1 WRINKLES & PIPING IN PAPER REELS By: D K Singhal
2 Wrinkles & Piping Wrinkles and piping is often a serious problem, and needs immediate attention to real cause of the problem. If the real cause is not detected, it is generally impossible or very difficult to remove in later stages. Let us evaluate some possible causes of the same.
3 Basis Weight Variation As a first look, basis weight variation seems the main reason for wrinkles & piping. If this is a case, this is the easiest one to identify and correct on most machines. Check cross direction GSM, and identify the point where it appears less than adjacent points. If a standard sample of 40X25cm does not show gsm variation, try checking 10X10cm samples.
4 Basis Weight Variation But, if 10X10cm profile is not showing any abnormality? Many a times, the piping is present is just a few centimeters width. You have received a reel of paper for coating, lamination printing or any other operation; so you just cannot use scanners to check more accurate CD GSM profiles? Use surrogate technique for this.
5 Basis Weight Variation We know that for a particular grade and lot, the opacity of paper is (almost) proportional to its GSM; at least for a small piece of paper. Take a 20-25cm wide CD strip of paper, and check it against light. Any CD GSM abnormality may get visible to you.
6 No Basis Weight Variation If you cannot detect any CD GSM variation by now, you should believe that basis weight is not a culprit for this problem. Think differently.
7 Caliper Variation Caliper variation could be other reason for this problem. Caliper variation is relatively much easier to check and correct. You can have a conventional LVDT based micrometer and check caliper at small intervals to identify point of abnormality. But in case caliper profile is also satisfactory?
8 GSM & Caliper If both GSM and caliper show no significant caliper variation, it becomes important to look for some other reasons. What is that?
9 Dimensional Difference Take a sheet of paper from a reel which has severe piping, and lie it down on a flat surface. What do you see? The wrinkle or piping is still present. If you notice closely, the waviness indicates that the machine direction length of paper is more in that particular area. Does that mean, the paper has elongated more in that particular area?
10 Elongation Now, make another experiment. Take a good sheet almost of the same size as earlier, and use both hand thumbs and fingers to stretch it locally with a little force to elongate it? Now lie it down on a flat surface. Do you notice similar wrinkles appearing? Try more force, is the problem increasing?
11 Another Experiment Repeat the same local elongation experiment with a polythene sheet, a rubber sheet, a cellophane sheet and a polypropylene sheet. What do you notice? In case of rubber, the problem is not there, as rubber has good elasticity, and reaches to back shape and size as the force is removed. Only the materials that exhibit permanent elongation after applying some stress and removing it, show the problem.
12 Permanent Elongation In fact, behind most wrinkles and piping, permanent local elongation is the main cause. There are four main reasons for localized permanent elongation, which are discussed in the forthcoming slides.
13 1. Applied Tension Quite obviously, the more tension you apply, the more permanent elongation will take place. It is clear from the figure below.
14 2. Time Similarly, if you apply load (or tension) for more time, the permanent elongation will be more. This behavior (also known as creep) is present in most materials. If you put a piece of paper under tension for very long duration, it does not return back to its original size.
15 3. Intrinsic Properties Some material tend to permanently elongate more under same load and load application time compared to the others. For example, cast iron elongates much less while gold elongates more. Similarly, a sheet of tissue paper will elongate much more than a sheet of surface sized maplitho paper.
16 4. External Factors Many a times, external factors alter the load elongation behavior of materials. In case of rubber, permanent elongation is less, but at elevated temperatures, rubber may elongate permanently. Similarly, with more the moisture it contains, the paper will elongate more compared to a dry one.
17 Back to Our Problem You might be thinking now that probably this is the reason that a reduction in paper tension results in reduced piping. True, but can we make use of all of the four properties to reduce the magnitude of our problem? I think, let us look at stress strain behavior first.
18 Understanding Stress Strain Diagram
19 Stress Strain Diagram for Paper
20 Tension It has been observed that for most paper grades, the tension equivalent to 10-20% of paper tensile strength is adequate to make good reels on rewinder. If you see a typical stress strain curve for paper, you will notice that the curve tends from elastic to plastic limit at nearly 25% of tensile strength.
21 Tension So, ensure that the tension does not exceed this value. Furthermore, if not done already, get your paper tested to obtain stress strain curve for your paper. Only tensile strength or breaking length may not be enough.
22 Tension If you find that elastic elongation (which is a reversible process) is less in your paper, or even after applying smaller tension, paper elongates permanently, explore possibilities to alter the curve by- Altering machine parameters (consider reduced draw, alterations in vacuum and press loadings etc.) Use of specialty chemicals
23 Time You may feel you cannot do anything about time for which the stress (load) has been applied on paper. It is just the ratio of length of path of paper from one section to other to the speed of the machine. Well, you just cannot practically change the paper route to much smaller, nor you can speed up the machine too fast. Is there something we are overlooking?
24 Time On machines particularly where smooth paper is wound on reels, and there is inadequate pressure on reels through say a rider roll, there remains a possibility that the entering reel tension gets transferred to and remains inside paper reel for a longer duration. In fact, under such circumstances, you don t see piping while the reels are being made, but it appears after some time when the reels are completed.
25 Time It is interesting to note that a mill found that most of the wrinkles and piping problems were confined to the innermost part of paper reels.
26 Time The accumulated stress which might have increased during the course of winding of reels may reach a level much beyond the acceptable one, and when this paper is rewound, you observe problems. That shows that measurement and control of paper tension during winding extremely important.
27 Time In reels, paper remains under tension. But, the problem appears only if the tension is too high to create slippage between to adjacent layers of paper in the reel. Reducing tension while rewinding reels immediately yields good results in most of such cases. Increasing rewinder rider roll pressure to restrict excessive tension being transferred to and being accumulated in reels, is also a good strategy.
28 TNT A common recommendations is to- Reduce the tightness of the roll by decreasing any or all of the TNT (i.e. Tension, Nip, Torque) controls or by increasing speed.
29 Paper Intrinsic Properties Fiber orientation in different CD locations in paper, strain (elongation) developed during the papermaking operations, different drainage patterns in CD all affect the behavior of paper in subsequent stages. You might have observed that such problems increase when wire or felt are older.
30 Paper Intrinsic Properties But, you cannot change wire and felt too early. Now, the question is- As a paper maker, what can you do?
31 Head Box Take a close look at the head box flow. A wet streak, channeling from head box slice or by foreign material deposition on slice lip may be a cause of minor CD gsm variations in paper. Look at the flow landing from head box to wire. An uneven landing on wire could be possibly caused by something wrong with the bottom slice lip.
32 Wire Table From the experience, Problem increases as wire gets older., what can we conclude? As wire becomes older, its threads wear out and burrs on the sides of wire threads reduce drainage. In case there is uneven wear, drainage profile is different in different CD locations. Try to identify and remove the cause of uneven wear.
33 Wire Table Also, check if all nozzles of showers are in good health. A choked shower nozzle may result in locally dirty wire and create problems. Locally choked suction box tops could also be another point to investigate.
34 Wire Table Some papermakers tend to maintain higher vacuum than required. Due to this extra vacuum, you get evener web dryness, but the problem of piping gets somewhat hidden. In such cases, try to reduce vacuum as much as possible for a short while, and hopefully you will notice the CD location at which problem appears.
35 Press Section Locally choked uhle boxes, or any choked nozzle in the felt shower can also be the cause of the problem.
36 External Factors Now, this is the area where the converter himself needs to look at the problem. Dimensional properties of paper do get changed on changing temperature or moisture content. If the paper reels are wound at relatively elevated temperature cool down while storage, the dimensional change may result in uneven shrinkage and hence piping.
37 Wet Operations Many operations such as water based printing or clay coating require paper to get wet and dried again. In such cases, when the paper is wetted, the tensile strength decreases drastically. Similarly, elasticity increases significantly. In the next slide, a elongation at different moisture levels is indicated for a typical case.
38 Effect of Moisture on Tensile Strength
39 Effect of Moisture on Elongation
40 Wet Operations Let us consider an example of a coater with hot air impingement drying in hood. We may divide paper path in three different sections- Unwinder to Coater Coater to Drying Hood Hood to Winder We control the tension by applying brakes only at unwinder!
41 Paper Paths You may feel that tension in unwind to coater is satisfactory, but we should consider the next two as one. In the first path after coating, paper gets wet even while it is in tension. Under the same tension but wet condition, it enters the drying hood, where, some stresses are relieved and others are created. But after the hood, paper is dry again, and its stress strain properties are different from those just after the coater.
42 Coating Operation So, finally it the is tension applied at the initial stages that is distributed across the three stages of coating. The first and last stages are OK, but the middle stage is very critical. That is why, it becomes extremely important for you to go in for a good tension control in coating system, particularly if you are facing frequent problems of piping.
43 Wet Operations Furthermore, while paper is wet, its stress strain behavior is different, and you observe more permanent elongation even at lower stress values. For such applications, don t just rely entirely on conventional strength tests which are carried in dry state, evaluate effect of rewetting and drying also. Consider use of some suitable wet strength additive.
44 Thank You.
45 About D K Singhal Born in 1968, D K Singhal is B.E., M.E. (Pulp & Paper, 1993) from Dept. of Paper Technology, University of Roorkee (now IIT, Roorkee). He is a Chartered Engineer and Certified Energy Auditor also. With nearly 6 dozen publications, he has emphasized on development of low cost technologies and management practices for quality and profitability improvement. With publications on energymanagertraining.com and paperonweb.com, he has been constantly contributing to IPPTA(Indian Pulp & Paper Technical Association). He is also serving IPPTA as a member of Editorial Board. An initiative by D K Singhal, a cyber campaign initiated against unjustified targeting of paper industry by Idea mobile, in their Sirjee advertisement campaign, after which this advertisement was taken off air. He also moderated a Yahoo group, PaperTechnology with nearly 365 members from India and abroad to discuss problems related to pulp & paper making for more than 5 years. He can be contacted at
TAPIO Paper Machine Analyzer (PMA) Sample Analysis Questionnaire PAPER MACHINE DATA USED TO PINPOINT THE SOURCE OF THE PROBLEM Why and what kind of paper TAPIO PMA sample analysis finds paper quality machine
WIST: Your trusted source for specialty paper services WIST: Your partner in paper research, development and contract services, providing: Grade development Papermaking additive studies Equipment evaluation
What is a Black Clawson Newport Attwood Pressure Former? Page 1 of 7 Background information. Historically Paper and Board machines can be split roughly into two types: a) The Fourdrinier with a headbox
Metrology Prof. Dr. Kanakuppi Sadashivappa Department of Industrial and Production Engineering Bapuji Institute of Engineering and Technology-Davangere Module-2 Lecture-1 Angle plate, steel rule, spring
CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The new developments in the textile manufacture with various types of blends offer varieties in the market. Consumers seek not only fashionable but also have become conscious
Operational Excellence Success Story PMT The right Shoe Press Valter Canelli PaperCon 2011 Page 1552 Mill Overview Pap. De Clairefontaine #5 Fine Paper Wire 148 in Speed 1970fpm 630 pli 400 pli PaperCon
Active microwave moisture sensors advanced solutions for the pulp and paper industry AMS an integrated system of sensors installed in various phases of the pulp and paper manufacturing process to measure
SCRAPLESS WINDING OF THIN FILMS By CHUCK BAILEY FAUSTEL, INC or TAKING THE ART OUT of WINDING GOOD ROLLS * *REFERENCE: PAPER BY R. DUANE SMITH, THE ART OF WINDING GOOD ROLLS ROLL QUALITY All of us involved
Corso di Studi di Fabbricazione 3a Richiami dei processi tecnologici di trasformazione FUNDAMENTAL OF METAL FORMING 1 METAL FORMING Large group of manufacturing processes in which plastic deformation is
1CULTU RE ROOM NONPIASTIC MOWED PULP 'PRODUCTS Revised March 1960 NO. 1964 JUN 131960 ie. I FOREST PRODUCTS LABORATORY MADISON 5, WISCONSIN UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREST SERVICE in Cooperation
Improving Edge Quality in Film Applications with Tangent Shear Slitting Presented by: Sean Craig General Manager, Maxcess-Tidland Date: October 17, 2017 What is Fracture Mechanics? The study of how things
New Insights into Gap Forming of Lightweight Containerboard Frank Swietlik, Jukka Muhonen, Ari Puurtinen, Hannu Turpeinen, Teuvo Virkkunen Metso, Paper business line PaperCon 2011 Page 345 Concepts for
Executive Summary Valmet's intelligent roll, iroll, has been in use in paper, board and tissue mills for a decade, solving runnability and quality problems that no other sensor can. iroll is a mechatronic
INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS Wallgard 1,3 product October 2015 GENERAL Application can be done to smooth, dry, clean, sound walls of concrete, plaster, hardboard, plywood and fibreboard. Board material must
PERFECT STRIP FLATNESS TOP-QUALITY SURFACE STRAIGHT-EDGE COILS HIGH YIELD PRECISELY CONTROLLED STRIP TENSION The key to success in innovative production processes UMLAUF-BRIDLES increase and decrease strip
Instruction Bulletin 1080 3M Europe, Effective August 2015 3M Wrap Film Series 1080 Preparation of Substrates, Application, Maintenance and Removal Instruction Bulletin Recommended Types of Graphics and
Paper and reel fault-finding checklist Classification T- Holes ---!??I Cuts Where to look and 1 web wrinkles Other It to look for Core Reel end Reel body 1. Sheet defects-holes 1.1 slime hole 1.2 water
Fastener Quality Act Information Unbrako offers this link to the National Institute of Standards homepage on the Fastener Quality Act as an aide to individuals who need detailed and complete information
Web 201.52a Oscillation A Study of Oscillation Part 1 2017 David Roisum, Ph.D. Courtesy Freepik from www.flaticon.com Finishing Technologies, Inc. 201.52a.1 Bagginess and Gage Variation Winding Unwinding
Carbide Doctor Blades on Ceramic Press Rolls Mohan Jayaraman R&D Team Leader Kadant Web Systems Inc. Paul Haller Former Ceramic Roll Product Manager Voith North America Gregory L. Wedel President Kadant
Data Sheet (Page 1 of 5) Description A no heat, non electric laminating applicator to laminate or apply transfer adhesive to documents in a variety of sizes, up to A3 format. It allows for professional
Challenges in Winding Flexible Packaging Film Abstract By R. Duane Smith Product Manager- Specialty Winding Black Clawson Converting Machinery Davis Standard LLC Fulton, New York, USA Every Flexible Film
OCCASION This publication has been made available to the public on the occasion of the 50 th anniversary of the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation. DISCLAIMER This document has been produced
Screen Coating Techniques Direct emulsions offer quality in print, mechanical endurance, solvent & water resistance, and affordability all in one bucket. To use these qualities profitably requires a basic
ERECTION & CONSTRUCTION High Strength Structural Bolting Author: Clark Hyland Affiliation: Steel Construction New Zealand Inc. Date: 24 th August 2007 Ref.: Key Words High Strength Bolts; Property Class
MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY UNIT II SHEET METAL FORMING PROCESSES Sheet Metal Introduction Sheet metal is a metal formed into thin and flat pieces. It is one of the fundamental forms used in metalworking,
Manufacturing Processes - 1 Prof. Inderdeep Singh Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee Module - 01 Lecture - 06 Swaging & Wire Drawing Very good morning
What is Your Roller s True Shape and Why Does It Matter? By Stephen Huff V.P. Manufacturing & Technology Imperial Rubber Products, Inc. 1 Common Roller Tolerances Geometry Based Measurements TIR Runout
Process Solutions to Improve Paper Machine Performance in Forming Section with Essential Frank J. Cunnane, Product Manager, PMC and Instruments, Cristini North America Abstract Traditional forming fabric
33 CHAPTER5 5 ZERO DEFECT MANUFACTURING IN THE PRODUCTION OF IMPELLER THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF CAD / CAE 5.1 INTRODUCTION In the first place of research, CAD/CAE was applied to achieve ZERO DEFECT MANUFACTURING
General Practices & Preventative Maintenance for your Pellet Mill The pellet feed industry has grown to cover a wide range of animal feeds. Studies have shown that feeding animals pelleted feed will induce
Wire and tube Drawing Drawing is an operation in which the cross-section of solid rod, wire or tubing is reduced or changed in shape by pulling it through a die. The principle of this procedure consist
Designation: D 823 95 (Reapproved 2001) Standard Practices for Producing Films of Uniform Thickness of Paint, Varnish, and Related Products on Test Panels 1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation
The Design and Performance of Circular Disc, Helical and Layer Windings for Power Transformer Applications Minnesota Power Systems Conference November 3 5, 2009 Earl Brown Heritage Center University of
Drawing Drawing is a metalworking process which uses tensile forces to stretch metal. It is broken up into two types: sheet metal drawing and wire, bar, and tube drawing. The specific definition for sheet
American Institute of Timber Construction 7012 South Revere Parkway Suite 140 Centennial, CO 80112 Phone: 303/792-9559 Fax: 303/792-0669 404.1. SCOPE STANDARD FOR RADIALLY REINFORCING CURVED GLUED LAMINATED
NEW APPROACH TO THE PIPE TO GUSSET PLATE CONNECTION Prepared by Liftech Consultants Inc. Quality Assurance Review for Liftech Consultants Inc. Author: Kenton Lee Structural Engineer Editor: Erik Soderberg
Practical Bolting and Gasketing for the Non Standard-Flanged Joint Points of Discussion Introduction Joint Analysis Existing Flange Data Machining Procedure Bolting Radial Shear Available Gasket Styles
PAPER MAKING 101 Melanie K. Calkins Director, R&D Neenah Technical Products Alpharetta GA Paper making is an ancient art form, dating to 105 AD, which history records as the point in time when paper materials
CALENDERING INDUSTRIES Advanced Web Solutions APPLICATION NOTE WEB GAUGING NDC s Calender Solutions: Engineered to deliver outstanding results from your process NDC s Calendering Systems represent reliable
Module 3 Selection of Manufacturing Processes Lecture 4 Design for Sheet Metal Forming Processes Instructional objectives By the end of this lecture, the student will learn the principles of several sheet
SECTION 03 41 00 - STRUCTURAL PRECAST CONCRETE PART 1 GENERAL 1.1 RELATED DOCUMENTS A. Drawings and general provisions of Contract, including General and Supplementary Conditions and Division 1 specification
Joining Techniques Afghan blocks or strips can be joined by sewing or crocheting them together. Crocheting generally gives a stronger, more stable seam, while sewing often produces a lighter, less bulky
INSTALLATION, OPERATION, LUBRICATION, AND MAINTENANCE OF NO. S B18 AND B24 SMOOTH ROLL CRUSHERS I. INSTALLATION A. RIGID MOUNTING: Use two heavy WF or I-beams running parallel underneath at least eight
Optimising fabric quality, finishing processes and machinery through the use of fabric objective measurement Irene Slota CSIRO What is this talk all about? Fabric quality. The role of finishing in optimising
UNIT II MANUFACTURING OF PAPER AND BOARD 2.1 OPERATION IN PAPER-MAKING MACHINE After stock preparation the treated liquid is now ready for release on to the paper machine. The design of machine used for
GrafiWrap Vehicle Wrapping What is GrafiWrap? GrafiWrap is the registered trade name for a combination of materials used in the wrapping of a vehicle. The GrafiWrap system is a sandwich made up of a cast
Prediction Of Thrust Force And Torque In Drilling On Aluminum 6061-T6 Alloy P. Kishore Kumar 1 ; Dr. K. Kishore 2 ; Prof. P. Laxminarayana 3 ; Anurag group of Institutions Vasavi College of Engineering
Increasing Filler Without Compromise A comprehensive approach Stéphane Ménard Global Marketing Director - Printing and Writing PaperCon 2011 Page 591 Agenda Introduction Program Components Laboratory work
Automation Products Lorentzen & Wettre Products Paper testing Laboratory paper testing In all types of mature production, improvements are required for a company to stay competitive. In the pulp and paper
LOCTITE WEBINAR SERIES Threadlocking & the Torque-Tension Relationship Meet Your Presenters Doug Lescarbeau Michael Feeney Market Development Director Doug.Lescarbeau@Henkel.co m Application Engineer Michael.Feeney@Henkel.com
Bertram Binder 2 String & 4 String Versions Operating Manual V 4.2 Cork Disc Tension Control Visit www.quinchat.webs.com for videos Binder Manual v 4.2 page1 Binder Design Change This edition of the operating
Design Guidelines for FDM technology This guideline is supposed to be used by people who already have knowledge in 3D design, CAD/CAM, etc. and it s goal is to show the key points when designing a model
Yarn Manufacture I : Principal of Carding & Drawing Prof. R. Chattopadhyay Department of Textile Technology Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi Lecture 20 Blending on Drawframe (Refer Slide Time: 00:31)
1 MANUFACTURING PROCESSES - AMEM 201 Lecture 9: Sheet Metal Cutting & Forming Processes DR. SOTIRIS L. OMIROU Sheet Metal Cutting & Forming Processes - Application field- Sheet metal processing is an important
Thorough planning is an absolute in a proper installation and pattern alignment at seams, in doorways and along the walls. Failure to follow any one of these steps could result in a mismatch that cannot
Rotary sizing of tube and pipe on the mill By Bruce Chidlow, Kusakabe Electric & Machinery Co Ltd, Kobe, Japan Introduction The sizing methods used on tube and pipe mills have not changed significantly
Featuring STRIPENET REV. 09/01 PAGE 1 Super Blue, Super Blue 2 and StripeNet are registered trademarks of PRI. All other company and product names mentioned in this document are trademarks of their respective
Manual 2: Graficast print films for high level wrapping. MANUAL 2 Graficast Print Films FOR HIGH LE VEL WR APPING 2017 1 WHAT IS GRAFIWRAP? GrafiWrap is the registered trade name for a combination of materials
Architectural Woodwork Standards CARE & storage s e c t i o n SECTION table of contents introductory Information Introduction... Important Product Advisory regarding Dimensional Change... Care... Relative
Prel-Lam LC-LTI Liquid Crystal Laminated Glass 1. FEATURES Liquid crystal glass is laminated glass that is connected to a switch-operated electric circuit. The appearance of this glass changes depending
COMMON WRENCHES INTRODUCTION A wrench is a hand tool used to provide grip and mechanical advantage in applying torque to turn objects usually nuts and bolts. Wrenches allow us to use less force to rotate
Technical Terms When considering artificial grass for residential or commercial applications it is helpful to understand some of the terms used to describe the synthetic grass. Yarn: Describes the material
GOLDEN RULES 8-0 C Install your floor between 8 and 0 C. Quick-Step Livyn must be acclimatized in the room of installation between 8-0 C for a period of at least 8 hours before installation. This floor
Product Information Manufacturer: Architects Paper A brand of A.S. Création Tapeten AG Südstr. 47 51645 Gummersbach www.architects-paper.com Product Name POWER VLIES STRETCH 160 Quick Start Guide - The
CH # 8 Screws, Fasteners, and the Design of Non-permanent Joints Department of Mechanical Engineering King Saud University Two rectangular metal pieces, the aim is to join them How this can be done? Function
Weaving Your 1st Scarf My First Woven Scarf See part 1 How to Warp the Kromski Harp Forte to get started. Supplies: Kromski Harp Forte Loom at least 8 wide 155 yards size 3 Crochet Thread or 8/2 Weaving
Determining Dimensional Capabilities From Short-Run Sample Casting Inspection A.A. Karve M.J. Chandra R.C. Voigt Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania ABSTRACT A method for determining
Troubleshooting Guide for Digital Printing on Creative Papers Troubleshooting guide for digital printing on creative papers Introduction This guide is in two parts, part 1 for HP Indigo presses and part
intermediate/ advanced polymer clay Taking a shine to polymer clay Give polymer clay a glossy surface with sandpaper and a quick buffing. FCT-CRON0216_ART30 The featured pendant s intricate cane pattern
A galvanized finish is MnDOT s standard on new traffic control signal poles, mast arms, transformer bases, and luminaire extensions. The galvanized finish is highly abrasion resistant, however should the
914.01 Section 914. JOINT AND WATERPROOFING MATERIALS 914.01. General Requirements. Joint and waterproofing material for use in concrete construction must meet the requirements of this section. 914.02.
. PREPARATION. INSTALLATION. FINISHING. MAINTENANCE INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS FOR QUICK-STEP LAMINATE WITH HYDROSEAL TECHNOLOGY. IN ORDER TO OBTAIN A GOOD RESULT, WE ADVISE TO FOLLOW ALL GIVEN INSTRUCTIONS
BONDED ABRASIVE PRIMER Basic information on the terminology and use of bonded abrasive products. Property of: KASCO ABRASIVES Coldwater, Michigan 1-800-367-729 Fax 517-279-7265 1 GENERAL BONDED ABRASIVES
ADHESIVES COATINGS Surface Finishing HotCoating roll material ADHESIVES COATINGS Klebchemie M. G. Becker GmbH & Co. KG, producer of Kleiberit products modern and innovative. The company s competence is
Paper making Industrial paper production High art of engineering for ultra-high aspirations 1 2 To effluent treatment system Water circuit to stock preparation Fibre recovery from white water Stock blending
Waterbase and Discharge Ink Printing Objectives: To improve production performance, minimize down time, and optimize screen life by preparing durable stencils with quality products and screen making techniques.
Crochet Beading To say I enjoy working with beads is a bit of an understatement. I can't resist their sparkle and love the extra colour and texture they add to my work. I always use beads from the Debbie
Purdue University Purdue e-pubs International Compressor Engineering Conference School of Mechanical Engineering 1974 Crimp Type Winding Connections in Hermetic Motors G. W. Klein General Electric Company
DNA Station 1. Identify yourself! DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic material that identifies all of us as unique unless you're an identical twin. Even between identical twins, fingerprints are
Durapipe ABS Jointing Guide Solvent cement welding offers a simple and quick means of constructing high integrity, leak-free joints. The solvent cement operates by chemically softening the joint surfaces.
New technologies Development of Automated Stitching Technology for Molded Decorative Instrument Panel Skin Masaharu Nagatsuka* Akira Saito** Abstract Demand for the instrument panel with stitch decoration
PROJECT INTERMEDIATE METAL CLAY Step Up Your Metal clay Skill Set Improve your craft à la carte in this technique-packed earring project. by Deb Fitz FCT-CRON0216_ART48 Whether you want to learn how to
Roll Forming General overview By Dako Kolev P.Eng. Design in the world of Engineering is a mental process of creativity when we layout our vision of functionality and arrangement of elements or details
SOFTNESS Hard facts? Stuart Gregory (Petrofer) PAPERmatters 2018! The Presentations Stuart Gregory Petrofer Stuart is a qualified production engineer who has supplied technical support and sales of paper