Article Design and Experimental Study of a Current Transformer with a Stacked PCB Based on B-Dot

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Article Design and Experimental Study of a Current Transformer with a Stacked PCB Based on B-Dot"

Transcription

1 Article Design nd Experimentl Study of Current Trnsformer with Stcked PCB Bsed on B-Dot Jingng Wng 1, Dincheng Si 1, *, Tin Tin 2 nd Rn Ren 2 1 Stte Key Lbortory of Power Trnsmission Equipment nd System Security nd New Technology, Chongqing University, Chongqing 444, Chin; 2 Chongying Electric Power Design Institute, Chongying 41121, Chin; (T.T.); (R.R.) * Correspondence: or Tel.: Acdemic Editor: Vittorio M. N. Pssro Received: 15 Jnury 217; Accepted: 29 Mrch 217; Published: 1 April 217 Abstrct: An electronic current trnsformer with B-dot sensor is proposed in this study. The B-dot sensor cn relize the current mesurement of the trnsmission line in non-contct wy in ccordnce with the principle of mgnetic field coupling. The multiple electrodes series-opposing structure is pplied together with differentil input structures nd ctive integrting circuits, which cn llow the sensor to operte in differentil mode. Mxwell softwre is dopted to model nd simulte the sensor. Optimiztion of the sensor structurl prmeters is conducted through finite-element simultion. A test pltform is built to conduct the stedy-stte chrcteristic, on-off opertion, nd linerity tests for the designed current trnsformer under the power-frequency current. As shown by the test results, in contrst with trditionl electromgnetic CT, the designed current trnsformer cn chieve high ccurcy nd good phse-frequency; its linerity is lso very good t different distnces from the wire. The proposed current trnsformer provides new method for electricity lrceny prevention nd on-line monitoring of the power grid in n electric system, thereby stisfying the development demnds of the smrt power grid. Keywords: non-contct; mgnetic field coupling; current trnsformer; current monitoring 1. Introduction In power system, the ccurte mesurement of power-frequency current is n importnt pproch in ensuring the relible opertion of power distribution network. The ccurcy, convenience, nd speed of current trnsformers ply significnt role in electric energy mesurement, system monitoring nd dignosis, nd power system fult nlysis in smrt power grids. Given tht trditionl electromgnetic current trnsformers (CTs) contin n iron core, their ferromgnetic effect tends to produce liner sturtion nd ferromgnetic resonnce problems s well s insultion nd volume nd bndwidth response problems [1]. The method of current mesurement by using Rogowski coil hs been proposed [2,3], resulting in high mesurement ccurcy nd good trnsient response. However, this kind of method bsed on the Rogowski coil trgets high-frequency lightning current mesurements, pulse current mesurements, nd prtil dischrge mesurements on power cbles, nd the current loop to be mesured must pss through the coil [4 13]. Current mesurement methods bsed on the B-dot principle hve been studied [14 16], resulting in high mesurement ccurcy nd bndwidths reching MHz. A B-dot coil is ctully specil type of Rogowski coil tht clcultes the wire current vi retroduction by sensing the chnge of mgnetic field generted by the current-crrying wire. Compred with norml Rogowski coil, B-dot coil does not need to pss through the coil [17]. Most studies bsed on the B-dot principle Sensors 217, 17, 82; doi:1.339/s

2 Sensors 217, 17, 82 2 of 17 focus on high-frequency current mesurement (MHz, ka level) by sensor under the self-integrl stte, such s in lightening current nd plsm dischrge pulse current [18 21]. In comprison, only few studies hve exmined the performnce of B-dot sensors in mesuring currents in differentil mode. In the pper, B-dot sensor is proposed bsed on mgnetic field coupling, nd non-contct electronic current trnsformer with stcked printed circuit bord (PCB) is proposed. By nlyzing the working principle nd the working mode of the B-dot sensor nd its influencing fctors, method for differentil input nd multiple electrode series-opposing is introduced, with the im of designing trnsformer tht cn be operted in differentil mode for mesuring the power frequency current of power system. The proposed trnsformer hs the following dvntges: good phse-frequency chrcteristic, good linerity, simple structure, nd esy instlltion. It offers n lterntive for electricity lrceny prevention nd on-line monitoring of power grid in n electric system nd meets the development requirements of smrt power grids. 2. Principle of Current Mesurement 2.1. Principl for B-Dot The B-dot probe is Rogowski coil with specil structure, nd mesures the current indirectly by mesuring the chnging mgnetic field built by the chnging current [17]. The principle for the B-dot current mesurement is shown in Figure 1. r Figure 1. B-dot coil mgnetic field induction. Here, r is the distnce from the plne of the probe to the conductor, r is the rdius of the probe coil, S is the re enclosed by the probe coil, B is the mgnetic induction intensity generted by the current t given moment, nd R is pure resistnce. According to the lw of electromgnetic induction, when r << r, the induced probe voltge in the mgnetic field is given by To mke M ds 2 r, then et () d () di () dt 2 r dt ds (1) di() t et () M (2) dt In Eqution (1), coil mgnetic flux is ψ, S is the ctive re of the probe coil, nd r is the distnce from probe center to the electrified wire. From Eqution (2), the output voltge of the probe is proportionl to the differentil wire current. Thus, by clculting the integrl of the induced electromotive force of the probe, the wire current cn be clculted.

3 Sensors 217, 17, 82 3 of Sensor Design Bsed on the principle of B-dot coil current mesurement, the PCB ir-core coil sensor is designed. Its structure is shown in Figure 2. The top lyer coil is reversely connected in series with the corresponding bottom coil through vis, nd totl of eight ir-core coils re plced successively in series to form loop. Obviously, the electromotive force of the coils is superimposed in sequence. By pplying the Rogowski coil principle, the returning turn coils cn eliminte the interference mgnetic field from the externl environment [22]. In the present pper, the ide of the returning turn design is dopted. Hence, the d, d coils re dopted s compensting coils. When the sensor is subject to externl disturbnce in the mgnetic field, the d coil cn counterct the interference flux in the, b, c coils to certin extent. i(t) b b d d? c c 顶层 底层 Figure 2. Series-opposing structure of the printed circuit bord (PCB) ir-core coil. As shown in Figure 3, n ir-core coil is equivlent to N squre coils. Here, r is the distnce from the point on the coil to the wire, is the width of the outermost lyer of the ir-core coil, c is the distnce between the turns of the coil, d is the distnce from the outermost coil to the center of the wire, nd N is the number of turns of single ir-core coil. In Figure 2, the distnces of ech ir-core coil to the wire re given by d, db, dc, dd respectively, where db is equl to dc. I i(t) d c c I i(t) d+kc -2kc r dr b-2kc () single-core coil (b) clcultion of rectngulr coil flux Figure 3. Principle of mgnetic induction in single-core coil. According to the lw of electromgnetic induction, the flux of single turn coil in Figure 3b is given by

4 Sensors 217, 17, 82 4 of 17 () t B() t ds dbkc dkc S () it ( 2 kc) dr 2 r (3) The totl flux of single ir-core coil is expressed s it () dbkc n1 n1 () t ( 2 kc)ln( ) k k 2 d kc d() t et () dt From the mthemticl reltionship, we know tht when d =, the flux Φ will rech the mximum vlue, so the induced voltge is the mximum vlue. Induced electromotive force of PCB ir-core coil is given by et () e() t e() t e() t e() t (5) b c d n1 it () d kc db kc dd kc et ( ) ( 2 kc) ln( ) 2ln( ) ln( ) k d kc db kc dd kc (6) (4) 2.3. Sensor under Self-Integrting Mode As shown in Figure 4, when the vlue of smple resistnce R is smll nd 1/ωC >> R, then ic, nd ir i2, nd when the current chnge rte is lrger, nmely, when di2/dt is quite lrge, we hve di1 di2 M L (7) dt dt Then the smple resistnce voltge is expressed s M u i2r ir 1 (8) L Now, the output voltge of the smple resistnce is in direct proportion to the mesured current; here, coil self-inductnce L serves s n integrl. Hence, the externl integrting circuit is not required, becuse the circuit itself chieves integrl function. Such sttus is clled self-integrting sttus [11,13,14]. Under this sttus, the sensor is suitble for the mesurement of high-frequency current rther thn low-frequency current. i1 M e i2 r L ic ir C R u 2.4. Sensor under Differentil Mode Figure 4. Equivlent circuit of the sensor under self-integrting mode. When R is lrge (R >> r) nd the vrition of di2/dt is smll (reltively low-frequency), the PCB ir-core coil equivlent circuit is similr to pure resistnce circuit. At this time, the sensor output voltge is given by

5 Sensors 217, 17, 82 5 of 17 di () t (9) 1 u1 () t M dt At this moment, n integrting circuit must be connected to the sensor so tht the output voltge nd mesured current cn hve direct rtio with ech other. This kind of working condition is clled differentil sttus or externl integrl sttus. In Figure 5, the trnsfer function in the mesurement link is expressed s G 1 s U1 s Ms I1 s 2 L r LCs rc s 1 R R (1) The ctive integrl link is given by G 2 s u s R2 1 u s R R Cs (11) The trnsfer function of the whole system is given by 1 2 G s G s G s MR2 s R1 (12) 2 L r RCs 2 1LCs rc s 1 R R The trnsfer function is required to drw Bode figure, s shown in Figure 6. i 1 M i2 L r e i C c i R u R 1 R 1 OPA R 2 C u Figure 5. Equivlent circuit of the sensor with ctive integrl. O LG db 2 db/ dec 1 l RC 2 1 2lg RC 2 M MR MR 2lg 2lg RC 2 R r R r h db / dec 1 LC Figure 6. Amplitude-frequency chrcteristic of sensor with n ctive integrtor (lg is bse 1 logrithm). Bsed on R >> r, the system s upper nd lower cut-off frequency re simplified respectively s

6 Sensors 217, 17, 82 6 of 17 1 fl 2 RC 2 1 fh 2 LC (13) The frequency bnd is given by 1 1 f fh fl (14) 2 2 LC RC 2 In Eqution (13), the lower cut-off frequency of the system is determined by the feedbck resistnce R2 nd the integrl cpcitnce C, wheres the upper cut-off frequency is determined by the coil prmeters. The system sensitivity is given by MR2 1 M S G j (15) R R C RC In Eqution (14), the sensitivity of the system cn be improved by reducing R1, nd the lower cut-off frequency cn be reduced by incresing the R2. Therefore, the integrl link cn be utilized to properly djust the cut-off frequency. Using the Bode function of MATLAB softwre to nlyze the trnsfer function of the system, we find tht the upper cut-off frequency of the sensor cn rech MHz, nd the lower cut-off frequency is close to Hz. Therefore, when the sensor is operting in differentil mode, it cn meet the requirements of low frequency current mesurement, which is suitble for mesuring nd monitoring power frequency current Anti-Interference Sensor Anlysis Interference mgnetic field cn be decomposed into two components: prllel to the PCB bord nd perpendiculr to the PCB bord Mgnetic Field Component Prllel to the PCB Bord When the mgnetic field is prllel to the PCB bord, s shown in Figure 7, the direction of the mgnetic field is prllel to the ir-core coils, nd the mgnetic flux pssing through these coils is zero; hence, no induced electromotive force is generted. b b c d c d Interference mgnetic field component verticl to PCB bord () Interference mgnetic field component prllel to PCB bord (b) Interference mgnetic field component verticl to PCB bord Figure 7. Influence of the externl interference mgnetic field.

7 Sensors 217, 17, 82 7 of Mgnetic Field Component Verticl to the PCB Bord When the externl mgnetic field is uniform mgnetic field, the mgnetic fluxes through the four ir-core coils hve the sme size, nd the induced electromotive forces re equl in size nd opposite in direction. Due to the reverse series of the coils, the induced electromotive forces cncel ech other out, s shown in Figure 7b. Therefore, the ir-core coils cn resist the interference of the uniform mgnetic field. The externl interference current is tken s n exmple for this nlysis. When the externl mgnetic field is not uniform, the current in the plne of the PCB bord cn produce mgnetic field perpendiculr to the ir-core coils. As shown in Figure 8, the interference current i(t) is locted on the side of the PCB bord. The distnces of interference currents to ech ir-core coil re d, db, dc nd dd. The length of the outer coil is, the width is b, the turn pitch is c. Figure 8. The clcultions of interference mgnetic. According to Eqution (3), it () d kc (16) n1 () t ( 2 kc)ln( ) k 2 r d kc it () d kc (17) n1 b b() t ( 2 kc)ln( ) k 2 r db kc it () d kc (18) n1 c c () t ( 2 kc)ln( ) k 2 r dc kc it () d kc (19) n1 d d () t ( 2 kc)ln( ) k 2 r dd kc The totl flux generted by the interference current in the ir-core coil is () t 2[ () t () t () t ()] t (2) b c d In Figure 9, the mgnetic field intensity decys rpidly long the rdil direction of the wire, nd t distnce of.5 m from the wire, it decys to bout 3%. The influence of the mgnetic field generted by other wires cn be ignored when the other wires re wy from the wire to be mesured by more thn.5 m. The trnsmission lines re usully overhed lines in the opertion of the power system, nd the wire spcing is much lrger thn.5 m. Therefore, the mesurement ccurcy cn be chieved s long s the distnce is mintined. Once the PCB ir-core coil sensor is pplied in more complex scenes, the djcent phse interference must be considered.

8 Sensors 217, 17, 82 8 of Design of the Current Trnsformer Figure 9. Mgnetic field curve round the wire in 1 A Sensor Optimiztion Bsed on Finite Element Simultion The Ansoft Mxwell softwre is used to build the model of the conducting wire. The wire rdius is set to 2.5 mm, nd the current is set to 1 A. The vrition curve of the mgnetic field intensity round the wire is shown in Figure 9. As cn be seen, the mgnetic field intensity decys rpidly long the rdil direction of the wire. At the distnce of.5 m from the wire, it decys to bout 3% of the mximum vlue. Therefore, when the current is mesured by the sensor, the mesuring points should be in the vicinity of the conductor region. According to Eqution (7), mjor fctors influencing the sensor mutul induction coefficient re coil length, distnce between turns, nd the number of turns. Coil length nd number of turns cn influence the PCB size, wheres the distnce between turns cn ffect the frequency response of the sensor. Finite element in Ansoft Mxwell softwre is pplied to optimize the bove prmeters nd gurntee proper mutul induction coefficient. The simultion settings re s follows: connecting trnsmission wire of 5 m with current of 5 Hz nd 1 A, wire rdius of 2.5 mm, region size tht is 3% of the clcultion model, nd border region clcultion of to simulte the sitution wherein the mgnetic field t the infinite point is, s shown in Figure 1. Bsed on the simultion, the model is further optimized nd improved to obtin higher voltge output. The distribution of the mgnetic field is shown in Figure 11. The clcultion of the mgnetic flux density of the sensor coil is performed by using the Mxwell softwre. Then, the output voltge of the sensor is clculted bsed on the flux dt obtined. After considering ll the prmeters nd the output voltge, set of suitble prmeters is selected to determine the structure of PCB ir-core coil. The coil prmeters re shown in Tble 1. Figure 1. Finite element clcultion model.

9 Sensors 217, 17, 82 9 of 17 b d c Figure 11. PCB ir-core coil mgnetic simultion clcultion. Tble 1. Design prmeters for single-lyer PCB ir-core coil structure. Coil Number of Turns (n) Length (cm) Electrode Width (mil) Distnce Between Electrodes (mil) Bsed on the prmeters, the totl mgnetic flux of the coil in, b, c, d, which re obtined from the simultion re , , nd Wb, respectively. Thus, the totl mgnetic influx of the CT bsed on PCB plnr-type ir-core coil is given by The mutul induction efficient is expressed s b c d Wb M. (21) I The output voltge of the whole trnsformer is given by di( t) d1sin(1 t) et () M M Amplitude: E 4.3 mv dt dt Finlly, the PCB ir-core coil sensor is fbricted by clculting the coil prmeters [23]. The impednce of the sensor coil itself is mesured by using Agilent 4294A (Agilent Technologies Inc., Snt Clr, CA, USA), s shown in Figure 12. Mesurement is done within the scope of 4 Hz to 4 MHz. The induction nd cpcitnce prmeters hve certin fluctutions. The result is shown in Tble 2. Figure 12. Prmeter mesurement of the PCB ir-core coil sensor.

10 Sensors 217, 17, 82 1 of 17 Tble 2. Inner impednce prmeter of PCB ir-core coil. PCB Air-core coil Resistnce Induction Fluctuting Devition Cpcitnce Fluctuting Devition Ω μh 5 μh 37.2 pf 8 pf 3.2. Device Design for the Electronic Trnsformer In considertion of the low output voltge of the single-block PCB sensor, multi-block PCBs re connected in series to improve output voltge [24]. The trnsformer structure is designed s shown in Figure 13, nd consists of the sensor, signl cquisition unit, nd signl processing unit. The output signl of the sensor is collected by circuit with differentil mplifying structure [25,26]. The differentil mplifier circuit is minly composed of differentil mplifier AD62 (Anlog Devices Inc., Norwood, MA, USA) nd gin resistor. The AD62 performs differentil opertion on the output signl to remove the common-mode signl with the sme polrity in the interfering signl. Simultneously, the differentil mode signl with opposite polrity is mplified, nd this differentil mode signl is useful signl we wnt to obtin. This not only increses the output of the trnsformer, but lso restrins the common mode interference, such s high-frequency noise signl. Figure 13. A model of the current trnsformer structure. For the integrl link, n ctive integrtor with n inertil element cts s circuit for restoring the originl signl. When mesuring the current of the high-voltge trnsmission line, s n electronic trnsformer, introducing the AD module nd WIFI technology is convenient, fter which the dt is sent to the remote terminl using WIFI technology. 4. Test Result Anlysis 4.1. Test Pltform A current test pltform is built to simulte the current mesurement environment of the power distribution network. The structure of the pltform is shown in Figure 14. Both the trditionl electromgnetic current trnsformer (CT, HL-3,.2 level) [27], nd the designed trnsformer re used t the sme time to conduct current mesurement for the power wire in the pltform. Here, the WIFI technology is no longer needed becuse of the low power output. Frequency Power Power line CT Power Lod PCB current trnsformer Signl cquisition circuit Oscilloscope Figure 14. Test pltform structure.

11 Sensors 217, 17, of 17 The test pltform is shown s Figures 15 nd 16; it uses the progrm-controlled convertor (type: JJ98DD53D, Shndong Jingjiu Science nd Technology Co., Ltd., Jinn, Chin) s the power supply nd the high-power resistnce is considered the lod. The oscilloscope (Tektronix, DPO214B, Beverton, OR, USA) is pplied s wveform disply nd mesuring equipment. The CT is used s the mesurement stndrd to relize the clibrtion of the designed trnsformer. The mplitude, phse position, nd wveform re compred to verify the performnce of the designed trnsformer. Vrible frequency power supply Oscilloscope High power lod Sensor CT DC power supply Figure 15. Test pltform. Figure 16. Sensor test physicl picture Stedy-Stte Performnce Test On the bove test pltform, the sensor is fixed bove the wire, nd the verticl reltive distnce D is kept invrint, s shown in Figure 14. The current output is djusted grdully. In ddition, the secondry CT is connected to resistive lod for I-V conversion. The output wveform of the designed trnsformer nd the CT is displyed vi oscilloscope, s shown in Figure 17. The oscilloscope chnnel 1 shows the output wveform of the designed trnsformer, wheres chnnel 2 shows the CT output wveform. ()

12 Sensors 217, 17, of 17 (b) (c) Figure 17. The stedy stte wveform of the designed trnsformer nd the current trnsformer (CT). () f = 5 Hz, I = 1 A, D = 5 mm; (b) f = 5 Hz, I = 23 A, D = 5 mm; (c) f = 15 Hz, I = 9 A, D = 5 mm. In Figure 17, the output wveform of the trnsformer is bsiclly the sme s tht of the CT, which indictes tht the trnsformer hs good stedy-stte response chrcteristics. If φ <, the phse of the designed trnsformer s output voltge is delyed. As stipulted in IEC Stndrd [28], rtio error ε% nd phse position difference φ re respectively defined s KU n s Ip % 1%, (22) I p. (23) s p Here, Us is the output voltge of the designed trnsformer, Kn is the rted trnsformtion rtio, Ip is the current in the wire, φp is the phse position of the designed trnsformer, nd φs is the phse position of the stndrd CT. First, we djust the power to current chnges between A nd 4 A; then, when the output current chnges, the mplitude nd frequency of both the CT nd the trnsformer output voltge re recorded, nd the wveform is sved. Finlly, the experimentl dt re collted, nd the rtio difference nd phse difference of the trnsformer re clculted. The results re shown in Tble 3. In this Tble, In is the rted current, Im is the wire current, nd Up is the output voltge of the trnsformer. Tble 3. Accurcy mesurement for the current trnsformer (D = 1 mm). Mesuring Point Im/A Up/mv ε %(±) φ/( ) 2% In % In % In % In % In % In % In % In % In

13 Sensors 217, 17, of 17 The results bove show the following: 1) In Tble 3, within the rted current rnge from 2% to 12%, the trnsformer rtio error ε% <.9%, nd the phse difference φ < 3. Thus, the designed trnsformer hs high mesurement ccurcy. 2) In Figure 17 nd Tble 3, smll error cn be found in the phse position, which my be due to the prsitic cpcitnce between the coils nd the resulting coil inductnce Linerity Test On the test pltform, the linerity performnce is tested. The test is done vi three steps: 1) djust the distnce from the sensor (PCB bord) to the wire, tking 5 mm s unit (chnge the height of lifting column in Figure 16); 2) grdully djust the output current from A to 4 A; nd 3) record the dt. The experimentl dt when the distnce D is 5 mm re shown in Tble 4. Tble 4. Output voltge of the trnsformer under different currents (D = 5 mm, f = 5 Hz). Uc/mV Up/mV I/A Uc/mV Up/mV I/A In fitting the experimentl dt of trnsformer nd CT, the horizontl xis represents the output voltge of the trnsformer, wheres the verticl xis represents the CT. The fitting curve is shown in Figure 18. The rtio of the liner fitting curve is the correction fctor of the trnsformer error. D=5mm 4. D=1mm U p /V U p /V U c /V U p /V () 5 mm 3. D=15mm U p /V...4 U c /V (b) 1 mm 2. D=2mm U c /V (c) 15 mm...4 U c /V (d) 2 mm

14 Sensors 217, 17, of D=25mm 1. D=3mm 1. U p /V U p /V U c /V (e) 25 mm U c /V (f) 3 mm Figure 18. Curve fitting of current t different distnces Moreover, linerity is tested when D hs the vlues of 1, 15, 2, 25, nd 3 mm. The dt re shown in Tble 5. Tble 5. Trnsformer fitting dt under vrious distnces. Dstnce/D Fitting Correction Coefficient Congruence Men Error Mximum Phse Difference φ ( ) 5 mm mm mm mm mm mm The test results show the following: (1) As shown in Figure 18, ech point is extremely close to the fitting line, which indictes good linerity of the designed trnsformer. (2) In Tble 5, the designed trnsformer mintins smll phse error t different distnces. However, s cn be seen in Tble 5, the first-order fitting correction fctor with the CT is grdully reduced. This finding mens tht when the distnce from the designed trnsformer to the wire becomes closer, the trnsformer linerity lso improves. However, s the distnce increses, the phse error tends to enlrge. Chnces re tht when the distnce is closer, the mgnetic induction line through the sensor is denser, nd then the impct of interference on the environment surrounding the sensor becomes reltively wek. When the distnce is fr, the sensor becomes more susceptible On-off Opertion Test On the test pltform, the trnsient performnce of the designed trnsformer is tested under the on-off stte. The sensor is fixed bove the wire, nd the reltive position remins constnt. Under different current levels, the power is switched off suddenly so s to cut off the current, then the oscilloscope is used to record the wveform response of voltge ttenution for both the designed trnsformer nd the CT.

15 Sensors 217, 17, of 17 Figure 19. Switching trnsient wveform (I = 3 A, D = 5 mm, f = 5 Hz). In Figure 19, the results show tht the output wveform of the trnsformer closely follows the chnge of current, nd its output voltge is reduced within certin period to 1% of the pek before the fult in very short period of time. Furthermore, the wveform no longer fluctutes. Therefore, the designed trnsformer cn effectively reflect nd trck the chnges in the current in the wire Frequency Test This experiment is done to verify the performnce of the trnsformer under different frequencies. According to the nlysis of the test dt of the linerity of the trnsformer, the smller distnce D hs smller phse error, so the selected distnce for testing is set to is 5 mm. The corresponding dt liner fitting is shown in Figure 2. U p /V 2 45Hz 5Hz 55Hz 6Hz 15 65Hz 7Hz 1Hz U c /V Figure 2. Voltge fitted curve under different frequencies In Figure 2, the output voltge of the designed trnsformer hs good linerity under different frequencies. This finding mens tht the trnsformer hs good frequency response under low frequency. Limited by the output power nd frequency of the power supply, there is no longer need to conduct more performnce tests of the designed trnsformer t higher current nd higher frequency. 5. Conclusion nd Future Prospects In this pper, by studying the reltionship between the current in the wire nd its surrounding mgnetic field, non-contct electronic current trnsformer bsed on the mgnetic field coupling principle is proposed. According to the experimentl results, compred with the trditionl CT, when the designed trnsformer is used to mesure the power frequency current, the results

16 Sensors 217, 17, of 17 demonstrte tht it hs very good stedy-stte nd trnsient chrcteristics s well s high ccurcy. At the sme time, the results show tht it hs excellent linerity when the mesuring distnce is chnging. In ddition, the current trnsformer hs good ccurcy nd smll phse error. In further studies, more performnce tests of the designed trnsformer shll be crried out t higher currents nd higher frequencies. To improve the nti-interference cpcity of the sensor, reserch on phse compenstion to the sensor will lso be done, long with n investigtion into the structurl optimiztion of the sensor. Acknowledgments: This work ws supported by nd the Ntionl Nturl Science Foundtions of Chin (Grnt No ). Author Contributions: Jingng Wng is the hed of the reserch group tht conducted this study, nd he proposed the improved structure of the sensor. Rn Ren nd Tin Tin conducted experimentl dt collection. Dincheng Si minly crried on the simultion of sensors, dt nlysis, the design of the hrdwre circuit, nd the min writing of the mnuscript. And ll uthors contributed to the writing nd revision of the mnuscript. Conflicts of Interest: The uthors declre no conflict of interest. References nd Notes 1. Wng, Z.; Zhng, X.; Wng, F.; Ln, X.; Zhou, Y. Effects of ging on the structurl, mechnicl, nd therml properties of the silicone rubber current trnsformer insultion bushing for 5 kv substtion. SpringerPlus 216, 5, Ymmoto, K.; Ued, N.; Ametni, A.; Ntsuno, D. A Study of Lightning Current Distribution t Wind Turbine Foot: Influence on Current Mesurements Using Rogowski Coil. Electr. Eng. Jpn. 212, 18, Metwlly, I.A. Tpe-wound Rogowski coil for mesuring lrge-mgnitude pulsed currents. Instrum. Exp. Tech. 216, 59, Ardil-Rey, J.A.; Albrrcín, R.; Álvrez, F.; Brrueto, A. A vlidtion of the spectrl power clustering technique (SPCT) by using Rogowski Coil in prtil dischrge mesurements. Sensors 215, 15, Metwlly, I.A. Self-Integrting Rogowski Coil for High-Impulse Current Mesurement. IEEE Trns. Instrum. Mes. 21, 59, Yutthgowith, P.; Pttndech, N.; Kunkorn, A.; Leeljindkrirerk, M. Design nd construction of Rogowski s coil with compensted RC integrtors for mesuring impulse current. In Proceedings ot the Interntionl Power Engineering Conference (IPEC 27), Singpore, 3 6 December 27; pp Liu, Y.; Lin, F.; Zhng, Q.; Zhong, H. Design nd construction of Rogowski coil for mesuring wide pulse current. IEEE Sens. J. 211, 11, Moonmirt, P.; Kunkorn, A.; Yutthgowith, P. A wide bndwidth Rogowski coil with n ctive integrtor for mesurement of impulse currents. In Proceedings of the Asi-Pcific Interntionl Conference on Lightning (APL 213), Seoul, Kore, June 213; pp Liu, Y.; Xie, X.; Hu, Y.; Qin, Y.; Sheng, G.; Jing, X. A novel trnsient fult current sensor bsed on the PCB Rogowski Coil for overhed trnsmission lines. Sensors 216, 16, Shfiq, M.; Kutt, L.; Lehtonen, M.; Nieminen, T.; Hshmi, M. Prmeters Identifiction nd Modeling of High-Frequency Current Trnsducer for Prtil Dischrge Mesurements. IEEE Sens. J. 213, 13, Moreno, M.V.R.; Robles, G.; Albrrcín, R.; Rey, J.A.; Trif, J.M.M. Study on the self-integrtion of Rogowski coil used in the mesurement of prtil dischrges pulses. Electr. Eng. 216, 1 1, doi:1.17/s Mrrcci, M.; Tellini, B. Anlysis of precision Rogowski coil vi nlyticl method nd effective cross section prmeter. In Proceedings of the 216 IEEE Interntionl Instrumenttion nd Mesurement Technology Conference (I2MTC), Tipei, Tiwn, My 216; pp Metwlly I A. Multi-lyer self-integrting Rogowski coils for high pulsed current mesurement. Instrum. Exp. Tech. 215, 58, Yo, C.; Xio, Q.; Mi, Y.; Yun, T.; Li, C.; Sim, W. Contctless Mesurement of Lightning Current Using Self-integrting B-dot Probe. IEEE Trns. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 211, 18, Zhng, H.; Xi, L; Shen, Y.; Li, Q.; Wng, Y.; Zhng, L.; Liu, K. Anlysis nd Process of B-Dot Wveformsin High-Current Injector. IEEE Trns. Plsm Sci. 216, 44,

17 Sensors 217, 17, of Huiskmp, T.; Beckers, F.J.C.M.; vn Heesch, E.J.M.; Pemen, A.J.M. B-Dot nd D-Dot Sensors for (Sub)Nnosecond High-Voltge nd High-Current Pulse Mesurements. IEEE Sens. J. 216, 16, Ahmd, A.A.; Robert, A.S. Clibrtion of Electromgnetic Dot Sensor Prt 2: B-dot Mode. IEEE Sens. J. 214, 14, Hrdin, R. Mgnetic Field Genertion nd B-dot Sensor Chrcteriztion in the High Frequency Bnd. Mster s Thesis, Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Ptterson AFB, OH, USA, Mrch Wgoner, T.C.; Stygr, W.A.; Ives, H.C.; Gillilnd, T.L.; Spielmn, R.B.; Johnson, M.F.; Reynolds, P.G.; Moore, J.K.; Mourning, R.L.; Fehl, D.L.; et l. Differentil-output B-dot nd D-dot monitors for current nd voltge mesurements on 2-MA, 3-MV pulsed-power ccelertor. Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Bems 28, 11, Lne, B.; Cmpbell, C.; Swd, I.; Ventzek, P.L.G. Mesurement of sptil nd temporl evolution of electromgnetic fields in 1 MHz plsm source using B-dot nd double dipole probes. J. Vc. Sci. Technol. A 216, 34, He, J.; Guo, R.; Mesurement of rc velocity in rotting-rc pulsed-power switch bsed on B-dot probes. IEEE Trns. Plsm Sci. 21, 38, To, T.; Zho, Z.; Pn, Q.; Tng, J.; Zhng, Y. Design of PCB Rogowski coil nd nlysis of nti-interference. Dingong Jishu Xuebo/Trns. Chin. Electrotech. Soc. 211, 26, Wng, R.; Prbhkrn, S.; Burdick, W.; Rymond, N. Rogowski current sensor design nd nlysis bsed on printed circuit bords (PCB) In Proceedings of the 214 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress nd Exposition (ECCE), Pittsburgh, PA, USA,14 18 September 214, pp Bschirotto, A.; Dllgo, E.; Mlcovti, P.; Mrchesi, M.; Venchi, G; Rossini, A. Multilyer PCB Plnr Fluxgte Mgnetic Sensor. In Proceedings of the 26 Ph.D. Reserch in Microelectronics nd Electronics (PRIME), Otrnto, Itly, June 26; pp Kubo, T.; Furukw, T.; Itoh, H.; Hiso, W.; Wkuy, H. Numericl electric field nlysis of power sttus sensor observing power distribution system tking into ccount mesurement circuit nd pprtus. In Proceedings of the SICE Annul Conference, Tokyo, Jpn, September 211; pp Koziy, K.; Bei, G.; Aslkson, J. A low-cost power qulity meter with series rc-fult detection cpbility for smrt grid. IEEE Trns. Power Deliv. 213, 28, GB , Current Trnsformers; Ntionl Bureu of Qulity Inspection, Beijing, Chin, IEC , Prt 8: Electronic Current Trnsformers; Interntionl Electrotechnicl Commission: Genev, Switzerlnd, by the uthors. Licensee MDPI, Bsel, Switzerlnd. This rticle is n open ccess rticle distributed under the terms nd conditions of the Cretive Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (

Experiment 3: Non-Ideal Operational Amplifiers

Experiment 3: Non-Ideal Operational Amplifiers Experiment 3: Non-Idel Opertionl Amplifiers Fll 2009 Equivlent Circuits The bsic ssumptions for n idel opertionl mplifier re n infinite differentil gin ( d ), n infinite input resistnce (R i ), zero output

More information

Exercise 1-1. The Sine Wave EXERCISE OBJECTIVE DISCUSSION OUTLINE. Relationship between a rotating phasor and a sine wave DISCUSSION

Exercise 1-1. The Sine Wave EXERCISE OBJECTIVE DISCUSSION OUTLINE. Relationship between a rotating phasor and a sine wave DISCUSSION Exercise 1-1 The Sine Wve EXERCISE OBJECTIVE When you hve completed this exercise, you will be fmilir with the notion of sine wve nd how it cn be expressed s phsor rotting round the center of circle. You

More information

Experiment 3: Non-Ideal Operational Amplifiers

Experiment 3: Non-Ideal Operational Amplifiers Experiment 3: Non-Idel Opertionl Amplifiers 9/11/06 Equivlent Circuits The bsic ssumptions for n idel opertionl mplifier re n infinite differentil gin ( d ), n infinite input resistnce (R i ), zero output

More information

Synchronous Machine Parameter Measurement

Synchronous Machine Parameter Measurement Synchronous Mchine Prmeter Mesurement 1 Synchronous Mchine Prmeter Mesurement Introduction Wound field synchronous mchines re mostly used for power genertion but lso re well suited for motor pplictions

More information

Synchronous Machine Parameter Measurement

Synchronous Machine Parameter Measurement Synchronous Mchine Prmeter Mesurement 1 Synchronous Mchine Prmeter Mesurement Introduction Wound field synchronous mchines re mostly used for power genertion but lso re well suited for motor pplictions

More information

Study on SLT calibration method of 2-port waveguide DUT

Study on SLT calibration method of 2-port waveguide DUT Interntionl Conference on Advnced Electronic cience nd Technology (AET 206) tudy on LT clibrtion method of 2-port wveguide DUT Wenqing Luo, Anyong Hu, Ki Liu nd Xi Chen chool of Electronics nd Informtion

More information

A Novel Back EMF Zero Crossing Detection of Brushless DC Motor Based on PWM

A Novel Back EMF Zero Crossing Detection of Brushless DC Motor Based on PWM A ovel Bck EMF Zero Crossing Detection of Brushless DC Motor Bsed on PWM Zhu Bo-peng Wei Hi-feng School of Electricl nd Informtion, Jingsu niversity of Science nd Technology, Zhenjing 1003 Chin) Abstrct:

More information

Lab 8. Speed Control of a D.C. motor. The Motor Drive

Lab 8. Speed Control of a D.C. motor. The Motor Drive Lb 8. Speed Control of D.C. motor The Motor Drive Motor Speed Control Project 1. Generte PWM wveform 2. Amplify the wveform to drive the motor 3. Mesure motor speed 4. Mesure motor prmeters 5. Control

More information

Investigation of Ground Frequency Characteristics

Investigation of Ground Frequency Characteristics Journl of Electromgnetic Anlysis nd Applictions, 03, 5, 3-37 http://dx.doi.org/0.436/jem.03.58050 Published Online August 03 (http://www.scirp.org/journl/jem) Mohmed Nyel Electricl Engineering Deprtment,

More information

EET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 5 Control of a Separately Excited DC Machine

EET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 5 Control of a Separately Excited DC Machine EE 438 Automtic Control Systems echnology bortory 5 Control of Seprtely Excited DC Mchine Objective: Apply proportionl controller to n electromechnicl system nd observe the effects tht feedbck control

More information

(CATALYST GROUP) B"sic Electric"l Engineering

(CATALYST GROUP) Bsic Electricl Engineering (CATALYST GROUP) B"sic Electric"l Engineering 1. Kirchhoff s current l"w st"tes th"t (") net current flow "t the junction is positive (b) Hebr"ic sum of the currents meeting "t the junction is zero (c)

More information

Compared to generators DC MOTORS. Back e.m.f. Back e.m.f. Example. Example. The construction of a d.c. motor is the same as a d.c. generator.

Compared to generators DC MOTORS. Back e.m.f. Back e.m.f. Example. Example. The construction of a d.c. motor is the same as a d.c. generator. Compred to genertors DC MOTORS Prepred by Engr. JP Timol Reference: Electricl nd Electronic Principles nd Technology The construction of d.c. motor is the sme s d.c. genertor. the generted e.m.f. is less

More information

Fuzzy Logic Controller for Three Phase PWM AC-DC Converter

Fuzzy Logic Controller for Three Phase PWM AC-DC Converter Journl of Electrotechnology, Electricl Engineering nd Mngement (2017) Vol. 1, Number 1 Clusius Scientific Press, Cnd Fuzzy Logic Controller for Three Phse PWM AC-DC Converter Min Muhmmd Kml1,, Husn Ali2,b

More information

Passive and Active Hybrid Integrated EMI Filters

Passive and Active Hybrid Integrated EMI Filters Pssive nd Active Hybrid Integrted EMI Filters J. Biel, A. Wirthmueller, R. Wespe, M.. Heldwein, J. W. Kolr Power Electronic Systems bortory Swiss Federl Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerlnd Emil:

More information

A Development of Earthing-Resistance-Estimation Instrument

A Development of Earthing-Resistance-Estimation Instrument A Development of Erthing-Resistnce-Estimtion Instrument HITOSHI KIJIMA Abstrct: - Whenever erth construction work is done, the implnted number nd depth of electrodes hve to be estimted in order to obtin

More information

MEASURE THE CHARACTERISTIC CURVES RELEVANT TO AN NPN TRANSISTOR

MEASURE THE CHARACTERISTIC CURVES RELEVANT TO AN NPN TRANSISTOR Electricity Electronics Bipolr Trnsistors MEASURE THE HARATERISTI URVES RELEVANT TO AN NPN TRANSISTOR Mesure the input chrcteristic, i.e. the bse current IB s function of the bse emitter voltge UBE. Mesure

More information

Simulation of Transformer Based Z-Source Inverter to Obtain High Voltage Boost Ability

Simulation of Transformer Based Z-Source Inverter to Obtain High Voltage Boost Ability Interntionl Journl of cience, Engineering nd Technology Reserch (IJETR), olume 4, Issue 1, October 15 imultion of Trnsformer Bsed Z-ource Inverter to Obtin High oltge Boost Ability A.hnmugpriy 1, M.Ishwry

More information

Module 9. DC Machines. Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur

Module 9. DC Machines. Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur Module 9 DC Mchines Version EE IIT, Khrgpur esson 40 osses, Efficiency nd Testing of D.C. Mchines Version EE IIT, Khrgpur Contents 40 osses, efficiency nd testing of D.C. mchines (esson-40) 4 40.1 Gols

More information

5 I. T cu2. T use in modem computing systems, it is desirable to. A Comparison of Half-Bridge Resonant Converter Topologies

5 I. T cu2. T use in modem computing systems, it is desirable to. A Comparison of Half-Bridge Resonant Converter Topologies 74 EEE TRANSACTONS ON POER ELECTRONCS, VOL. 3, NO. 2, APRL 988 A Comprison of Hlf-Bridge Resonnt Converter Topologies Abstrct-The hlf-bridge series-resonnt, prllel-resonnt, nd combintion series-prllel

More information

Synchronous Generator Line Synchronization

Synchronous Generator Line Synchronization Synchronous Genertor Line Synchroniztion 1 Synchronous Genertor Line Synchroniztion Introduction One issue in power genertion is synchronous genertor strting. Typiclly, synchronous genertor is connected

More information

CHAPTER 3 AMPLIFIER DESIGN TECHNIQUES

CHAPTER 3 AMPLIFIER DESIGN TECHNIQUES CHAPTER 3 AMPLIFIER DEIGN TECHNIQUE 3.0 Introduction olid-stte microwve mplifiers ply n importnt role in communiction where it hs different pplictions, including low noise, high gin, nd high power mplifiers.

More information

ABB STOTZ-KONTAKT. ABB i-bus EIB Current Module SM/S Intelligent Installation Systems. User Manual SM/S In = 16 A AC Un = 230 V AC

ABB STOTZ-KONTAKT. ABB i-bus EIB Current Module SM/S Intelligent Installation Systems. User Manual SM/S In = 16 A AC Un = 230 V AC User Mnul ntelligent nstlltion Systems A B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 30 ma 30 ma n = AC Un = 230 V AC 30 ma 9 10 11 12 C ABB STOTZ-KONTAKT Appliction Softwre Current Vlue Threshold/1 Contents Pge 1 Device Chrcteristics...

More information

Nevery electronic device, since all the semiconductor

Nevery electronic device, since all the semiconductor Proceedings of Interntionl Joint Conference on Neurl Networks, Orlndo, Florid, USA, August 12-17, 2007 A Self-tuning for Rel-time Voltge Regultion Weiming Li, Xio-Hu Yu Abstrct In this reserch, self-tuning

More information

Design and Modeling of Substrate Integrated Waveguide based Antenna to Study the Effect of Different Dielectric Materials

Design and Modeling of Substrate Integrated Waveguide based Antenna to Study the Effect of Different Dielectric Materials Design nd Modeling of Substrte Integrted Wveguide bsed Antenn to Study the Effect of Different Dielectric Mterils Jgmeet Kour 1, Gurpdm Singh 1, Sndeep Ary 2 1Deprtment of Electronics nd Communiction Engineering,

More information

Design And Implementation Of Luo Converter For Electric Vehicle Applications

Design And Implementation Of Luo Converter For Electric Vehicle Applications Design And Implementtion Of Luo Converter For Electric Vehicle Applictions A.Mnikndn #1, N.Vdivel #2 ME (Power Electronics nd Drives) Deprtment of Electricl nd Electronics Engineering Sri Shkthi Institute

More information

The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points:

The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points: Exercise 4 Bttery Chrging Methods EXERCISE OBJECTIVE When you hve completed this exercise, you will be fmilir with the different chrging methods nd chrge-control techniques commonly used when chrging Ni-MI

More information

Interference Cancellation Method without Feedback Amount for Three Users Interference Channel

Interference Cancellation Method without Feedback Amount for Three Users Interference Channel Open Access Librry Journl 07, Volume, e57 ISSN Online: -97 ISSN Print: -9705 Interference Cncelltion Method without Feedbc Amount for Three Users Interference Chnnel Xini Tin, otin Zhng, Wenie Ji School

More information

Three-Phase Synchronous Machines The synchronous machine can be used to operate as: 1. Synchronous motors 2. Synchronous generators (Alternator)

Three-Phase Synchronous Machines The synchronous machine can be used to operate as: 1. Synchronous motors 2. Synchronous generators (Alternator) Three-Phse Synchronous Mchines The synchronous mchine cn be used to operte s: 1. Synchronous motors 2. Synchronous genertors (Alterntor) Synchronous genertor is lso referred to s lterntor since it genertes

More information

DESIGN OF CONTINUOUS LAG COMPENSATORS

DESIGN OF CONTINUOUS LAG COMPENSATORS DESIGN OF CONTINUOUS LAG COMPENSATORS J. Pulusová, L. Körösi, M. Dúbrvská Institute of Robotics nd Cybernetics, Slovk University of Technology, Fculty of Electricl Engineering nd Informtion Technology

More information

Exponential-Hyperbolic Model for Actual Operating Conditions of Three Phase Arc Furnaces

Exponential-Hyperbolic Model for Actual Operating Conditions of Three Phase Arc Furnaces Americn Journl of Applied Sciences 6 (8): 1539-1547, 2009 ISSN 1546-9239 2009 Science Publictions Exponentil-Hyperbolic Model for Actul Operting Conditions of Three Phse Arc Furnces 1 Mhdi Bnejd, 2 Rhmt-Allh

More information

Arc Furnace Modeling in ATP-EMTP

Arc Furnace Modeling in ATP-EMTP Arc Furnce Modeling in ATP-EMTP E. A. Cno Plt, Member, IEEE, nd H. E. Tcc, Member, IEEE Abstrct The use of the rc furnce nd its influence on the power system is being studied. A set of models tht llows

More information

Engineer-to-Engineer Note

Engineer-to-Engineer Note Engineer-to-Engineer Note EE-297 Technicl notes on using Anlog Devices DSPs, processors nd development tools Visit our Web resources http://www.nlog.com/ee-notes nd http://www.nlog.com/processors or e-mil

More information

Electrically Large Zero-Phase-Shift Metamaterial-based Grid Array Antenna for UHF Near-Field RFID Readers

Electrically Large Zero-Phase-Shift Metamaterial-based Grid Array Antenna for UHF Near-Field RFID Readers Electriclly Lrge Zero-Phse-Shift Metmteril-bsed Grid Arry Antenn for UHF Ner-Field RFID Reders Jin Shi, Xinming Qing, member IEEE, Zhi Ning Chen, Fellow, IEEE Abstrct A grid rry ntenn using zero-phse-shift

More information

METHOD OF LOCATION USING SIGNALS OF UNKNOWN ORIGIN. Inventor: Brian L. Baskin

METHOD OF LOCATION USING SIGNALS OF UNKNOWN ORIGIN. Inventor: Brian L. Baskin METHOD OF LOCATION USING SIGNALS OF UNKNOWN ORIGIN Inventor: Brin L. Bskin 1 ABSTRACT The present invention encompsses method of loction comprising: using plurlity of signl trnsceivers to receive one or

More information

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE STUDY

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE STUDY CHAPTER LITERATURE STUDY. Introduction Multipliction involves two bsic opertions: the genertion of the prtil products nd their ccumultion. Therefore, there re two possible wys to speed up the multipliction:

More information

DYE SOLUBILITY IN SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID

DYE SOLUBILITY IN SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID THERMAL SCIENCE, Yer 2015, Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 1311-1315 1311 DYE SOLUBILITY IN SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID by Jun YAN, Li-Jiu ZHENG *, Bing DU, Yong-Fng QIAN, nd Fng YE Lioning Provincil Key Lbortory

More information

Lecture 16: Four Quadrant operation of DC Drive (or) TYPE E Four Quadrant chopper Fed Drive: Operation

Lecture 16: Four Quadrant operation of DC Drive (or) TYPE E Four Quadrant chopper Fed Drive: Operation Lecture 16: Four Qudrnt opertion of DC Drive (or) TYPE E Four Qudrnt chopper Fed Drive: Opertion The rmture current I is either positive or negtive (flow in to or wy from rmture) the rmture voltge is lso

More information

University of North Carolina-Charlotte Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering ECGR 4143/5195 Electrical Machinery Fall 2009

University of North Carolina-Charlotte Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering ECGR 4143/5195 Electrical Machinery Fall 2009 Problem 1: Using DC Mchine University o North Crolin-Chrlotte Deprtment o Electricl nd Computer Engineering ECGR 4143/5195 Electricl Mchinery Fll 2009 Problem Set 4 Due: Thursdy October 8 Suggested Reding:

More information

(1) Non-linear system

(1) Non-linear system Liner vs. non-liner systems in impednce mesurements I INTRODUCTION Electrochemicl Impednce Spectroscopy (EIS) is n interesting tool devoted to the study of liner systems. However, electrochemicl systems

More information

Substrate Integrated Evanescent Filters Employing Coaxial Stubs

Substrate Integrated Evanescent Filters Employing Coaxial Stubs Downloded from orbit.dtu.dk on: Jul 21, 2018 Substrte Integrted Evnescent Filters Employing Coxil Stubs Zhurbenko, Vitliy Published in: Progress in Electromgnetics Reserch C Publiction dte: 2015 Document

More information

Robustness Analysis of Pulse Width Modulation Control of Motor Speed

Robustness Analysis of Pulse Width Modulation Control of Motor Speed Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering nd Computer Science 2007 WCECS 2007, October 24-26, 2007, Sn Frncisco, USA obustness Anlysis of Pulse Width Modultion Control of Motor Speed Wei Zhn Abstrct

More information

High Speed On-Chip Interconnects: Trade offs in Passive Termination

High Speed On-Chip Interconnects: Trade offs in Passive Termination High Speed On-Chip Interconnects: Trde offs in Pssive Termintion Rj Prihr University of Rochester, NY, USA prihr@ece.rochester.edu Abstrct In this pper, severl pssive termintion schemes for high speed

More information

NP10 DIGITAL MULTIMETER Functions and features of the multimeter:

NP10 DIGITAL MULTIMETER Functions and features of the multimeter: NP10 DIGITL MULTIMETER. unctions nd fetures of the multimeter: 1000 V CT III tri requencies from 10.00...10 M. Diode mesurement nd continuity testing. HOLD mesurement. Reltive mesurement. Duty cycle (%)

More information

Application Note. Differential Amplifier

Application Note. Differential Amplifier Appliction Note AN367 Differentil Amplifier Author: Dve n Ess Associted Project: Yes Associted Prt Fmily: CY8C9x66, CY8C7x43, CY8C4x3A PSoC Designer ersion: 4. SP3 Abstrct For mny sensing pplictions, desirble

More information

Section 16.3 Double Integrals over General Regions

Section 16.3 Double Integrals over General Regions Section 6.3 Double Integrls over Generl egions Not ever region is rectngle In the lst two sections we considered the problem of integrting function of two vribles over rectngle. This sitution however is

More information

Postprint. This is the accepted version of a paper presented at IEEE PES General Meeting.

Postprint.   This is the accepted version of a paper presented at IEEE PES General Meeting. http://www.div-portl.org Postprint This is the ccepted version of pper presented t IEEE PES Generl Meeting. Cittion for the originl published pper: Mhmood, F., Hooshyr, H., Vnfretti, L. (217) Sensitivity

More information

This is a repository copy of Effect of power state on absorption cross section of personal computer components.

This is a repository copy of Effect of power state on absorption cross section of personal computer components. This is repository copy of Effect of power stte on bsorption cross section of personl computer components. White Rose Reserch Online URL for this pper: http://eprints.whiterose.c.uk/10547/ Version: Accepted

More information

Experiment 3: The research of Thevenin theorem

Experiment 3: The research of Thevenin theorem Experiment 3: The reserch of Thevenin theorem 1. Purpose ) Vlidte Thevenin theorem; ) Mster the methods to mesure the equivlent prmeters of liner twoterminl ctive. c) Study the conditions of the mximum

More information

Wireless Power Transfer for Running EV Powering Using Multi-Parallel Segmented Rails

Wireless Power Transfer for Running EV Powering Using Multi-Parallel Segmented Rails Wireless Power Trnsfer for Running EV Powering Using Multi-Prllel Segmented Rils Ki Song, Chunbo Zhu School of Electricl Engineering nd Automtion Hrbin Institute of Technology Hrbin, Chin kisong@hit.edu.cn

More information

The computer simulation of communication for PLC systems

The computer simulation of communication for PLC systems The computer simultion of communiction for PLC systems Jiri Misurec Milos Orgon Dept. of Telecommunictions Fculty of Electricl Engineering nd Communiction Brno University of Technology Purkynov 8 6 00

More information

Estimation of Disk Slip Position Error for Mobile Hard Disk Drives

Estimation of Disk Slip Position Error for Mobile Hard Disk Drives Estimtion of Disk Slip Position Error for Mobile Hrd Disk Drives Peiqi Pn,, Yong Xio, Zhe Zheng,. College of Informtion Engineering Shenyng University of Chemicl Technology Shenyng, Lioning, 4, P.. Chin.

More information

Research on Local Mean Decomposition Algorithms in Harmonic and Voltage Flicker Detection of Microgrid

Research on Local Mean Decomposition Algorithms in Harmonic and Voltage Flicker Detection of Microgrid Sensors & Trnsducers 23 by IFSA http://www.sensorsportl.com Reserch on Locl Men Decomposition Algorithms in Hrmonic nd Voltge Flicer Detection of Microgrid Wensi CAO, Linfei LIU School of Electric Power,

More information

Understanding Basic Analog Ideal Op Amps

Understanding Basic Analog Ideal Op Amps Appliction Report SLAA068A - April 2000 Understnding Bsic Anlog Idel Op Amps Ron Mncini Mixed Signl Products ABSTRACT This ppliction report develops the equtions for the idel opertionl mplifier (op mp).

More information

Safety Relay Unit. Main contacts Auxiliary contact Number of input channels Rated voltage Model Category. possible 24 VAC/VDC G9SA-501.

Safety Relay Unit. Main contacts Auxiliary contact Number of input channels Rated voltage Model Category. possible 24 VAC/VDC G9SA-501. Sfety Rely Unit The Series Offers Complete Line-up of Compct Units. Four kinds of -mm wide Units re ville: A -pole model, -pole model, nd models with poles nd OFF-dely poles, s well s Two-hnd ler. Simple

More information

ISSCC 2006 / SESSION 21 / ADVANCED CLOCKING, LOGIC AND SIGNALING TECHNIQUES / 21.5

ISSCC 2006 / SESSION 21 / ADVANCED CLOCKING, LOGIC AND SIGNALING TECHNIQUES / 21.5 21.5 A 1.1GHz Chrge-Recovery Logic Visvesh Sthe, Jung-Ying Chueh, Mrios Ppefthymiou University of Michign, Ann Aror, MI Boost Logic is chrge-recovery circuit fmily cple of operting t GHz-clss frequencies

More information

A Simple Approach to Control the Time-constant of Microwave Integrators

A Simple Approach to Control the Time-constant of Microwave Integrators 5 VOL., NO.3, MA, A Simple Approch to Control the Time-constnt of Microwve Integrtors Dhrmendr K. Updhyy* nd Rkesh K. Singh NSIT, Division of Electronics & Communiction Engineering New Delhi-78, In Tel:

More information

Alternating-Current Circuits

Alternating-Current Circuits chpter 33 Alternting-Current Circuits 33.1 AC Sources 33.2 esistors in n AC Circuit 33.3 Inductors in n AC Circuit 33.4 Cpcitors in n AC Circuit 33.5 The LC Series Circuit 33.6 Power in n AC Circuit 33.7

More information

Section Thyristor converter driven DC motor drive

Section Thyristor converter driven DC motor drive Section.3 - Thyristor converter driven DC motor drive.3.1 Introduction Controllble AC-DC converters using thyristors re perhps the most efficient nd most robust power converters for use in DC motor drives.

More information

Lecture 20. Intro to line integrals. Dan Nichols MATH 233, Spring 2018 University of Massachusetts.

Lecture 20. Intro to line integrals. Dan Nichols MATH 233, Spring 2018 University of Massachusetts. Lecture 2 Intro to line integrls Dn Nichols nichols@mth.umss.edu MATH 233, Spring 218 University of Msschusetts April 12, 218 (2) onservtive vector fields We wnt to determine if F P (x, y), Q(x, y) is

More information

Open Access A Novel Parallel Current-sharing Control Method of Switch Power Supply

Open Access A Novel Parallel Current-sharing Control Method of Switch Power Supply Send Orders for Reprints to reprints@enthmscience.e 170 The Open Electricl & Electronic Engineering Journl, 2014, 8, 170-177 Open Access A Novel Prllel Current-shring Control Method of Switch Power Supply

More information

Research on a Compound Control Strategy of Three-Phase

Research on a Compound Control Strategy of Three-Phase Reserch on Compound Control Strtegy of ThreePhse Inverter for Unblnced Lods Gili Yue, Wen Li, Ken Li College of Electricl nd Control Engineering, Xi n University of Science nd Technology, Xi n 7143, Chin

More information

Redundancy Data Elimination Scheme Based on Stitching Technique in Image Senor Networks

Redundancy Data Elimination Scheme Based on Stitching Technique in Image Senor Networks Sensors & Trnsducers 204 by IFSA Publishing, S. L. http://www.sensorsportl.com Redundncy Dt Elimintion Scheme Bsed on Stitching Technique in Imge Senor Networks hunling Tng hongqing Technology nd Business

More information

& Y Connected resistors, Light emitting diode.

& Y Connected resistors, Light emitting diode. & Y Connected resistors, Light emitting diode. Experiment # 02 Ojectives: To get some hndson experience with the physicl instruments. To investigte the equivlent resistors, nd Y connected resistors, nd

More information

Soft switched DC-DC PWM Converters

Soft switched DC-DC PWM Converters Soft switched DC-DC PWM Converters Mr.M. Prthp Rju (), Dr. A. Jy Lkshmi () Abstrct This pper presents n upgrded soft switching technique- zero current trnsition (ZCT), which gives better turn off chrcteristics

More information

MAXIMUM FLOWS IN FUZZY NETWORKS WITH FUNNEL-SHAPED NODES

MAXIMUM FLOWS IN FUZZY NETWORKS WITH FUNNEL-SHAPED NODES MAXIMUM FLOWS IN FUZZY NETWORKS WITH FUNNEL-SHAPED NODES Romn V. Tyshchuk Informtion Systems Deprtment, AMI corportion, Donetsk, Ukrine E-mil: rt_science@hotmil.com 1 INTRODUCTION During the considertion

More information

Application of Wavelet De-noising in Vibration Torque Measurement

Application of Wavelet De-noising in Vibration Torque Measurement IJCSI Interntionl Journl of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 9, Issue 5, No 3, September 01 www.ijcsi.org 9 Appliction of Wvelet De-noising in Vibrtion orque Mesurement Ho Zho 1 1 Jixing University, Jixing,

More information

Passive and Active DC Breakers in the Three Gorges-Changzhou HVDC Project

Passive and Active DC Breakers in the Three Gorges-Changzhou HVDC Project Pssive nd Active DC Brekers in the Three Gorges-Chngzhou HVDC Project Dg Andersson, Dr, nd Anders Henriksson, B.Sc.E.E, ABB, Sweden explined below) re Abstrct--A new type of DC breker, bsed on stndrd SF

More information

Three-Phase NPC Inverter Using Three-Phase Coupled Inductor

Three-Phase NPC Inverter Using Three-Phase Coupled Inductor ThreePhse NPC Inverter Using ThreePhse Coupled Inductor Romeu Husmnn 1, Rodrigo d Silv 2 nd Ivo Brbi 2 1 Deprtment of Electricl nd Telecommuniction Engineering, University of Blumenu FURB Blumenu SC Brzil,

More information

Kirchhoff s Rules. Kirchhoff s Laws. Kirchhoff s Rules. Kirchhoff s Laws. Practice. Understanding SPH4UW. Kirchhoff s Voltage Rule (KVR):

Kirchhoff s Rules. Kirchhoff s Laws. Kirchhoff s Rules. Kirchhoff s Laws. Practice. Understanding SPH4UW. Kirchhoff s Voltage Rule (KVR): SPH4UW Kirchhoff s ules Kirchhoff s oltge ule (K): Sum of voltge drops round loop is zero. Kirchhoff s Lws Kirchhoff s Current ule (KC): Current going in equls current coming out. Kirchhoff s ules etween

More information

ARC DISCHARGE AND EROSION BEHAVIOR OF SILVER ELECTRIC CONTACTS BETWEEN STATIC GAP

ARC DISCHARGE AND EROSION BEHAVIOR OF SILVER ELECTRIC CONTACTS BETWEEN STATIC GAP ARC DISCHARGE AND EROSION BEHAVIOR OF SILVER ELECTRIC CONTACTS BETWEEN STATIC GAP Chung, H-H. 1 Lee, R-T. 2. Chiou, Y-C. 2 1 Deprtment of Automtion Engineering Ko-Yun Institute of Technology 2 Deprtment

More information

Galvanic Isolation System for Multiple Gate Drivers with Inductive Power Transfer

Galvanic Isolation System for Multiple Gate Drivers with Inductive Power Transfer Glvnic Isoltion System for Multiple Gte Drivers with Inductive Power Trnsfer Drive of Three-phse inverter Keisuke Kusk, Mskzu Kto Dept. of Energy nd Environment Science Ngok University of Technology Ngok,

More information

Performance Comparison of Sliding Mode Control and Conventional PI Controller for Speed Control of Separately Excited Direct Current Motors

Performance Comparison of Sliding Mode Control and Conventional PI Controller for Speed Control of Separately Excited Direct Current Motors Journl of Science nd Technology Vol. 13, No. 2 Engineering nd Computer Sciences (ECS) Performnce Comprison of Sliding Mode Control nd Conventionl PI Controller for Speed Control of Seprtely Excited Direct

More information

Multi-beam antennas in a broadband wireless access system

Multi-beam antennas in a broadband wireless access system Multi-em ntenns in rodnd wireless ccess system Ulrik Engström, Mrtin Johnsson, nders Derneryd nd jörn Johnnisson ntenn Reserch Center Ericsson Reserch Ericsson SE-4 84 Mölndl Sweden E-mil: ulrik.engstrom@ericsson.com,

More information

A Comparative Analysis of Algorithms for Determining the Peak Position of a Stripe to Sub-pixel Accuracy

A Comparative Analysis of Algorithms for Determining the Peak Position of a Stripe to Sub-pixel Accuracy A Comprtive Anlysis of Algorithms for Determining the Pek Position of Stripe to Sub-pixel Accurcy D.K.Nidu R.B.Fisher Deprtment of Artificil Intelligence, University of Edinburgh 5 Forrest Hill, Edinburgh

More information

Calculation of Off-Core Inductance in Dual-Circuit Model of Transformer

Calculation of Off-Core Inductance in Dual-Circuit Model of Transformer Clcultion of Off-Core Inductnce in Dul-Circuit Model of Trnsformer As Lotfi NTNU Trondheim, Norwy s.lotfi@ntnu.no Hns Kr. Hoidlen NTNU Trondheim, Norwy hns.hoidlen@ntnu.no Nicol Chies Sttoil Trondheim,

More information

Carbon Composition Resistors

Carbon Composition Resistors Dimensions Cron Composition Resistors Rtings nd Dimensions Type L Specifiction Limit nd Performnce d D Derting Curve 8 6 4 (/, w) Test procedures, sequence of test, etc., refer to MIL-STD D nd JIS-C-5.

More information

2-5-2 Calibration of Dipole Antennas

2-5-2 Calibration of Dipole Antennas 2 Reserch nd Development of Clibrtion Technology 2-5-2 Clibrtion of Dipole Antenns Iwo NISHIYAMA, Kojiro SAKAI, Tsutomu SUGIYAMA, Kouichi SBATA, nd Ktsumi FUJII This pper describes clibrtion method of

More information

9.4. ; 65. A family of curves has polar equations. ; 66. The astronomer Giovanni Cassini ( ) studied the family of curves with polar equations

9.4. ; 65. A family of curves has polar equations. ; 66. The astronomer Giovanni Cassini ( ) studied the family of curves with polar equations 54 CHAPTER 9 PARAMETRIC EQUATINS AND PLAR CRDINATES 49. r, 5. r sin 3, 5 54 Find the points on the given curve where the tngent line is horizontl or verticl. 5. r 3 cos 5. r e 53. r cos 54. r sin 55. Show

More information

INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING (Autonomous) Dundigal, Hyderabad

INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING (Autonomous) Dundigal, Hyderabad Hll Ticket No Question Pper Code: AEC009 INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING (Autonomous) Dundigl, Hyderd - 500 043 MODEL QUESTION PAPER Four Yer B.Tech V Semester End Exmintions, Novemer - 2018 Regultions:

More information

NEW METHOD FOR THE STATE EVALUATION OF THE ZERO-SEQUENCE SYSTEM

NEW METHOD FOR THE STATE EVALUATION OF THE ZERO-SEQUENCE SYSTEM TX it NEW METHOD FOR THE STATE EVALUATION OF THE ZERO-SEQUENCE SYSTEM Gernot DRUML A. Eberle GmbH Germny g.druml@ieee.org Olf SEIFERT Dresden University of Technology Germny seifert@ieeh.et.tu-dresden.de

More information

Effect of High-speed Milling tool path strategies on the surface roughness of Stavax ESR mold insert machining

Effect of High-speed Milling tool path strategies on the surface roughness of Stavax ESR mold insert machining IOP Conference Series: Mterils Science nd Engineering PAPER OPEN ACCESS Effect of High-speed Milling tool pth strtegies on the surfce roughness of Stvx ESR mold insert mchining Relted content - Reserch

More information

Analog computation of wavelet transform coefficients in real-time Moreira-Tamayo, O.; Pineda de Gyvez, J.

Analog computation of wavelet transform coefficients in real-time Moreira-Tamayo, O.; Pineda de Gyvez, J. Anlog computtion of wvelet trnsform coefficients in rel-time Moreir-Tmyo, O.; Pined de Gyvez, J. Published in: IEEE Trnsctions on Circuits nd Systems. I, Fundmentl Theory nd Applictions DOI: 0.09/8.558443

More information

Mechanics & Industry. Experimental investigations on the effectiveness of electromagnetic actuator as sensor

Mechanics & Industry. Experimental investigations on the effectiveness of electromagnetic actuator as sensor Mechnics & Industry 14, 247 252 (213) c AFM, EDP Sciences 213 DOI: 1.151/mec/21367 www.mechnics-industry.org Mechnics & Industry Experimentl investigtions on the effectiveness of electromgnetic ctutor

More information

Application of Feed Forward Neural Network to Differential Protection of Turbogenerator

Application of Feed Forward Neural Network to Differential Protection of Turbogenerator 16th NATIONAL POWER SYSTEMS CONFERENCE, 15th-17th DECEMBER, 21 464 Appliction of Feed Forwrd Neurl Network to Differentil Protection of Turbogenertor Amrit Sinh Dept. of Electricl Engg., Ntionl Institute

More information

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GPS SIGNAL SCINTILLATIONS DURING IONOSPHERIC IRREGULARITIES AND THEIR EFFECTS OVER THE GPS SYSTEM

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GPS SIGNAL SCINTILLATIONS DURING IONOSPHERIC IRREGULARITIES AND THEIR EFFECTS OVER THE GPS SYSTEM CHRCTERISTICS OF THE GPS SIGNL SCINTILLTIONS DURING IONOSPHERIC IRREGULRITIES ND THEIR EFFECTS OVER THE GPS SYSTEM Eurico R. de Paula, I.J.Kantor, L.F.C. de Rezende ERONOMY DIVISION NTIONL INSTITUTE FOR

More information

Domination and Independence on Square Chessboard

Domination and Independence on Square Chessboard Engineering nd Technology Journl Vol. 5, Prt, No. 1, 017 A.A. Omrn Deprtment of Mthemtics, College of Eduction for Pure Science, University of bylon, bylon, Irq pure.hmed.omrn@uobby lon.edu.iq Domintion

More information

Array chip resistors size ARC241/ARC242 ARV241/ARV242

Array chip resistors size ARC241/ARC242 ARV241/ARV242 Arry chip resistors FEATURES 4 0603 sized resistors in one 1206-sized pckge Reduced reel exchnge time Low ssembly costs Reduced PCB re Reduced size of finl equipment Higher component nd equipment relibility.

More information

Direct Current Circuits. Chapter Outline Electromotive Force 28.2 Resistors in Series and in Parallel 28.3 Kirchhoff s Rules 28.

Direct Current Circuits. Chapter Outline Electromotive Force 28.2 Resistors in Series and in Parallel 28.3 Kirchhoff s Rules 28. P U Z Z L E R If ll these pplinces were operting t one time, circuit reker would proly e tripped, preventing potentilly dngerous sitution. Wht cuses circuit reker to trip when too mny electricl devices

More information

Y9.ET1.3 Implementation of Secure Energy Management against Cyber/physical Attacks for FREEDM System

Y9.ET1.3 Implementation of Secure Energy Management against Cyber/physical Attacks for FREEDM System Y9.ET1.3 Implementtion of Secure Energy ngement ginst Cyber/physicl Attcks for FREED System Project Leder: Fculty: Students: Dr. Bruce cillin Dr. o-yuen Chow Jie Dun 1. Project Gols Develop resilient cyber-physicl

More information

Discontinued AN6262N, AN6263N. (planed maintenance type, maintenance type, planed discontinued typed, discontinued type)

Discontinued AN6262N, AN6263N. (planed maintenance type, maintenance type, planed discontinued typed, discontinued type) ICs for Cssette, Cssette Deck ANN, ANN Puse Detection s of Rdio Cssette, Cssette Deck Overview The ANN nd the ANN re the puse detection integrted circuits which select the progrm on the cssette tpe. In

More information

Direct AC Generation from Solar Cell Arrays

Direct AC Generation from Solar Cell Arrays Missouri University of Science nd Technology Scholrs' Mine UMR-MEC Conference 1975 Direct AC Genertion from Solr Cell Arrys Fernndo L. Alvrdo Follow this nd dditionl works t: http://scholrsmine.mst.edu/umr-mec

More information

Fault Diagnosis Based on ANN for Turn-to-Turn Short Circuit of Synchronous Generator Rotor Windings

Fault Diagnosis Based on ANN for Turn-to-Turn Short Circuit of Synchronous Generator Rotor Windings J. Electromgnetic Anlysis & Applictions, 2009, 3: 187-191 doi:10.4236/jem.2009.13028 Published Online September 2009 (www.scirp.org/journl/jem) 187 Fult Dignosis Bsed on ANN or Turn-to-Turn Short Circuit

More information

10.4 AREAS AND LENGTHS IN POLAR COORDINATES

10.4 AREAS AND LENGTHS IN POLAR COORDINATES 65 CHAPTER PARAMETRIC EQUATINS AND PLAR CRDINATES.4 AREAS AND LENGTHS IN PLAR CRDINATES In this section we develop the formul for the re of region whose oundry is given y polr eqution. We need to use the

More information

Rectangular type APS-10 to 15 Series

Rectangular type APS-10 to 15 Series Rectngulr type APS- to 15 Series From n ultr-thin design to n operting distnce of 15 mm, wide-rnging rectngulr types re vilble to meet diversified requirements. Types output type/dc 3-wire type Shpe Operting

More information

Polar Coordinates. July 30, 2014

Polar Coordinates. July 30, 2014 Polr Coordintes July 3, 4 Sometimes it is more helpful to look t point in the xy-plne not in terms of how fr it is horizontlly nd verticlly (this would men looking t the Crtesin, or rectngulr, coordintes

More information

2005 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media,

2005 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, 005 IEEE. Personl use of this mteril is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtined for ll other uses, in ny current or future medi, including reprinting/republishing this mteril for dvertising or

More information

Joanna Towler, Roading Engineer, Professional Services, NZTA National Office Dave Bates, Operations Manager, NZTA National Office

Joanna Towler, Roading Engineer, Professional Services, NZTA National Office Dave Bates, Operations Manager, NZTA National Office . TECHNICA MEMOANDM To Cc repred By Endorsed By NZTA Network Mngement Consultnts nd Contrctors NZTA egionl Opertions Mngers nd Are Mngers Dve Btes, Opertions Mnger, NZTA Ntionl Office Jonn Towler, oding

More information

Analysis and Performance Improvement of WPT Systems in the Environment of Single Non-Ferromagnetic Metal Plates

Analysis and Performance Improvement of WPT Systems in the Environment of Single Non-Ferromagnetic Metal Plates energies Article Anlys Performnce Improvement WPT Systems in Environment Single Non-Ferromgnetic Metl Pltes Linlin Tn 1,2, *, Jicheng Li 1,2, Chen Chen 1,3, Chngxin Yn 1,2, Jinpeng Guo 1,2 Xueling Hung

More information

Mixed CMOS PTL Adders

Mixed CMOS PTL Adders Anis do XXVI Congresso d SBC WCOMPA l I Workshop de Computção e Aplicções 14 20 de julho de 2006 Cmpo Grnde, MS Mixed CMOS PTL Adders Déor Mott, Reginldo d N. Tvres Engenhri em Sistems Digitis Universidde

More information

Modeling of Conduction and Switching Losses in Three-Phase Asymmetric Multi-Level Cascaded Inverter

Modeling of Conduction and Switching Losses in Three-Phase Asymmetric Multi-Level Cascaded Inverter Proceedings of the 5th WEA nt. onf. on Power ystems nd Electromgnetic omptibility, orfu, Greece, August 23-25, 2005 (pp176-181) Modeling of onduction nd witching Losses in Three-Phse Asymmetric Multi-Level

More information