# CHAPTER 9 - COUNTING PRINCIPLES AND PROBABILITY

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1 CHAPTER 9 - COUNTING PRINCIPLES AND PROBABILITY Probability is the Probability is used in many real-world fields, such as insurance, medical research, law enforcement, and political science. Objectives: SECTION 9-1 INTRODUCTION TO PROBABILITY Find the theoretical probability of an event. Apply the Fundamental Counting Principle. How do some businesses, such as life insurance companies and gambling establishments, make dependable profits on events that seem unpredictable? The answer is that the overall likelihood, or probability, of an event can be discovered by observing the results of a large number of repetitions of the situation in which the event may occur. The terminology used for probability is given below. The sample is the rolling of a number cube. DEFINITION. Trial: A systematic opportunity for an event to occur. Experiment: one or more trials. Sample space: the set of all possible outcomes of an event. Event: an individual outcome or any specified combination of outcomes EXAMPLE rolling a number cube.. rolling a number cube 10 times. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.. rolling a 3 rolling a 3 or rolling a 5 Probability is expressed as a number from 0 to 1. It is often written as a fraction, decimal, or percent. Experimental probability is a Theoretical probability is based Outcomes are random if

2 Theoretical Probability If all outcomes in a sample space are equally likely, then the theoretical probability of event A, denoted P(A), is defined by number of outcomes in event A number of outcomes in sample space P( A) = Ex. 1 A bag contains 2 white marbles, 4 red marbles, and 10 green marbles. What is the probability of drawing a red marble?, a blue marble? a white marble or a red marble out of the bag? Remember that probability is between 0 P(A) 1. An impossible event has a probability of 0. An event that must occur has a probability of 1. The sum of the probabilities of all outcomes in a sample space is 1. Ex. 2 A bag contains 10 red, 5 black, 4 yellow and 2 blue jellybeans. Find the probability of selecting a red, a black, a yellow, a blue, a purple, a red or black or yellow or blue jellybean. There are several ways to determine the size of a sample space for an event that is a combination of two or more outcomes. One way is a tree diagram. Ex. 3 Make a tree diagram for a fast food restaurant that has a hamburger with the choice of Coke or Dr. Pepper for a drink, and a side order of regular fries, crispy fries, or curly fries. Tree diagrams illustrate the Fundamental counting Principle. Fundamental Counting Principle If there are m ways that one event can occur and n ways that another event can occur, then there are m n ways that both events can occur. Ex. 4 In order to purchase a Power Ball Ticket you have to choose 5 numbers 1 through 69 and a power ball number that is 1 though 26. How many different tickets can you purchase? Ex. 5 How many Utah license plates can be made? (3 numbers followed by 3 letters)

3 The odds in favor of an event are defined as the number of ways the event can happen a compared to the number of ways it can fail b. We write as the ratio a:b Ex. 8 Find the odds of a team winning if it wins 15 games and loses 5 games What is the probability of winning if the odds in favor of an event are a:b, or a to b, then the probability of the event is a a b. Ex. 9 Find the probability of the event if the given odds in favor of the event is 2 to 7. SECTION 9-2 Permutations Objectives: Solve problems involving linear permutations of distinct of indistinguishable objects. Solve problems involving circular permutations. A permutation is an. When objects are arranged in a row, the permutation is called a linear permutation. Unless otherwise noted, the term permutation will be used to mean linear permutations. Ex. 1 Make an organized list of the possible permutation of the letters A, B, and C. In 4 different letters there are , or 24, possible arrangements. You can use factorial notation to abbreviate this product: 4! = = 24. Permutations of n Objects The number of permutations of n objects is given by n!. These objects are taken one at a time. Ex. 2 In 12-tone music, each of the 12 notes in an octave must be used exactly once before any are repeated. A set of 12 tones is called a tone row. How many different tone rows are possible? Note: 1! = 1 and 0! = 1 Ex. 3 Evaluate each expression.

4 a. (6-2)! b. 6! - 2! c. 9! (5 2)! d. 5!0! (7 6)! Permutations of n Objects Taken r at a Time The number of permutations of n objects taken r at a time, denoted by n! or, is given by P( n, r) npr, where r n. ( n r)! P( n, r) n P r Ex. 4 Evaluate a. 6P2 b. 15 P10 Ex. 5 Find the number of permutations of the first 8 letters of the alphabet taking 5 letters at a time. Ex. 6 In how many ways can 8 new employees be assigned to 11 vacant offices? Ex. 7 In how many ways can a teacher arrange 6 students in the front row of a classroom with 32 students? Permutation With Identical Objects n! r! r! r!...! r k Ex. 8 Find the number of permutations of the letters in the word football. Ex. 9 If I have 2 green, 3 blue, 7 yellow, and 1 red M&M s. If I eat them one by one, how many ways can I eat them. Ex 10 I have 5 black 6 red and 12 white flags in the color guard closet how many different ways can you line up the flags?

5 Circular Permutations If n distinct objects are arranged around a circle, then there are (n - 1)! Circular permutations of the n objects. Ex. 11 In how many ways can 7 different appetizers by arranged on a circular tray? SECTION 9-3 Combinations Objectives: Solve problems involving combinations. Solve problems by distinguishing between permutations and combinations I have an auto dealership on State St. I have 8 different cars on my lot and I need to display them. How many different ways can I do the following? I have 8 stalls on State Street I have 5 stalls on State Street I have an 8 car rotating display at the Expo If two are Buicks and three are Rangers and the others are different on State Street I have 5 stalls and order doesn t matter Recall that a permutation is an arrangement of objects in a specific order. An arrangement of objects in which order is not important is called a combination. Combinations of n Objects Taken r at a Time The number of combinations of n objects taken r at a time, is given by n n! C( n, r) ncr, where 0 r n r r!( n r)! All of the notations in the above box have the same meaning. All are read as n choose r. The formula for combinations is like the formula for permutations except that it contains the factor of r!

6 Ex. 1 Find the value of each expression. a. 9 5 C b. 12C12 c. 6! 5! 2!4! 4!1! d. C C C Ex. 2 Find the number of ways to purchase 3 different kinds of juice from a selection of 10 different juices. Ex. 3 Find the number of ways in which the committee can select: a. 4 people from a group of 7. b. 3 people from a group of 10. Ex. 4 How many different ways can I make a 9 person batting order from a team of 12 players? Ex. 5 Which is larger, 10 C 7 or 10 7 permutations? P? Does a given number of objects have more combinations or Ex. 6 A pizza parlor offers a selection of 3 different cheeses and 9 different toppings. In how many ways can a pizza be made with the following ingredients? a. 2 cheese and 4 toppings b. 1 cheese and 3 toppings Ex. 7 In a recent survey of 25 voters, 17 favor a new city regulation and 8 oppose. Find the probability that in a random sample of 6 respondents from this survey, exactly 2 favor the proposed regulation and 4 oppose it. Ex. 8 A test consists of 25 questions and students are told to answer 20 of them. In how many different ways can they choose the 20 questions?

7 When reading a problem, you need to determine whether the problem involves permutations or combinations. In the following 5 questions, determine whether each situation involves a permutation or a combination. Ex Four recipes were selected for publication and 302 were submitted. 2. Nine players are selected from a team of 15 to start the softball game. 3. Four out of 200 contestants were awarded prizes of \$100, \$75, \$50, and \$ A president and Vice-president are elected for a class of 210 students. 5. The batting order for the 9 starting players is announced. Section 9-4 Using Addition with Probability Objectives: Find the probabilities of mutually exclusive events. Find the probabilities of inclusive events. Events that cannot occur at the same time are called. Probability of A or B Let A and B represent events in the same sample space. If A and B are mutually exclusive events, then P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B). If A or B are inclusive events, then P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) P(A and B). The of event A, written, consists of all outcomes in the sample c space the are not in A. For example, let A be the event in favor. Then the complement A is the event opposed or no opinion. c Use the given probability to find P(E ). Probability of the Complement of A Let A represent an event in the sample space. P( A) P( A c ) 1 ( ) 1 ( c c P A P A ) P( A ) 1 P( A) 1. PE ( ) 5 2. PE ( ) 0 3. PE ( ) PE ( ) 1 8

8 Two number cubes are rolled. The table shows the possible outcomes. Use the table to state whether the events in each pair below are inclusive or mutually exclusive. Then find the probability of each pair of events. 1. a sum of 6 or a sum of a sum of 9 or a sum of 5 5. a sum less then 10 or a sum greater than 8 7. a product of 5 or less, or sum of 6 9. an odd sum or a product greater than a sum of 3 or a sum of 7 4. a product of 20 or a sum of 6 6. a sum of 3 or less, or double ones 8. an even sum or a sum of a product greater than 20 or a product less than 15 A swim team with 25 members has 8 swimmers who swim freestyle, 5 swimmers who swim backstroke. Some swimmers participate in more than one event according to the Venn diagram. Find the probability of each event if a swimmer is selected at random. 11. swims freestyle 12. swims exactly 2 events 13. Swims breaststroke and backstroke 14. does not swim backstroke 15. swims freestyle and backstroke 16. does not swim freestyle, breaststroke, or backstroke A number cube is rolled once, and the number on the top is recorded. Find the probability of each event or 6 2. odd or even 3. Not even 4. 1 or less than 4

9 A card is drawn from a standard 52-card deck. Tell whether the events A and B inclusive or mutually exclusive. Then find P(A or B). 1. A: The card is red. 2. A: The card is a face card. B: The card is a 4. B: The card is a club. 3. A: The card is black. 4. A: The card is heart or spade. B: The card is red. B: The card is not a heart. 5. A: The card is less than A: The card is not a face card. B: The card is a red face card. B: The card is an ace. 7. A: The card is an ace of clubs. 8. A: The card is red. B: The card is red. B: The card is not a diamond or a heart. Find the probability of each event. (honors) 1. 1 head or 2 tails appearing in 2 tosses of a coin heads or 1 head appearing in 3 tosses of a coin. 3. At least 2 heads appear in 4 tosses of a coin. Section 9-5 Independent Events Objective: Find the probability of two or more independent events. Two events are if the occurrence or non-occurrence of one event has no effect on the likelihood of the occurrence of the other event. If one event does affect the occurrence of the other, the events are. Probability of Independent Events Events A and B are independent events if and only if P( AandB) P( A) P( B). Otherwise, A and B are dependent events. Events A, B, C, and D are independent, and P(A) = 0.3, P(B) = 0.5, P(C) = 0.4, and P(D) = 0.1. Find each probability. 1. P(A and B) 2. P(C and B) 3. P(A and D) 4. P(B and D)

10 A spinner has 8 congruent areas where each area is exactly though 8. Find the probability of each event in three spins of the spinner. 5. All three numbers are 3 or greater than All three numbers are odds. 1 8 of the circle each numbered 1 A bag contains 6 red chips, 9 white chips, and 5 blue chips. A chip is selected and then replaced. Then a second chip is selected. Find probability of each event. 7. Both chips are white 8. Neither chip is blue. 9. The first chip is red and the second chip is white 10. The first chip is blue and the second chip is not blue 11. The first chip is not red and the second chip is not white 12. The first chip is red, white or blue and the second chip is red, white or blue Section 9-6 Dependent Events and Conditional Probability Objective: Find conditional Probabilities. The probability of event B, Given Event A has happened (or will happen) is called. Conditional Probability The Conditional Probability of an event B, given event A denoted by P( AÇ B) P(B A ), is given by P(B A) =, where P(A) 0. P( A) A box contains 5 purple marbles, 3 green marbles, and 2 orange marbles. Two consecutive draws are made from the box without replacement of the first draw. Find the probability of each event. 1. Purple first, orange second 2. Green first, purple second 3. green first, green second 4. Orange first, green second 5. orange first, purple second 6. Orange first, blue second 7. purple first, purple second 8. Purple first, blue second

11 Let A and B represent events. 9. Given P(A and B) = 1 2 and P(A) = 2 3, find P(B A). 10. Given P(A and B) =.12 and P(A) =0.2, find P(B A). 11. Given P(A) = 1 4 and P(B A) = 1 3, find P(A and B). 12. Given P(A) = 0.37 and P(B A) =0.42, find P(A and B). 13. Given P(B A) = 2 3 and P(A and B) = 1 5, find P(A). 14. Given P(B A) = 0.63 and P(A and B) =0.27, find P(A). Is there a relationship between fruit consumption and amount of physical activity? Fruit /Exercise Low Medium High Total Low Medium High Total Find the probability of a person: a) P(High Fruit) b) P(High Fruit Ç High Exercise) c) P(High Fruit High Exercise) d) P(High Exercise High Fruit) Two number cubes are rolled and the first shows a 3. Find the probability of each event. 15. Both numbers are 3s. 16. A sum of The numbers are both odd. 18. A sum 2. For one roll of a number cube, let A be the event multiple of 2 and let B be the event factor of 12. Find each probability. 19. P(A) 20. P(A and B) 21. P(B A) 22. P(A B)

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