5 I. T cu2. T use in modem computing systems, it is desirable to. A Comparison of HalfBridge Resonant Converter Topologies


 Chastity Shepherd
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1 74 EEE TRANSACTONS ON POER ELECTRONCS, VOL. 3, NO. 2, APRL 988 A Comprison of HlfBridge Resonnt Converter Topologies AbstrctThe hlfbridge seriesresonnt, prllelresonnt, nd combintion seriesprllel resonnt converters re compred for use in low output voltge power supply pplictions. t is shown tht the combintion seriesprllel converter, which tkes on the desirble chrcteristics of the pure series nd the pure prllel converter, removes the min disdvntges of those two converters. Anlyses nd bredbord results show tht the combintion seriesprllel converter cn run over lrge input voltge rnge nd lrge lod rnge (no lod to full lod) while mintining excellent efficiency. A useful nlysis technique bsed on clssicl c complex nlysis is lso introduced. NTRODUCTON REDUCE the size of power supplies intended for T use in modem computing systems, it is desirble to rise the operting frequency to reduce the size of rective components. To reduce the higher switching losses resulting from higher frequency opertion, resonnt power conversion is receiving renewed interest. This pper will compre the seriesresonnt topology, prllelresonnt topology, nd combintion seriesprllel resonnt topology for use in low output voltge power supply pplictions. t is shown tht the combintion seriesprllel converter, which tkes on the desirble chrcteristics of the pure series nd the pure prllel converter, removes the min disdvntges of those two converters. n prticulr, it will be shown by nlyses nd bredbord results tht the combintion seriesprllel converter cn run over lrge input voltge rnge nd lrge lod rnge (no lod to full lod) while mintining excellent efficiency. n ddition, useful nlysis technique bsed on clssicl c complex nlysis is introduced. CRCUT DESCRPTONS Fig. illustrtes three types of resonnt converters which my be used for highfrequency switching power supply pplictions. n the seriesloded circuit, the two cpcitors C, / 2 form seriesresonnt cpcitor of vlue C,. n the prllelloded converter C, is the only resonnt cpcitor, while the cpcitors C,,/2 serve only to split the input dc voltge. The seriesprllel loded converter hs both seriesresonnt nd prllelresonnt cpcitors. All three of these converters result in low switching losses Mnuscript received Mrch, 987; revised December, 987. This pper ws presented t the 987 Applied Power Electronics Conference, Mrch 987. The uthor is with Generl Electric Compny, Corporte Reserch nd Development, P.O. Box 43, Building , Schenectdy, NY 23. EEE Log Number P cs/2 5 (C) Fig.. Three types of hlfbridge resonnt converters. () Series loded. (b) Prllel loded. (c) Seriesprllel loded. T cu2 for the power devices. The circuits my be operted either bove or below the resonnt frequency of the resonnt circuit. t is presently felt by the uthor tht opertion bove resonnce is preferred. This preference is explined by reference to Fig. 2. n Fig. 2 wveforms re shown for resonnt converter operting bove resonnce. n ll three converters the hlfbridge pplies squre wve of voltqge to the resonnt circuit, nd due to the filtering ction of the resonnt circuit, pproximte sine wves of current re present in the resonnt inductor L,. The fct tht the circuit is operting /88/474$.OO O 988 EEE
2 STEGERALD: HALFBRDGE RESONANT CONVERTER TOPOLOGES 75 2 f  z z s  z U z O Y U ;  J i s  z U, b~t = /(4 TME Fig. 2. del resonnt converter wveforms. bove resonnce cn be deduced from the fct tht the current delivered to the resonnt circuit (tht is, the current in L,) is lgging the voltge pplied to the resonnt circuit (tht is, the fundmentl component of the squre wve pplied by the hlfbridge circuit). The current crried by the power FETs is 8" section of this sine wve of current s illustrted in Fig. 2. From Fig. 2 it is seen tht no turnon switching losses exist in the FET becuse its inverse diode crries current nd the voltge cross the FET is zero before the FET conducts forwrd current. Note tht the inverse FET current is cused by the opposite FET turning off. For exmple, if the bottom FET in the hlfbridge turns off, the current tht ws in this FET is trnsiently mintined by the inductive ction of the resonnt inductor, which forces the current to come up through the upper FET in the inverse direction (i.e., through its inverse prsitic diode). Note lso tht once the current reverses due to the resonnt ction of the circuit, the inverse diode which ws conducting hs turnoff time t, equl to the forwrd conduction time of the power FET (see Fig. 2) before forwrd voltge is pplied to the diode. This fct results in no switching stresses being pplied to the diode, nd, in fct, the inverse prsitic diode ssocited with power FETs (or bipolr Drlington trnsistors if used) re of sufficient speed to be useful even t circuit operting frequencies of hundreds of khz. Therefore, min dvntge of operting bove reso nnce for the resonnt converters is tht there re no diode or FET switching losses nd the diode cn be of medium speed. Note, however, tht to chieve those dvntges the FETs must switch off current nd re therefore subject to turnoff switching losses. However, lossless snubbers cn simply be implemented by plcing smll snubber cpcitors directly cross the FET devices. No snubber dischrge resistors re needed. This cn be done becuse the cpcitor is never dischrged by turning the FET on but rther is dischrged by turning off the opposite FET in the hlfbridge. For exmple, when bottom FET turns off, cpcitor which is plced directly cross the upper FET will be dischrged by the lod current which will eventully be in the inverse prsitic diode of the upper FET. Note lso tht considerble switching losses in power FETs operting t higher frequencies re ctully due to storing energy in the FET drinsource nd dringte cpcitnces nd then dischrging these cpcitnces internlly (nd losing the ssocited energy) the next time the FET turns on. This loss cn be significnt t higher voltges nd frequencies. By operting the resonnt converters bove resonnce, this loss is eliminted by the sme rgument put forth in the previous prgrph concerning lossless snubbers. Tht is, the energy stored in ny cpcitnce directly cross the device is returned to the dc source by virtue of the opposite FET turning off. n ddition, the output nd input filter sizes re minimized becuse the frequency is limited to known lower limit (in opertion below resonnce the frequency is lowered to control output, nd therefore the filters must be designed for the lowest frequencies encountered). All of the forementioned dvntges re lost if the converter is operted below resonnce. Tht is, below resonnce opertion results in FET turnon switching losses, diode switching losses (highspeed diodes re needed), energy stored in device cpcitnces is dischrged nd lost internl to the FET's, nd the input nd output filters must be designed for the minimum switching frequency. FET turnoff does occur in lossless mnner when operting below resonnce. However, becuse turnoff losses cn be reduced using the lossless snubber technique when operting bove resonnce, this is not mjor rgument for operting the converter below resonnce. For ll of these resons, it is felt tht opertion of resonnt converters bove resonnce is the proper choice for most power supply pplictions operting t high frequencies. Therefore, the nlyses to follow re ll done for opertion bove resonnce. n the following sections n c nlysis technique is described, nd the chrcteristics of ech of the three resonnt converters when operting bove resonnce re derived nd compred. Further informtion cn be found in [ nd [2], which give detiled discussion nd nlysis of the prllelresonnt converter. n [3] detiled nlysis of the seriesresonnt converter is given. Smllsignl stbility considertions of resonnt converters re given in [4]. The combintion series/prllel resonnt converter is introduced in [5]. An nlysis of the combi
3 76 EEE TRANSACTONS ON POER ELECTRONCS, VOL. 3, NO. 2, APRL 988 ntion seriesprllel converter for the cse of opertion below resonnce is given in [6]. RESONANT CONVERTER CRCUT ANALYSS For the three resonnt converters considered here, the hlfbridge converter pplies squre wve of voltge to resonnt network. The resonnt network hs the effect of filtering the higher hrmonic voltges so tht, essentilly, sine wve of current ppers t the input to the resonnt circuit (this is true over most of the lod rnge of interest). This fct llows clssicl c nlysis techniques to be used. The nlysis proceeds s follows. The fundmentl component of the squre wve input voltge is pplied to the resonnt network, nd the resulting sine wves of current nd voltge in the resonnt circuit re computed using clssicl c nlysis. For rectifier with n inductor output filter, the sine wve voltge t the input to the rectifier is rectified, nd the verge vlue tken to rrive t the resulting dc output voltge. For cpcitive output filter, squre wve of voltge ppers t the input to the rectifier while sine wve of current is injected into the rectifier. For this cse the fundmentl component of the squre wve voltge is used in the c nlysis. t is importnt to note tht the power supply lod resistnce is not the sme lod resistnce which should be used in the c nlysis. The rectifier with its filter cts s n impednce trnsformer s fr s the resonnt circuit is concerned. This is due to the nonliner nture of the rectifier. Fig. 3 illustrtes the derivtion of the equivlent resistnce to use in loding the resonnt circuit when using n c nlysis. The prllel nd seriesprllel resonnt converters use n inductor output filter nd drive the rectifier with n equivlent voltge source (i.e., lowimpednce source provided by the resonnt cpcitor). A squre wve of current is drwn by the rectifier, nd its fundmentl component must be used in rriving t n equivlent c resistnce. For this cse, the equivlent c resistnce is given by Also given in the figure re the formuls for computing the fundmentl c components from the ctul circuit vlues. The seriesresonnt converter uses cpcitive output filter nd therefore drives the rectifier with current source. A squre wve of voltge ppers t the input to the rectifier. For this cse the equivlent c resistnce is given by  E, (rmr) 8 E, 8 RsC=  =   =  R L, (rmr) r2, r2 (b) Fig. 3. Equivlent c resistors s presented by rectifier lods. () Voltge source drive (pplies to prllel nd seriesprllel converters). (b) Current source drive (pplies to series converter). of ll the wveforms nd by loding the resonnt circuits with n equivlent resistnce which tkes into ccount the nonliner behvior of the output rectifiers. Anlysis of SeriesResonnt Converter By using the equivlent lod resistnce R,, nd the c nlysis technique derived erlier, the chrcteristics of the seriesresonnt converter will be derived. The equivlent c circuit of Fig. 4 will be used. The voltges designted by uppercse V's re the c fundmentl components present in the circuits. They will be converted to squre wves where pproprite t the end of the nlysis. By using the eqution for voltge divider, it is simple mtter to write down the c gin of the seriesresonnt circuit (see top of Fig. 4): V, (3) Also given in the figure re formuls for computing fundmentl c components from the ctul converter wveforms. n summry, clssicl c nlysis techniques cn be used to investigte the chrcteristics of the three resonnt converters by tking the fundmentl components Note tht V, is the fundmentl component of the squre wve of voltge pplied to the resonnt circuit by the inverter. This squre wve of voltge is, for the hlf bridge converter, of mgnitude EN/2 (see Fig. ). Becuse the input to the resonnt circuit is squre voltge wve nd the output is lso squre voltge wve, the converter gin in terms of ctul converter vlues is given by the
4 STEGERALD: HALFBRDGE RESONANT CONVERTER TOPOLOGES 77 () Note tht the uppercse E's refer to the dc voltges which ctully occur in the converter. Ed is the ctul squre wve voltge pplied to the resonnt circuit nd for the hlfbridge is equl to EN / 2. The previous eqution is plotted in Fig. 5 for five vlues of Q. These curves my be considered ccurte bove resonnce where the filtering ction of the resonnt circuit is sufficient to llow pproximte sine wves of current to be in the circuit even though squre wves of voltge excite the circuit. Anlysis of PrllelResonnt Converter A similr nlysis cn be cmed out for the prllelresonnt converter. Using the equivlent resistnce R,, from Fig. 3 nd the second equivlent circuit of Fig. 4, the c gin of the circuit is given by  (C) Fig. 4. AC equivlent circuits for resonnt converters. () Series loded. (b) Prllel loded. (c) Seriesprllel loded. for this cse (see Fig. 3) nd 'K vo = Eo 2Jz sme expression s before (the fctor relting the fundmentls to the squre wve mgnitudes cncel on the left side of the foregoing eqution): where Eo= Ed Now substituting the fct tht nd defining nd EN Ed =. 8 Rc =  R 'K2 Q= OL RL O =  JLC, (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) results in the expression for the converter gin finlly being given by where Defining where Q= RL OL O =  G9 (5) the dc gin of the prllel resonnt converter is finlly given by This eqution is plotted in Fig. 6. Note tht the mximum output occurs ner resonnce for Q's bove two or so nd tht the mximum output voltge cn be computed from (2) =
5 ~ 78 EEE TRANSACTONS ON POER ELECTRONCS, VOL. 3, NO. 2, APRL 988 nd using the fcts (see Fig. 3) 2Jz Eo =  Vo 7r nd the gin of the seriesprllel converter my be written s.4.6.) FREUENCYfRESONANT FREQUENCY Fig. 5. Seriesresonnt converter gin (vlid for frequencies t or bove resonnce only). As seen from the previous expression, the gin will depend on the choice of the rtio of Cp to Cs, which lso determines the prllel or seriesresonnt chrcteristics of the circuit. The choice of this rtio will be discussed lter. Here, the chrcteristic gin curves for two cses will be plotted. For Cp = Cs, the gin is given by f Cs = 2Cp, the gin is given by, FREOUENCYlRESONANTFREOUENCY Fig. 6. Prllelresonnt converter gin (vlid for frequencies t or bove resonnce only). Agin, these curves re ccurte bove resonnce where the resonnt circuit filters hrmonics of the input squre wves. Anlysis of SeriesPrllel Converter The nlysis of the seriesprllel resonnt converter proceeds in mnner similr to the erlier c nlyses lthough more lgebr is involved. Using clssicl c nlysis techniques, it cn be shown tht the gin of the third circuit of Fig. 4 is (using R,, from Fig. 3) Figs. 7 nd 8 show grphs of the previous two equtions. Ech curve is for different vlue of Q,, the series Q of the circuit. As seen, for series Q s bove three or four, the pek of the resonnt curves pper t pproximtely the sme frequency given by the resonnt frequency of the series cpcitor nd the series inductnce. n other words, for these vlues of series Q s, the lod resistnce is low enough to pproximtely short out the prllel resonnt cpcitor, which results in the circuit pproximfing seriesresonnt converter. As the converter is unloded, the series Q expression decreses nd the resonnt pek moves higher in frequency. This is due to the fct tht the equivlent resonnt cpcitnce t light lod is given by the prllel combintion of the series nd prllelresonnt cpcitors (see Fig. 4 for the cse when R,, is lrge). Finlly, t light lods nd no lod, the resonnt pek will occur t frequency given by Defining where Q = XL RL U, =  9) 2 Note tht s the series Q expression results in smller vlue, the prllel Q expression (which is equl to the reciprocl of the series Q expression) results in lrger vlue. Tht is, s the lod resistnce goes from smll vlue to lrge vlue, the circuit chrcteristics go from
6 STEGERALD: HALFBRDGE RESONANT CONVERTER TOPOLOGES 79 in mgnitude to 48 percent of the dc output current). This 5 is significnt disdvntge for pplictions with low out 2 2s put voltge nd high current. For this reson the series 3 cs = cp resonnt converter is not considered suitble for lowout O =  t  G putvoltge highoutputcurrent converters but rther is more suitble for highoutputvoltge lowoutputcurrent.75  converters. For the highoutputvoltge cse no mgnetic components re needed on the highvoltge side of the converter. The min dvntge of the converter is tht the seriesresonnt cpcitors on the primry side ct s dc block r ing cpcitor. Becuse of this fct the converter cn esily O O l 2 O be used in fullbridge rrngements without ny ddi FREOUENCYfSERlES RESONANT FREOUENCY Fig. 7. Combintion seriesprllel converter gin (vlid for frequencies t or bove resonnt peks only). U f p FREOUENCYlSERlES RESONANT FREOUENCY Fig. 8. Combintion seriesprllel converter gin (vlid for frequencies t or bove resonnt peks only). those of seriesresonnt to those of prllelresonnt converter. COMPARSON OF RESONANT CONVERTER TOPOLOGES n the following discussion the chrcteristics peculir to ech of the three resonnt converter topologies nlyzed will be discussed with view towrd selecting the proper converter for given ppliction. SeriesResonnt Converter The seriesresonnt converter (top of Fig. ) hs the min disdvntge tht the output voltge cnnot be regulted for the nolod cse. This cn be seen from the chrcteristic resonnt curves of Fig. 5. At Q =, for exmple, the curves hve very little selectivity, nd, in fct, t no lod the curve would simply be horizontl line. This mens tht this converter would only be used s is in pplictions where nolod regultion ws not required. A mens of getting some nolod regultion would be to turn the converter on nd off in time rtio control fshion t frequency much lower thn the resonnt frequency of the converter. Another disdvntge of this converter is tht the output dc filter cpcitor must crry high ripple current (equl tionl control to control unblnce in the power FET switching times or forwrd voltge drops (i.e., dc currents re kept out of the trnsformer). For this reson the seriesresonnt converter is suitble for highpower pplictions where fullbridge converter is desirble. Another dvntge of the seriesresonnt converter is tht the currents in the power devices decrese s the lod decreses. This dvntge llows the power device conduction losses (s well s other circuit losses) to decrese s the lod decreses, thus mintining high prt lod efficiency. As will be seen in the next section, this is not the cse for the prllelresonnt converter. Note tht if the converter is operting ner resonnce (i.e., t hevy lod) nd short circuit is pplied to the converter output, the current will rise to high vlues. To control the output current under such conditions, the frequency of the converter is rised by the control. Mking the converter short circuit proof is reltively esy becuse it tkes few resonnt cycles for the current to rise. This fct llows considerble time for the control circuit to tke ction. PrllelResonnt Converter The chrcteristic gin curves for the prllelresonnt converter re given in Fig. 6. From these curves it is seen tht, in contrst to the seriesresonnt converter, the converter is ble to control the output voltge t no lod by running t frequency bove resonnce. Note lso tht the output voltge t resonnce is function of lod nd cn rise to very high vlues t no lod if the operting frequency is not rised by the regultor. The min disdvntge of the prllelresonnt converter is tht the current crried by the power FETs nd resonnt components is reltively independent of lod. By wy of illustrtion, Fig. 9 shows clculted vlues of input current to the resonnt circuit (i.e., the current in the resonnt inductorwhich is lso in the power FETs) s function of lod resistnce. Also shown in the figure is the phse of the current reltive to the fundmentl of the squre wve of voltge pplied to the resonnt circuit nd the frequency of opertion. As seen, s the lod resistnce increses (lod decreses), the frequency of opertion increses to regulte the output voltge, but the current into the resonnt circuit stys reltively constnt. The consequence of this behvior is tht the conduction losses in
7 8 EEE TRANSACTONS ON POER ELECTRONCS, VOL. 3, NO. 2. APRL 988 llelresonnt converter extremely desirble for pplictions with severe short circuit requirements. L = i u~ To = 59 M c =. uf Fig. 9. Chrcteristics of prllelresonnt converter. the FETs nd the rective components sty reltively fixed s the lod decreses so tht the lightlod efficiency of the converter suffers. n ddition, this circulting current increses s the input dc voltge to the converter increses. Thus this converter is less thn idel for pplictions which hve lrge input voltge rnge nd which require it to operte considerbly below its mximum design power while mintining very high efficiency. Conversely, the converter is better suited to pplictions which run from reltively nrrow input voltge rnge (e.g., plus or minus 5 percent) nd which present more or less constnt lod to the converter ner the mximum design power (e.g., 75 percent of mximum design power). Of course, the power converter must be designed thermlly for the mximum power nd, therefore, hs no problem running t reduced power thermllyonly the prtlod efficiency is less thn the fulllod efficiency. The prllelresonnt converter is suitble for lowoutputvoltge highoutputcurrent pplictions. This is due to the fct tht the dc filter on the lowvoltgeoutput side of the trnsformer is of the inductor input type nd, therefore, dc output cpcitors cpble of crrying very high ripple currents re not needed. The inductor limits the ripple current crried by the output cpcitor. Note lso tht the trnsformer lekge inductnce could be used s the resonnt inductnce by plcing the resonnt cpcitor cross the totl spn of the secondry winding. This is normlly not idel for low output voltges becuse the cpcitor would hve to crry too much c current. However, for higher output voltge converters this plcement of the resonnt cpcitor my be desirble. Also, the resonnt cpcitor cn be plced on tertiry trnsformer winding. These lternte rrngements re discussed more fully in [ 3. The prllelresonnt converter is nturlly short circuit proof. This property cn be seen by pplying short directly cross the resonnt cpcitor. For tht cse, the entire squre wve voltge pplied by the inverter is directly cross the resonnt inductor nd, therefore, the current is limited by this impednce. This property mkes the pr Combintion SeriesPrllel Converter The combintion seriesprllel converter ttempts to tke dvntge of the best chrcteristics of the series nd the prllel converter while eliminting their wek points (lck of nolod regultion for the seriesresonnt converter nd circulting current independent of lod for the prllelresonnt converter). As will be shown, this gol is met by proper selection of the resonnt components but somewht wider frequency rnge of opertion is needed. By viewing the chrcteristic gin curves of Figs. 7 nd 8, it is cler tht the converter cn operte nd regulte t no lod provided tht the prllelresonnt cpcitor C, is not too smll (if C, is zero, then the circuit reverts to the seriesresonnt converter). t is seen tht the smller C, is, the less selectivity is vilble in the resonnt curves. Tht is, the converter resembles series converter more nd more s C, gets smller nd smller. However, for resonble vlues of C, the converter will clerly operte with no lod, which removes the min disdvntge of the seriesresonnt converter. n doing this, the converter tkes on some of the chrcteristics of the prllelresonnt converter. t is desirble tht the min disdvntge of the prllelresonnt converter (constnt circulting current independent of lod) not be present in this converter. This will be true but only for certin component vlues. This cn be seen in the clculted curves of Fig. which give the input current to the resonnt circuit (i.e., the current in the resonnt inductnce) s function of lod resistnce. As seen for these smple component vlues, the input current decreses s the lod decreses (resistnce increses) s desired. This curve my be compred with tht of Fig. 9 for the stright prllelresonnt converter. t ws noted tht for other vlues of the circuit components no current decrese ws chieved. The effect of decresing C, ws shown in Figs. 7 nd 8, respectively. As C, gets smller reltive to C,, the curves hve less selectivity. For exmple, if it is desirble to mintin the output voltge t normlized vlue of.6 t light lod of Q =, Fig. 7 shows tht the frequency of opertion needed is pproximtely.7. On the other hnd, Fig. 8 shows tht frequency of 2 is needed. n other words, s C, gets smller, the upper frequency needed t light lods increses. This is the limiting fctor in reducing C, to reduce circulting current. To hve the circulting current decrese with lod to mintin high prtlod efficiency, it is desirble to select the converter components so tht the full lod Q is in the neighborhood of 4 or 5. For these vlues of Q, the converter ppers essentilly s seriesresonnt converter nd the circulting current will decrese s the lod decreses. As the lod decreses further, the converter tkes on the chrcteristics of prllelresonnt converter, nd the circulting current no longer decreses with lod.
8 ~ ~ STEGERALD: HALFBRDGE RESONANT CONVERTER TOPOLOGES 8 L = ioopn c =. pl cz =. pf NPUT = VOLTS OUTPUT = VOLTS CURRENT FREQUENCY / NPUT CURRENT * LOAD RESSTANCE (OHMS) Fig.. Chrcteristics of combintion seriesprllel converter. NPUT = ZOOVDC ' OUTPUT = VDC TME = ps/dv FE CURRENT AND RESONANT NDUCTOR CURRENT NPUT = ZVDC OUTPUT = 5 VDC. 75 ATTS, / ' 25 NPUT = 2VDC OUTPUT = S VDC 225 ATTS TME = usidlv 2, *, w 2oov ' NPUT = zoo voc i ' TME = vsldlv 2v 4A  OA 5 52A Fig.. Bredbord wveforms. However, for the cse of C, = C, the circulting current decreses pproximtely 2 to s the lod decreses from its fulllod vlue. Becuse the losses due to the circulting current re proportionl to the squre of the current, the conduction losses re decresed 4 to over their full lod vlue. This decrese is sufficient to mintin good prtlod efficiency. Therefore, it is felt tht C, = C,, is good compromise design which gives good prtlod efficiency while llowing regulted opertion t no lod with resonble upper frequency.
9 82 EEE TRANSACTONS ON POER ELECTRONCS, VOL. 3, NO. 2, APRL 988 OUTPUT = 5VOLTS. 2  NPUT = 2 VOLTS CS = Cp =. pf, L = ph  M / / EFFCENCY, %., CS  Cp =. pf L = wrn,,, x NPUT CUPRENT (AMPS) /,  =  A EFFCENCY. % 2 PEAK TRANSSTOR CURRENT (AMPS) 6 M NPUT DC VOLTAGE (VOLTS) Fig. 3. Performnce of combintion seriesprllel converter bredbord. to the converter t pproximtely 7percent lod. As seen, these quntities remin pproximtely constnt s the input voltge vries. The frequency vried between pproximtely 25 nd 38 khz for lod vrition of output nd constnt 2V dc input. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSON An c nlysis method ws used to derive the chrcteristics of the hlfbridge seriesresonnt, prllelresonnt, nd seriesprllel resonnt dcdc converters for the cse of superresonnt opertion. Using these nlyticl results, s well s experimentl results, it ws shown tht the combintion seriesprllel converter tkes on the desirble chrcteristics of the pure series nd the pure prllel converter while removing the min disdvntges of those two converters. n prticulr, it ws shown tht the combintion seriesprllel converter cn run over lrge input voltge rnge nd lrge lod rnge (no lod to full lod) while mintining excellent efficiency. REFERENCES R. L. Steigenvld, High frequency resonnt trnsistor dcdc converters, EEE Trns. nd. Electron., vol. E3, pp. 89, My , Anlysis of resonnt trnsistor dcdc converter with cpcitive output filter, EEE Trns. nd. Electron., vol. E32, pp , Nov V. Volperin nd S. Cuk, A complete dc nlysis of the series resonnt converter, in EEE Power Electronics Specilists Con$ Rec., 982, pp V. Volperin, HighQ pproximtion in the smllsignl nlysis of resonnce converters, in EEE Power Electronics Specilists Conf. Rec., 985, pp D. V. Jones, Compct electricl power supply for signl processing pplictions, US Ptent 4,533,986, Aug. 6, 985. A. K. S. Bht nd S. B. Dewn, Anlysis nd design of high frequency resonnt converter using LCC type commuttion, in Conf. Rec. 986 EEE ndustry Applictions Society Annul Meeting, 986, pp EXPERMENTAL RESULTS A combintion seriesprllel converter (Fig. ) ws bredborded to verify the theoreticl predictions. A 48 ph resonnt inductor ws used. The prllel cpcitor nd equivlent series cpcitor were set equl to ech other (. pf). The circuit ws designed to deliver 25 to 5V lod. The input voltge ws 836 V dc. The curves of Fig. 7 were used in the design. Fig. gives mesured wveforms. These my be compred with the idel wveforms of Fig. 2. As seen, lossless turnon is demonstrted, nd the current wveforms re sinusoidl in nture. Fig. 2 gives the mesured efficiency (not counting the control power) nd the pek current to the resonnt circuit (i.e., the pek FET current or circulting current). As seen, the circulting current decreses with lod, which ccounts for the excellent holdup of efficiency t light lod. Fig. 3 gives the efficiency nd pek circulting current (pek trnsistor current) s function of input dc voltge Robert L. Steigerwld (S 66M 79SM 85) ws born in Auburn, NY. He received the B.S. degree in electricl engineering with distinction from Clrkson College of Technology, Potsdm, NY, in 967 nd the M.E.E. nd Ph.D. degrees from Rensseler Polytechnic nstitute, Troy, NY, in 968 nd 978, respectively. Since joining the Reserch Stff of Generl Electric Corporte Reserch nd Development in 968, he hs conducted reserch nd dvnced develooment of solidstte Dower conversion circuits employing thyristors, power trnsistors, nd gte turnoff thyristors (GTO s). He hs lso worked in the re of motor drives nd computer simultion of power circuits nd drive systems. His current interests include the development of highfrequency resonnt power supplies nd their controls, s well s the development of power integrted circuits nd their ppliction to power electronic systems. Prior to joining Corporte Reserch nd Development, he ws employed t the Generl Electric Semiconductor Products Deprtment where he developed highcurrent diodes nd SCR s. He hs published 22 ppers nd holds 46 ptents. Dr. Steigerwld is member of Et Kpp Nu.
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