system. Can be recursive, not an outcome of either managerial adaptation or environmental selection but rather the joint result of managerial intentionality and environmental effects. The strength of the coevolution perspective lies in its generalized ability and integrative view of the interplay between the adaptation of individual organizations, their competitive dynamics, and the dynamics of the institutional systems within which firms and industries are embedded (Lewin et al. 1999, p.536). In theorizing and in the empirical research within a co-evolutionary inquiry system involves the following: Studying organizations over time (McKelvey, 1999) within a historical context (Calori et al., 1997, Kieser 1994), Multidirectional causalities between micro- and macro-evolution (McKelvey, 1999), Mutual, simultaneous, lagged, and nested effects, Restricting and enabling constraints of organization path dependence.
10 10 Conceptual Framework Methodology, Design and The Empirics: Attica as a al Characteristics: Attica Sectoral Innovation System Extra Institutional Environment al Innovation System National Innovation System The Firm Sectoral Innovation System Institutional Environment
11 11 Methodology Design and Methodology, Design and The Empirics: Attica as a al Characteristics: Attica Co-evolutionary research requires longitudinal methods of analyses and time series. Lewin et al. (1999) suggests that longitudinal co-evolutionary research will require a richer arsenal of methods and techniques beyond traditional time series methods: Mixed Methodology. Quantitative data industry (sector) and the environment conditions. Qualitative research strategy on identifying events, activities and choices over time, revealing who did what, when, why (Langley, 1999; Candace, 2001). This helps in developing a narrative and timeline of key events, and mapping relationships among industry s key players. The triangulation of quantitative and qualitative data can be achieved by using multiple qualitative sources and quantitative data, multiple theoretical lenses, and multiple sense-making strategies. Co-evolutionary research involves multiple levels of analysis (multilevel analysis) (Lewin and Volberda, 1999). In our case, data at four different levels capture processes and identify generative mechanisms: firm, industry, regional and national level.
12 12 Qualitative Retrospective Field Methodology, Design and The Empirics: Attica as a al Characteristics: Attica The goal of the co-evolutionary enquiry in the retrospective field research scheme is to understand how the structure of direct interactions and feedback within organization-environment systems give rise to their dynamic behavior. Empirical investigation takes the form of retrospective data collection and analysis in searching for the processes that generated and established the evolution. Questions How are sectoral systems of innovation changing during the development of the sector? Which elements and mechanisms are persistent and which change? Is their a systematic interaction between sectoral and local systems of innovation?
13 13 Quantitative Field Design Methodology, Design and The Empirics: Attica as a al Characteristics: Attica 2005(6)~1994 Sectoral & al Information (Meso Level) Sector analyses for the above years Demographics of the sector with the region Secondary data on economy, GDP, inflation, growth, etc Firm level (Micro level) Financial statements (~500 firms) Change of growth Selection for cs research National level (Macro level) R&D policies EU Structural funds etc
14 14 The Empirics: Attica as a Computer Service Innovation Hot Methodology, Design and The Empirics: Attica as a al Characteristics: Attica All Recent European Trend Chart Reports ( ) present Greece, followed by Belgium and Finland, as the innovation leader in the computer services sector. Computer services enjoy a high knowledge creation and knowledge diffusion intensity meaning that the hot spots exploiting such services position high on an innovation intensity scale (ETCR, 2004). More specifically, the number one position of Greece in the computer related service activities is translated through the country s lead, compared to the other EU countries, in: Number of SMEs cooperating, Innovation expenditures, Share of firms that receive public innovation support, Gross investment in machinery and equipment, R&D expenditures, and Growth rate of employment.
15 15 The : Attica in Greece Methodology, Design and The Empirics: Attica as a al Characteristics: Attica Access to a huge market 51% of the urban population of the country, 55% of the banking activity, 80% of the heavy industry, and 80% of the sea-borne commerce, High Growth rates and incensement of consumption and investments Production: 64,6% tertiary, 33,8% secondary, 1,6% primary sector, Contribution to al GDP: 70%, 28% and 2% respectively. Access to Public Administration Institutions Access to human resources and infrastructures 12/20 Higher education institutions 55% of the scientific personnel of the country 65% of university graduates
16 16 The Sector: Computer Sector Methodology, Design and The Empirics: Attica as a al Characteristics: Attica Sectoral Characteristics: Computer The Structure of the Sector Computer and related activities NACE 72 Hardware, software consultancy and supply NACE 72.1, 72.2 Data processing and Database activities NACE 72.3, 72.4 Maintenance and repair of office, accounting and computing machinery and other activities NACE 72.5, 72,6 Complementary sector/ crucial in order to support development Vertical and horizontal alliances and networking of the firms Wide range of applications Business applications, ICT, MIS, ERP systems, etc Education and vocational training Culture e-governance Transportation e-commerce Over 100,000 people are already employed in more than the 500 firms.
17 17 Institutional Environment Methodology, Design and The Empirics: Attica as a al Characteristics: Attica The 3rd Community Support Framework ( ) materialized through the Information Society Program : Implemented through several actions Reserves 27% of the total community financing (through the 3rd CSF) for IT investments in a country, that represents only 3% of the European population The Athens 2004 Olympic Games Need for modernization of both the Public Administration institutes and of the Greek firms is a strong driving force that leads them to favor investments in new technologies IT expenditures at the 5,3% of the Greek GDP (2007)
18 18 Conclusion and Discussion Methodology, Design and The Empirics: Attica as a al Characteristics: Attica al Innovation System Human resources, infrastructures, favorable macroecon. environment Institutional Processes NIS Level 3 rd CSF, Inform. Society Program, Athens 2004 Olympic Games Sectoral Innovation System Sectors Clustering, networking, Supplementary services Competitive Behavior Innovation Performance Spatial Development Urban / al Sectoral Development
19 19 Conclusion and Discussion Methodology, Design and The Empirics: Attica as a al Characteristics: Attica The sustainable development of the hot spot and its related sectors has to prove itself by: increasing its contribution to employment through more job creation, the geographical expansion, the financial growth and through the formation of partnerships with diversified external organizations in order to avoid introversion. The ultimate goal is to sustain its openness by coevolving in relation to both market trends and consumers needs. Fields and Markets for Development: The software industry, the public sector, manufacturing, banking services, food and beverages, pharmaceuticals, health and insurance services, Major Products: ERP and web applications, data bases and CRM, internet and security applications. Major Opportunities: The recent enlargement of the European Union, the Black Sea and the of Middle East. Critical is the dissemination of IT in sectors of the economy where the need for developing technology is large, such as in agriculture and tourism.
20 20 οικονομικό πανεπιστήμιο αθηνών τμήμα διοικητικής επιστήμης και τεχνολογίας εργαστήριο διοικητικής επιστήμης - msl thank you! Ioannis N. Katsikis management science laboratory dept. of management science and technology athens university of economics and business
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