# CH 13. Probability and Data Analysis

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1 11.1: Find Probabilities and Odds 11.2: Find Probabilities Using Permutations 11.3: Find Probabilities Using Combinations 11.4: Find Probabilities of Compound Events 11.5: Analyze Surveys and Samples 11.6: Use Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion Prerequisite Skills 1. Find the mean, median, and mode(s) of the data. a. 0.2, 1.3, 0.9, 1.5, 2.1, 1.8, 0.6 mean: median: mode(s): b. 103, 121, 111, 194, 99, 160, 134, 160 mean: median: mode(s): 2. Write the fraction in simplest form. a. b. c. d. 3. Perform the indicated operation. a. b. c. d. e. f. CDS-MT Page 222

2 11.1 Find Probabilities and Odds A possible result of an experiment is an outcome. For instance, when you roll a number cube there are 6 possible outcomes: a 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6. An event is an outcome or a collection of outcomes, such as rolling an odd number. The set of all possible outcomes is called a sample space. Ex) Find a sample space. a. You flip a coin and roll a number cube. How many possible outcomes are in the sample space? List the possible outcomes. b. You flip 2 coins and roll a number cube. How many possible outcomes are in the sample space? List the possible outcomes. PROBABILITY The probability of an event is a measure of the likelihood, or chance, that the event will occur. Probability is a number from 0 to 1 an can be expressed as a decimal, fraction, or percent. THEORETICAL PROBABILITY The outcomes for a specified event are called favorable outcomes. When all outcomes are equally likely, the theoretical probability of the event can be found using the following: The probability of event A is written as P(A). CDS-MT Page 223

3 Ex) Find a theoretical probability You and your friends designed T-shirts with silk screened emblems, and you are selling the T-shirts to raise money. The table below shows the number of T-shirts you have in each design. A student chooses a T-shirt at random. What is the probability that the student chooses a red T-shirt? Gold emblem Silver emblem Green T-shirt 10 8 Red T-shirt 6 6 Ex) You toss a coin and roll a number cube. What is the probability that the coin show tails and the number cube shows 4? EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY An experimental probability is based on repeated trials of an experiment. The number of trials is the number of times the experiment is performed. Each trial in which a favorable outcome occurs is called a success. CDS-MT Page 224

4 Ex) Each section of the spinner shown has the same area. The spinner was spun 20 times. The table shows the results. For which color is the experimental probability of stopping on the color the same as the theoretical probability? Spinner Results Red Green Blue Yellow ODDS The odds of an event compare the number of favorable and unfavorable outcomes when all outcomes are equally likely. Ex) From previous example, find the odds against stopping on green. Ex) What are the odds in favor of stopping on blue? CDS-MT Page 225

5 11.2 Find Probabilities Using Permutations A permutation is an arrangement of objects in which order is important. For instance, the 6 possible permutations of the letters A, B, and C are shown. ABC ACB BAC BCA CAB CBA Ex) Consider the number of permutations of the letters. a. In how many ways can you arrange all of the letters in the word JULY? b. In how many ways can you arrange 2 of the letters in the word JULY? 1. In how many ways can you arrange all of the letters in the word MOUSE? 2. In how many ways can you arrange 3 of the letters in the word ORANGE? FACTORIAL In previous example, you evaluated the expression. This expression can be written as 4! And is read 4 factorial. For any positive integer n, the product of the integers from 1 to n is called n factorial and is written as n!. The value of 0! is defined to be 1. ( ) ( ) and CDS-MT Page 226

6 You also found the permutations of four objects taken two at a time. You can find the number of permutations using the formulas below. Formulas The number of permutations of n object is given by: Examples The number of permutations of 4 objects is : The number of permutations of n object taken r at a time, where, is given by: The number of permutations of 4 objects taken 2 at a time is: ( ) ( ) Ex) Your band has written 12 songs and plans to record 9 of them for a CD. In how many ways can you arrange the songs on the CD? Ex) For a town parade, you will ride on a float with your soccer team. There are 12 floats in the parade, and their order is chosen at random. Find the probability that your float is first and the float with the school chorus is second. CDS-MT Page 227

7 11.3 Find Probabilities Using Combinations A combination is a selection of objects in which order is not important. For instance, in a drawing for 3 identical prizes, you would use combinations, because the order of the winners would not matter. If the prizes were different, you would use permutations, because the order would matter. Ex) Count combinations a. Count the combinations of two letters from the list A, B, C, D. b. Count the combinations of 3 letters from the list A, B, C, D, E. COMBINATIONS In example above, you found the number of combinations of objects by making an organized list. You can also find the number of combinations using the following formula. Formulas The number of combinations of n object taken r at a time, where, is given by: ( ) Examples The number of permutations of 4 objects is : ( ) ( ) ( ) Ex) You order a sandwich at a restaurant. You can choose 2 side dishes from a list of 8. How many combinations of side dishes are possible? Ex) A yearbook editor has selected 14 photos, including one of you and one of your friend, to use in a collage for the yearbook. The photos are placed at random. There is room for 2 photos at the top of the page. What is the probability that your photo and your friend s photo are the two placed at the top of the page? CDS-MT Page 228

8 11.4 Find Probabilities of Compound Events A compound event combines two or more events, using the word and or the word or. To find the probability that either event A or event B occurs, determine how the events are related. Mutually exclusive events have no common outcomes. Overlapping events have at least one common outcome. For instance, suppose you roll a number cube. Mutually Exclusive Events Event A: Roll a 3 Event B: Roll an even number. Overlapping Events Event A: Roll an odd number. Event B: Roll a prime number. Set A has 1 number, and set B has 3 numbers Set A has 3 numbers, and set B has 3 numbers. There are 2 numbers in both sets. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Ex) Find the probability of A or B a. You roll a number cube. Find the probability that you roll a 2 or an odd number. b. You roll a number cube. Find the probability that you roll an even number or a prime number. 1. You roll a number cube. Find the probability that you roll a 2 or a You roll a number cube. Find the probability that you roll a number less than 4 or an odd number. CDS-MT Page 229

9 INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT EVENTS To find the probability that event A and event B both occur, determine how the events are related. Two events are independent events if the occurrence of one event has no effect on the occurrence of the other. Two events are dependent events if the occurrence of one event affects the occurrence of the other. For instance, consider the probability of choosing a green marble and then a blue marble from the bag shown. If you choose one marble and replace it before choosing the second, then the events are independent. If you do not replace the first marble, then the sample space has changed, and the events are dependent. Independent Events With replacement: Dependent Events Without replacement: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Ex) You take a city bus from your neighborhood to a location within walking distance of your school. The express bus arrives at your neighborhood between 7:30 and 7:36. The local bus arrives at your neighborhood between 7:30 and 7:40. You arrive at the bus stop at 7:33. Find the probability that you have missed both the express bus and local bus. Ex) A box contains 3 blue pens and 5 black pens. You choose one pen at random, do not replace it, then choose a second pen at random. What is the probability that both pens are blue? CDS-MT Page 230

10 11.5 Analyze Surveys and Samples A survey is a study of one or more characteristics of a group. The entire group you want information about is called a population. A survey of an entire population is called a census. When it is difficult to perform a census, you can survey a sample, which is a part of the population. Sampling Methods In a random sample, every member of the population has a equal chance of being selected. In a stratified random sample, the population is divided into distinct groups. Members are selected at random from each group. In a systematic sample, a rule is used to select members of the population. In a convenience sample, only members of the population who are easily accessible are selected. In a self-selected sample, members of the population select themselves by volunteering. BIASED SAMPLES A sample chosen for a survey should be representative of the population. A biased sample is a sample that is not representative. In a biased sample, parts of the population may be over-represented or under-represented. Random samples and stratified random samples are the most likely types of samples to be representative. A systematic sample may be representative if the rule used to choose individuals is not biased. BIASED QUESTIONS A question that encourages a particular response is a biased question. Survey questions should be worded to avoid bias. CDS-MT Page 231

11 11.6 Use Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion Measures of Central Tendency The mean, or average, of a numerical data set is denoted by, which is read as x-bar. For the data set, the mean is. The median of a numerical data set is the middle number when the values are written in numerical order. If the data set has an even number of values, the median is the mean of the two middle values. The mode of a data set is the value that occurs most frequently. There may be one mode, no mode, or more than one mode. Ex) the heights (in feet) of 8 waterfalls in the state of Washington are listed below. Which measure of central tendency best represents the data? Mean: 1000, 1000, 1181, 1191, 1200, 1268, 1328, 2584 Median: Mode: MEASURES OF DISPERSION A measure of dispersion describes the dispersion, or spread, of data. Two such measures are the range, which gives the length of the interval containing the data, and the mean absolute deviation, which gives the average variation of the data from the mean. The range of a numerical data set is the difference of the greatest value and the least value. The mean absolute deviation of the data set is given by: Ex) The top 10 finishing times (in seconds) for runners in two men s races are given. The times in a 100 meter dash are in set A, and the times in a 200 meter dash are in set B. compare the spread of the data for the two sets using (a) the range and (b) the mean absolute deviation. A: 10.62, 10.94, 10.94, 10.98, 11.05, 11.13, 11.15, 11.28, 11.29, B: 21.37, 21.40, 22.23, 22.23, 22.34, 22.34, 22.36, 22.60, 22.66, CDS-MT Page 232

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