# STUDY EVOLUTION OF BIT B ERRORS AND ERRORS OF PACKAGES IN I

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3 scheme. For a total data rate date (fixed), increasing numbers of parallel transmission channels reduces the data rate on each channel have to transmit, or in other words lengthens symbol. As a result, the delay wave is suppressed (limited) to a parallel symbol transmission are two methods that are most used. FDM (Frequency- Division Multiplexing) and CDM (Code - Division Multiplexing), the first is to broadcast on multiple frequencies and the second in transmission using multiple codes. the ISI is to create a cyclic extended guard interval in which each symbol is preceded by an extension OFDM periodic (cyclic) signal itself. The total duration of the symbol is T total = Tg + Ts, where Tg is the guard interval. Figure 3 shows a typical guard interval. 3. TRANSMITTER CONFIGURATION The basic concept of OFDM system is to convert a signal useful in high-speed low-speed signal transmission due to more fercvenţe semalului parallel ortogonale. Figura2 (a) illustrates the configuration of an OFDM transmitter. The emitters data transmitted at high speed parallel data are converted into N subchannels. a) b) Fig. 2. OFDM radio transmission system: a) transmiter. b) receiver Then data transmitted on each parallel subchannels are modulated QPSK. The modulated data are fed into an inverse fast Fourier transform circuit (IFFT) to obtain that output OFDM signal. The OFDM signal is inserted into a circuit for inserting a guard to reduce ISI (interference between symbols). Since the spectrum of OFDM signal is not strictly limited to the transmission band attenuation distortion due to multiple paths (fading), are each subchannels to distribute power in adjacent channels. Moreover wave delay time delayed more than a symbol contaminate the next symbol. To reduce distortion, a simple solution is to increase the symbol duration or the number of carriers. But this method can be difficult to implement due to the Doppler frequency and FFT size. One way to eliminate Fig 3. Guard interval insertion. Each symbol consists of two parts. The whole signal is contained in an active symbol, whose final part is also repeated at the beginning of the symbol and is called the guard interval. When the fence is longer than the channel impulse response or only delayed (multipath fading) ISI effect can be eliminated. However the effect of ICI (Intercarrier Interference) still exist. The proportion of guard interval duration is dependent on the useful application of the symbol that is used as the introduction of a large guard interval reduces the data transmitted. Tg is usually lower than Ts / 4. After entering the guard interval, OFDM signal is given by equation (1) where f (t) is the impulse wave as defined by equation (2). s`(t)= d i (k)exp(j2πfi(t-kttotal))f`(t-kttotal) (1) 1 for (-Tg t Ts) f(t) = 0 for ( t < Tg, T>Ts ) (2) OFDM signal is transmitted to the receiver, but the data transmitted s`(t) are affected by fading and AWGN. At the reception, the received signal is given by (3) where h (τ, t) is the radio channel impulse response at time t,and n (t) is complex AWGN. r(t) = h(τ,t)s( t-τ)dτ+n(t) (3) 267

4 4. RECEIVER CONFIGURATION At the receiver, the signal reaches recepţionatt r (t) filtered by a band pass filter, which means that bandwidth is wide enough not to introduce significant signal distortion The signal is applied to an orthogonal detector for converting the IF band by applying a FFT circuit to obtain Fourier coefficients of the signal during periods of observation [it total,i Ttotal + Ts]. Output signal di (k) of the FFT circuit of the "ith" OFDM subchannels is given by (4). d i (k) = 1/Ts r(t) exp(-j2πf i (t- kttotal))dt (4) If we can estimate the wave characteristics of hi (k) delayed by fading, we can equalize the received data as follows: d i (k) = h i *(k) d i (k) / h i (k) h i *(k) (5) where "*" indicates complex conjugate. Comparing d (k) and di (k), we calculate the BER performance. BER depends on the noise level of receiver OFDM transmission, the orthogonality is preserved andthe BER performance depends on the modulation schemein each subchannels. If BPSK modulation is used, the BER is equal to the theoretical environment with AWGN and Rayleigh fading channels on a single path. Fig 4. Frame format of the simulation model Guard Interval: 800ns to avoid the effects of attenuation in multiple ways when the time delay is greater than the length of the symbol was introduced cyclically extended signal before each OFDM signal. I used a 800ns guard interval because we need to consider using OFDM-based system not only inside buildings and outdoors microcell. For the 5GHz range of 800ns is sufficient to cover the main delayed waves. Figure 5 shows the frame format and configuration of each OFDM symbol. 5. A PILOT SYMBOL AIDED OFDM MODULATION SCHEME In further describing the method of compensation and phase fluctuations amplituine using OFDM modulation with pilot symbol assistance. Pilot symbols are inserted at fixed intervals of time emission as shown in fig4. and the receiver can estimate the channel characteristics use pilot symbols. Since the fluctuation is independent in each channel subpurtator, we insert at one time known pilot symbols in all subcarrier channels. The following is how to configure an OFDM modulation scheme with pilot symbol helpful and evaluation by computer simulation BER performance. In this simulation we use a system based on OFDM WLAN system, used in ETSI BRAN project, IEEE and MMAC ARIBA. Number of carriers: 52 carriers are generated by an FFT circuit 64 of the 52 carriers pini.din, 48 are used for information. Others are used to compensate for phase noise. Fig.5 Frame format of the simulated OFDM transmission Sampling rate (sampling) : data sampling rate is 20MHz same rate IFFT input signal. This is because we want to get a more than 20Mbps. Modulation scheme: In a WLAN environment are used modulation schemes based on the detection and differential encoding, such as D8PSK. But, according to several standards committees, using a broadband data terminal is possible not only indoors, but also in outdoor microcell areas. Therefore, treat coherent modulation schemes based on such detection to be BPSK, QPSK, 8PSK and 16-QAM, which are used to improve the quality of data transmitted and retain robustness against multipath attenuation not only indoors, but outdoors. In this simulation coherent QPSK modulation is used. FEC: FEC practice is based on convolution coding and Viterbi decoding, where R = ½ and K = 7 (RR = encoding rate and K=constraint length ). For other 268

5 coding rates, we use convolution encoding and decoding Viterbi punctual. Frame format: Figure 5 shows the frame format OFDM system simulated in this work. The frame is divided into two parts as follows: symbol estimate of the (EC) and transmitted symbol time. In our case we use a symbol and 6 symbols transmitted data frame as a unit. In CE, the amplitude and phase deviation from the pilot data are measured using a pilot sailing line. Based on measured propagation characteristics, amplitude and phase deviation of 6 OFDM symbols for data, the attenuation caused by multipath is compensated. To ensure smooth communication simulating the following procedures: A. A QPSK-OFDM transmission scheme with 52 carriers with no pilot symbol. B. A transmission scheme QPSK - OFDM with 52 carriers with pilot symbol. C. A transmission scheme QPSK - OFDM with 52 carriers with pilot symbol and evaluation of BER and PER in rapot with Eb/N0 in an environment with AWGN. Attenuation is considered on a path Rayleigh fading, two path Rayleigh fading. The radio channel: In this simulation we use an attenuator channel (Rayleigh) on a path. In this simulation we use the Doppler frequency always: fd = 50Hz or fd = 150Hz. To study the performance of the system, we follow the evolution of bit error and packet error. In this case there are 6 OFDM symbols in one frame unit. If more than one data bit is transmitted in an inadvertence, a packet error occurs. Fig 7 Performance of BER in Rayleigh no compensation Fig THE RESULTS OBTAINED BY SIMULATION Fig 9 Fig 6 Performance of BER in AWGN 269

6 7. CONCLUSIONS. Fig 10 Performance PER in AWGN Fig 11. Performance of PER.( 2 path Rayleigh fading.ce compensation) Based on the results obtained from simulations we conclude that: a) Bit errors and packet errors for OFDM transmission pilot signal in Gaussian noise environment (AWGN), are relatively small and can not determine situations in which data can not be recovered. b) For, OFDM transmissions in Rayleigh fading environment the multipath error bit and packet error becomes important and can determine that the data can not be recovered but if compensation is used with pilot symbol (see fig 9 and 12) with the error data can be recovered bit and packet transmission comparable to that of OFDM in AWGN environment. REFERENCES [1] Chang,R.W.,and R.A.Gibby, A Theoretical Study of the Performance of an Ortogonal Multiplexing Data Transmission Scheme IEEE Trans. Commun., Vol COM-16,No.4. [2] van Nee,R.,and R.Prasad, OFDM for Wireless Multimedia Communications, Norwood,MA: Artech House,1999 [3] MathWorks Inc.,.MATLAB Using MATLAB.. [4] Proakis, J. G., Digital Communications, 3rd ed., New York: McGraw-Hill, [5] Jakes, W. C., Microwave Mobile Communications, New York: IEEE Press, [6] IEEE802.11,IEEE Standard for Wireless LAN Medium Access Control and Physical Layer Specifications, November 1997 [7] Sampei, S., Applications of Digital Wireless Technologies to Global Wireless Communica-tions, Upper Saddle River,NJ Prentice Hall, Fig 12 Performance of PER (2 path Rayleigh no compensation) 270

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