Underwater communication implementation with OFDM

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1 Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences Vol. 44(2), February 2015, pp Underwater communication implementation with OFDM K. Chithra*, N. Sireesha, C. Thangavel, V. Gowthaman, S. Sathya Narayanan, Tata Sudhakar & M.A. Atmanand National Institute of Ocean Technology, Chennai , India *[ Received 11 November 2014; revised 5 December 2014 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is an emerging technology in wireless communication for high data rate. It is a special form of multi-carrier communication technique which is the platform for modern communication systems. Underwater channel is a time varying multipath channel causing Inter Symbol Interference (ISI), Inter Carrier Interference (ICI) and fading. Due to the detrimental effect of time and frequency spreading, achieving high data rate in underwater wireless communication is challenging. This paper investigates on how OFDM finds its suitability for wireless underwater communication. The wireless underwater communication with OFDM scheme was tested using underwater transducers in a water tank and the results are presented. [Keywords: Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, underwater communication, wireless communication] Introduction The Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is an emerging technology in wireless communication for high data rates 1. Many wireless standards (Wi-Max, IEEE802.11a, LTE, DVB) have adopted the OFDM technology as a mean to increase future wireless communications requirements 2. Presently this technique is a very popular choice for wireless LANs, cellular etc. and has been claimed to be one of the most promising technologies for achieving high data in future communication systems. OFDM has already been proved to be an efficient modulation technique for land based communication systems, efforts are being made for using this technique for underwater communication. Underwater channel is a time varying multipath channel causing Inter Symbol Interference (ISI), Inter Carrier Interference (ICI) and fading. Due to the detrimental effect of time and frequency spreading, achieving high data rate in underwater wireless communication is challenging. Arrival of multiple delay paths causes time spreading and attenuation and reflection loss induce frequency-dependent path loss on each path causing time spreading. The time varying dynamic motion of the medium and the movement between the transmitter and the receiver results in frequency spreading of the underwater channel. OFDM in the form of Multi-carrier modulation technique finds its application in highly dispersive channel and is suitable for achieving high data rate in frequency selective underwater channels. The frequency-selective wide-band channel is transformed into flat frequency narrowband channels, leading to robust communication in large delay spread channels. OFDM allows overlapping between the subcarriers and hence the available limited channel bandwidth can be efficiently utilised. Using IFFT/FFT techniques, implementation of modulation and demodulation is computationally efficient. Recent researches reveal application of OFDM for underwater acoustic communication for high data rate with improved bit error rate performance 2-6. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) The principle of OFDM, it uses multiple orthogonal sub-carriers for data communication. The data stream is sent over a range of sub-carriers after multiplexing, transmitting the data simultaneously over a number of different carriers. The functional blocks of OFDM are depicted in Fig. 1. Each subcarrier carries a portion of the data. Depending on the number of sub-carriers used higher data rates can be achieved without getting affected by the channel distortions. The sub-carriers are orthogonal to each other and hence allow overlap in frequency with the adjacent carriers without causing inter-carrier

2 260 INDIAN J. MAR. SCI., VOL. 44, NO. 2 FEBRUARY 2015 interference. Another benefit of orthogonality in OFDM is better spectral efficiency when compared to other multi carrier techniques. Fig. 3 Orthogonality in frequency domain. Fig. 1 OFDM functional blocks. Besides being more suitable to overcome frequency selective fading and multi-path effects, OFDM also has implementation advantages, such as avoiding ISI and ICI, over other multi-carrier communication schemes. Orthogonality In OFDM, orthogonality between the sub-carriers is the most essential condition to be adopted. It can be achieved by selecting subcarriers having integer number of cycles within a given time interval T. For efficient bandwidth utilization the difference in the number of cycles between the adjacent sub-carriers should be exactly equal to one as shown in Fig. 2. This implementation leads to orthogonality between the subcarriers. The frequency separation between the subsequent subcarriers is equal to the reciprocal of interval T as depicted in Fig. 3. The subcarriers are data modulated using any of the phase shift keying or quadrature amplitude modulation. The amplitude spectrum of each subcarrier, modulated using either PSK or QAM has a sinc shape. At the peak of the spectral response of each subcarrier all other subcarrier spectral responses are zero which is the result of orthogonality. Fig. 2 Orthogonality in time domain. Two periodic signals are said to be orthogonal when the integral of their product, over a period, is equal to zero as shown below. (1) (2) (3) Implementation of modulation and demodulation in OFDM is computationally efficient by the use of IFFT and FFT respectively. Complex baseband OFDM modulation signal using IFFT, : complex PSK or QAM symbols : sub-carrier spacing : number of used sub-carriers : effective OFDM symbol duration (4) (5) Cyclic prefix One of the most important reasons for choosing OFDM for underwater communication is its efficient way to deal with multipath delay spread. To eliminate ISI almost completely, a guard time is introduced for each OFDM symbol. The guard time is chosen to be larger than the expected delay spread such that the inter symbol interference due to multipath components is minimized. Guard time without cyclic prefix signal results in crosstalk between different subcarriers, causing the problem of Inter carrier Interference (ICI) and the subcarriers are no longer orthogonal to each other. To eliminate ICI, the OFDM symbol is cyclically extended in the guard time to ensure that delayed replicas of OFDM symbol always have an integer number of cycles within the FFT interval, provided the delay is smaller than the guard time. As a result, signals with delays smaller

3 CHITHRA et al.: UNDERWATER COMMUNICATION IMPLEMENTATION WITH OFDM 261 than guard time significantly reduce ICI. OFDM advantages OFDM has many advantages to be chosen for underwater communication scheme. The limited underwater acoustic bandwidth can be utilized efficiently by the use of OFDM. OFDM makes efficient use of the spectrum by allowing overlap between sub-carriers. Introduction of guard time with cyclic prefix reduces inter symbol interference and inter carrier interference significantly and hence the modulation scheme is robust against ISI and ICI. By dividing the wide band frequency selective channel into narrowband flat fading sub channels, OFDM is more resistant to frequency selective fading. It is computationally efficient by using IFFT and FFT techniques to implement the modulation and demodulation functions respectively. In addition to the advantages of basic OFDM scheme, the performance of the communication scheme for underwater channel can be further improved in following ways. By the introduction of pilot carriers appropriately, effects due to channel distortion can be corrected. Introduction of Forward Error Correction (FEC) coding and interleaving can improve the performance of the communication scheme by reducing the Bit Error Rate (BER) significantly. Underwater communication Underwater acoustic channel propagation is influenced by three major factors, attenuation that increases with signal frequency, time-varying multipath propagation and low speed of sound (1500 m/s). Underwater acoustic propagation is best supported at low frequencies. Since attenuation increases with frequency, for long range communication low frequency band only can be used, this in turn reduces the channel capacity. Bandwidth is extremely limited for long range communication. Other parameters that deteriorate the performance of underwater communication include the background noise or the ambient noise and Doppler spread due to random motion between the transmitting and receiving systems. Noise domination is more in low frequencies and decays with increase in frequency. Fig. 4 Frequency regions of dominant process of attenuation of sound in seawater and power spectral density of the ambient noise 7. In the impulse response of the underwater channel, each physical path acts as a time-varying low-pass filter, and motion between the transmitter and receiver introduces doppler spreading and shifting. Disturbances introduced by the surface waves, fluctuations in the sound velocity, internal turbulence due to ocean current, and certain other minor phenomena contribute to random signal variations. Attenuation grows with frequency and noise decays with frequency as shown in Fig. 4. 7, resulting in a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) that varies over the signal bandwidth. The Signal-to noise ratio for a band of frequency around the frequency at a distance, can be expressed as, (6) where, is the power spectral density function of the transmitted signal, is the attenuation function and is the noise function. SNR is a function of frequency for any given distance as shown in Fig. 5. In addition to the fundamental limitations imposed by underwater acoustic propagation, there are other system constraints that significantly affect the performance of underwater communication. The most dominant of these constraints is the bandwidth limitation imposed by the acoustic transducers themselves which limits the usable bandwidth below the bandwidth offered by the channel. The major components that comprise transmission loss in underwater channel are spreading loss and absorption loss. Transmission loss is directly proportional to the distance of communication. Hence for long range communication more transmission power is required to compensate for the anticipated

4 262 INDIAN J. MAR. SCI., VOL. 44, NO. 2 FEBRUARY 2015 motions of sea surfaces and currents 8. The relative motions between the transmitter and receiver contribute to Doppler shift to each ray of arrival. Doppler shifts caused by these rays are different since their arriving angles are different. These differences also contribute to Doppler spread. The resultant Doppler spread is expected to be larger than that of the overall Doppler spread. The receiver system should be capable of compensating the resultant Doppler spread. Fig. 5 Signal-to-noise ratio in an acoustic channel depends on the frequency and distance through the factor 1/A(l, f)n(f) 7 transmission loss. Power supply for underwater communication systems is through battery in most of the cases and hence the communication system is required to be efficient in energy consumption. Energy consumption directly depends on the size of transmitted bits. One of the efficient ways of power conservation is by the use of efficient communication technique which supports high bit rate communication. Time varying multipath Time varying multiple propagation paths characterizes the underwater acoustic channel. Each path has its own distance of travel, propagation loss encountered during travel and reflection loss. If each path delay is represented by and the attenuation encountered in the path,, then the cumulative channel impulse response is represented by 8, (7). The physical geometry of sea surface and sea bed is random and complex in nature and the motion of the transducers due to sea surface motion, current is unpredictable. Hence both and can be expressed as random process. The received signal y(t) through the channel for a transmitted signal x(t), can be represented by 8, + (8) where, is the additive background noise. The channel has time-varying frequency selectivity because of the time and frequency dispersion. Doppler spread Doppler spread is caused due to the random Choice of OFDM parameters for underwater communication The choice of OFDM parameters for underwater communication is a tradeoff between various conflicting requirements. Bandwidth, bit rate, and tolerable delay spread are three main requirements for design of OFDM systems. Bandwidth is the available useful system bandwidth, bit rate is the required error free communication speed and tolerable delay spread is that encountered due to the channel multipath. Useful bandwidth available for underwater communication is severely limited due to attenuation caused by absorption that increases with frequency. Hence for long range communication low frequency only can be used. As an example for 100 km range only 1 khz bandwidth is available which significantly reduces the possible bit rate. We can have larger bandwidth for short range communication and achieve high bit rate, the bandwidth supported by the transducer is the main limiting factor in this case. Another important observation to be considered regarding the acoustic bandwidth is that underwater acoustic communication is wideband communication. The useful bandwidth is often on the order of the center frequency 7. Most of the existing radio communication principles are based on narrowband communication where the bandwidth is much less than the centre frequency. Hence the existing signal processing methods adopted for radio communication cannot be adopted for acoustic communication resulting in complex signal processing requirements. The fact that bandwidth is limited implies the need for bandwidth-efficient modulation methods if more than 1 b/s/hz is to be achieved over these channels. The inverse of the channel delay spread is the channel coherence bandwidth. It indicates the measure of the band of frequencies over which fading is highly correlated. It is preferable to choose narrow bandwidth for the sub-carriers if the channel is

5 CHITHRA et al.: UNDERWATER COMMUNICATION IMPLEMENTATION WITH OFDM 263 frequency selective. Channel coherence time due to the Doppler spread dictates the duration of the signal. The sub-carrier spacing and symbol duration are highly influenced by the coherence bandwidth and Doppler spread. The channel coherence bandwidth which is the inverse of the delay spread. It is measure of the width of the band of frequencies over which the fading is highly correlated. For frequency selective fading it is preferable to have narrower bandwidth for subcarriers but for larger Doppler spreading wider subcarrier bandwidth is required. The symbol duration and in turn the sub-carrier spacing is determined by both coherent bandwidth and Doppler spread. The guard time should be chosen to be larger than the channel delay spread. The symbol duration should be much longer than the delay spread to minimize the SNR loss. If the symbol duration is very large, the spacing between the subcarriers is very less which increases sensitivity to frequency offset phase noise errors and also increases the peak-to-average ratio (PAPR). Hence implementation of signal processing increases complexity. Practical selection of subcarrier spacing for the available bandwidth and in turn the number of sub-carriers is a tradeoff between the channel coherence bandwidth and channel coherence time. The number of sub-carriers is determined by the required bit rate divided by the sub-carrier bit rate. Channel estimation is required to improve the performance of the OFDM systems. Accurate channel estimation leads to optimum OFDM parameters selection resulting in efficient communication system. Fig. 7 BER vs SNR The OFDM based communication scheme was developed with the blocks as shown in the block diagram Fig. 6. The communication scheme was developed in MATLAB and the same was tested with simulated inputs. The simulation test was repeated with introduction of AWGN of various levels in the transmitted signal. The performance of the communication system, the bit error rate for various signal-to-noise ratio levels is shown in Fig. 7. To test the OFDM communication scheme in wireless underwater environment an experiment was conducted in a water tank of dimension 16 m 9 m 7 m as shown in Fig. 8. Under water projector and receiver hydrophone were used for transmission and reception of signal respectively. The transducers were held facing each other at a depth of 3.5 m and separated by 4.5 m apart. The impulse response of the channel is depicted in Fig. 9. Experiments and Results Fig. 8 Underwater test setup Fig. 6 OFDM communication scheme

6 264 INDIAN J. MAR. SCI., VOL. 44, NO. 2 FEBRUARY 2015 Fig. 9 Impulse response of the reverberating channel The OFDM parameters used for the experiment are listed in Table I. The test data size is 16 kbits. The symbol size is 512 bits. Each symbol is cyclic prefixed with a portion of the symbol itself. The duration of cyclic prefix is ms. The total symbol duration is s. The entire frame consists of 32 symbols and pilot carriers blocks. Pilot carriers were inserted in between the data streams to estimate the time variation of each subcarrier channel. The pilot carriers were inserted in between every 8 symbols. The frame arrangement is depicted in Fig. 11. Table I: OFDM Signal Parameters used for the tank experiment Bandwidth Carrier Frequency Sampling Frequency Cyclic Prefix Duration 312 Hz 12 khz 80 khz ms Fig. 10 Experiment setup The OFDM symbols to be transmitted were generated using MATLAB. A Multifunction data acquisition (DAQ) unit was used for Analog to Digital Conversion (ADC) and Digital to Analog Conversion (DAC). Measurement Computing's USB- 1604HS-2AO is a USB high-speed Multifunction data acquisition unit having 16-Bit 1.33 MS/s per channel Analog Inputs, 16-Bit 1 MS/s per channel Analog Outputs and Digital I/Os. The DAQ is interfaced to MATLAB using the Data Acquisition Toolbox. Using the functions in the toolbox, the generated OFDM symbol is output through analog output of DAQ. The analog output signal power is amplified using Instruments Inc L2 Power Amplifier to drive the underwater projector. Similarly in the receiver side the weak signal received from the receiver hydrophone is amplified using a voltage pre amplifier, Reson VP1000. This amplified signal is acquired in MATLAB using the analog input functions of Data Acquisition Toolbox interfaced to DAQ. The complete experimental setup is shown in Fig. 10. Thus the generated OFDM symbol using the transmitter blocks as shown Fig. 6, from MATLAB was output to the underwater projector and after propagating through the channel the received signal acquired in MATLAB was processed for data detection as shown in receiver blocks of Fig. 6. Symbol Duration Total Symbol Duration ms s Subcarriers 256 Modulation Carrier Spacing QPSK 1.22 Hz Fig. 11 Frame arrangement The transmitted signal is shown in Fig. 12. Transmission was carried out several times and data could be retrieved without any errors. The received data constellation plot with and without pilot carrier correction is shown in Fig. 13. Fig. 12 Transmitted frame

7 CHITHRA et al.: UNDERWATER COMMUNICATION IMPLEMENTATION WITH OFDM 265 boats. The transmitting and receiving transducers were held 4 m below the surface of the lake. The transducers ITC3013, used for the experiment is shown in the Fig. 15. The depth of lake at that location was about 80 m. The boats were separated 40 m apart. The orientations of the transducers were adjusted so that they face each other in a straight line during communication testing. Fig. 13 Received data constellation plot Fig. 16 Received signal at lake trial Fig. 14 Lake trial setup Fig. 15 Underwater transducers used for the lake trial The same experiment was conducted in a lake for testing long range communication. The OFDM parameters were modified to suit the channel. The lake trial setup is as shown in Fig. 14. The transmitter and receiver setup were assembled in two different The generated frame was transmitted and the received signal was demodulated. The data retrieved was with errors. The bit error rate (BER) encountered with the received data was about 14%. Some problems were encountered during the lake trial. The transducers faces could not be maintained in a straight line for a long time. The frequency responses of the transducers were not flat for the entire operating frequency band. The noise generated by the boats (DG, engine) was picked up by the data acquisition system at the receiver along with the received signal. Noise level was significantly high. Fig. 16 shows the received the signal with noise. Appropriate shielding of the data acquisition units will minimize noise pickup at the receiver. Conclusion OFDM is an efficient modulation scheme for high bit rate underwater communication. The bandwidth efficiency of the scheme can be improved by the use of 8 PSK or QAM for sub-carrier modulation. Forward Error Correction (FEC) coding and interleaving will make the system more robust against the channel distortion. Application of Diversity techniques will further improve the performance of the communication system against the fading channel impairments. Acknowledgment

8 266 INDIAN J. MAR. SCI., VOL. 44, NO. 2 FEBRUARY 2015 The authors are grateful to the Ministry of Earth Sciences, India for their encouragement and support for carrying out this work successfully. References 1. Cimini J.L., Analysis and simulation of a digital mobile channel using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. IEEE Trans. Commun., 33(7) (1985): Polprasert C., Ritcey J., and Stojanovic M., Capacity of OFDM Systems over Fading Underwater Acoustic Channels. IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 36(4) (2011). 3. Stojanovic M., OFDM for Underwater Acoustic Communications: Adaptive Synchronization and Sparse Channel Estimation. in Proc. International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP'08), April Stojanovic M., Low complexity OFDM detector for underwater acoustic channels. IEEE Oceans Conference, September Li B., Zhou S., Stojanovic M., Freitag L., Huang J., and Willett P., MIMO-OFDM over an underwater acoustic channel. in Proc. IEEE OCEANS, Sep. 2007, DOI: /OCEANS Li B., Zhou S., Stojanovic M., Freitag L., and Willett P., Multicarrier communication over underwater acoustic channels with nonuniform Doppler shifts. IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 33(2) (2008): Milica Stojanovic, Underwater Acoustic Communication Channels: Propagation Models and Statistical Characterization. IEEE Communications Magazine (January 2009). 8. Kim B-C. and Lu I-T., Parameter study of OFDM Underwater Communications System. in Proc. IEEE Oceans 00 Conf., (Sept. 2000).

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