Synchronous Generator Line Synchronization


 Imogene Lambert
 3 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Synchronous Genertor Line Synchroniztion 1 Synchronous Genertor Line Synchroniztion Introduction One issue in power genertion is synchronous genertor strting. Typiclly, synchronous genertor is connected to the utility grid through the process of linesynchroniztion which mounts to generting voltges tht mtch the grid so tht the mchine cn be electriclly connected. Once the mchine is synchronized to the grid, the ctive power cn be controlled through the shft torque nd the rective power is controlled through the field current. In this experiment, the synchronous genertor is connected to fixedvoltge fixedfrequency source through line synchroniztion. The power genertion levels re set nd the rective power is controlled to produce the genertor "Vcurves". Line Synchroniztion Figure 2 shows the setup for line synchroniztion. The mchine is first driven to synchronous speed mechniclly using "prime mover" which could be n electric motor or turbine. A DC field current is estblished in the rotor so tht the mchine genertes n opencircuit voltge tht mtches the threephse source. Before closing the line contctors, set of conditions must be met. Specificlly, the genertor nd line voltge must mtch in terms of 1. Frequency of the voltges 2. Mgnitude of the voltges 3. Phse of the voltge
2 Synchronous Genertor Line Synchroniztion 2 Note tht mtching the phse in threephse system implies mtching the phse sequence. Under the conditions bove, the voltges cross the contctors will be zero. The frequency of the genertor is set by the prime mover mechnicl speed m. In prticulr, the mechnicl speed is djusted so to mtch the source frequency f e ccording to 2 m 2 fe (1) poles After mtching the frequency, the mgnitude of the opencircuit rmture voltges V, V b, nd V c re set to mtch the mgnitude of the line voltges V s, V bs, nd V cs. Since the opencircuit voltges re equl to the bckemf, the mgnitude cn be set using the field current. Assuming the frequency is mtched ccording to (1) the phse bckemf is E f elf I f (2) 2 The finl step is mtching the phse of the generted voltge to the phse of the line voltges. The key to this is tht the frequency is not mtched exctly. Over long time period, the phse of the generted voltges will shift nd t some point be ligned with the line voltges. At this time, ll conditions re mtched nd the synchroniztion lmps will go drk. When ll three lmps re off, it is sfe to close the contctor nd connect the genertor to the line. The phse sequence must lso be mtched. If the genertor hs different phse sequence thn the line, the lmps will blink one t time. If this is the cse, two phses of the line voltge (on the left side of the contctor in Figure 1) cn be swpped. The perphse synchronous genertor model is shown in Figure 2. Once the genertor is connected to the line, the synchronous speed will be fixed to the frequency by In RPM, the synchronous speed my be clculted s 2 s 2 fe (3) poles 120 f n e s (4) poles
3 Synchronous Genertor Line Synchroniztion 3 Genertor Vcurves In stedystte opertion, the ctive power flow cn be controlled using the shft torque of the prime mover. The rective power cn be controlled by djusting the field current. From the mchine perphse model of Figure 2, it cn be seen tht the output power is P V I cos( ) (5) 3 If the rmture resistnce is neglected, it cn be shown through power reltionships tht Therefore, for constnt power opertion X I cos( ) E sin( ) (6) s f I cos( ) C (7) 1 where C1 nd C2 re constnts. E f sin( ) C (8) 2 From the KVL eqution, the phse voltge is Eˆ f Vˆ j X Iˆ (9) s Using the informtion from (59), the circuit phsors cn be plotted for constnt power s the field current is vried. This is shown for three vlues of field current in Figure 3. Note tht the synchronous genertor cn operte with leding power fctor, unity power fctor, or lgging power fctor. Since the mgnitude of Ê f is proportionl to field current excittion, the leding power fctor condition is sometimes referred to s underexcited opertion nd lgging power fctor condition is referred to s overexcited opertion for the synchronous genertor. Note tht the current Î nd the voltge Ê f follow the lines of constnt power given by (78). If the rmture current mgnitude is plotted versus field current for severl power levels, the resultnt plots re the genertor Vcurves shown in Figure 4. The points mrked, b, nd c on the upper curve correspond to the operting conditions in Figure 3. Note tht for P 0, the genertor is supplying or bsorbing only rective power. For the underexcited cse denoted by point d) in Figure 4, the generted rective power is negtive. This mens tht the mchine is bsorbing rective power nd is effectively operting s n inductor. For the overexcited cse denoted by point e), the generted rective power is positive mening tht the mchine is supplying rective power. For point e), the mchine ppers s cpcitor. This mode of opertion is sometimes used for rective power compenstion on power system. Opertion t point e) is referred to s synchronous condenser opertion; condenser being n old term for cpcitor.
4 Synchronous Genertor Line Synchroniztion 4
5 Synchronous Genertor Line Synchroniztion 5
6 Synchronous Genertor Line Synchroniztion 6 Lbortory Softwre Figure 5 shows screenshot of the softwre for this experiment, LbSynchronousMchineLineSynchroniztionTCP. The synchronous mchine rmture voltge, rmture current, ctive power, nd rective power re displyed s well s grphs of the rmture voltge nd rmture current. The field quntities re lso displyed nd control is builtin for djustment of the field current. After going through the linesynchroniztion procedure, the field current will be djusted nd the dt is sved t ech step for plotting the mchine Vcurves. The stndrd "Add", "Cler", "Print", nd "Sve" buttons re included. Three Vcurves will be obtined in this experiment nd cn be mrked by selecting power levels of "0W" (shown in Figure 5), "50W", or "100W". Figure 5. Screen shot of LbView softwre used for this experiment.
7 Synchronous Genertor Line Synchroniztion 7 Lbortory mchines Figure 6 shows the digrm of the motor test stnd used for this experiment. The synchronous mchine is ctully woundrotor induction mchine. It will operte s synchronous mchine when DC current is supplied to the rotor. Besides the rotor windings ccessible from the connector box, the mchine lso hs shortcircuited dmper windings on the rotor. Both sides of ech sttor winding (s, bs, cs, n, bn, nd cn terminls) re brought out on the connector box for connection in wye or delt. However, in this experiment, the mchine will be connected in wye. The rotor is wyeconnected internlly, nd the three terminls re brought out (r, br, nd cr). Synchroniztion lmps re connected inbetween the sttor windings nd the line connection (terminls, b, nd c). A threephse switch bypsses these lmps when switched on. This setup cn be used for synchronizing the genertor to the line or for synchronous motor strting. The synchronous mchine is rted t 208 V (linetoline rms), 60 Hz, 250 W. It is 4pole mchine nd thus hs synchronous speed of 1800 RPM. The dc mchine rmture nd field terminls re vilble for connection (A1, A2, F1, nd F2). The mchine is designed to be shuntconnected (rmture nd field in prllel) nd is used to drive the synchronous mchine s genertor or bsorb mechnicl lod when the synchronous mchine is operting s motor.
8 Synchronous Genertor Line Synchroniztion 8 Lbortory Work Figure 7 shows the wiring digrm for this experiment. Strt by connecting the dc mchine s shuntwound motor through meter chnnel. Note tht the rheostt is connected in series with the field. The rheostt should be turned ll the wy counterclockwise s shown in Figure 7. Next, connect the MgnPower DC output to the synchronous mchine through meter chnnel s shown in Figure 7. Lstly, connect the synchronous mchine rmture (terminls, b, nd c) to the meter box s shown in Figure 7. Mke sure the switch on the connection box is in the OFF position. As lst step, connect the meter box to the 208 V line voltge. This is the terminls A, B, nd C directly below the MgnPower DC supply. Adpter plugs will be necessry to mke this connection. Keep in mind tht you re connecting into n energized source. For this reson, the switch on the synchronous mchine connection box must be OFF. After connecting into this source, the synchroniztion lmps on the connection box will light up. The next step is to estblish field current. Switch on the MgnPower supply nd strt the Line Synchroniztion (LbSynchronousMchineLineSynchroniztionTCP) experiment on the computer (in tht order). Increse the commnded field current to 2.5 A using the softwre interfce. Mke sure tht the field supply is working by noting the current on the computer screen. Leve the current setting t 2.5 A. Next, switch on the source pnel nd increse the vric to 15%. At this point, the DC motor should strt. If it does not, reduce the vric to zero, switch off the source pnel. Swp the field terminls F1 nd F2 nd try strting the motor gin. Once the motor is running, increse the voltge until the speed is very close to 1800 RPM (s mesured with the hndheld tchometer). This will be bout 55% on the vric setting. At this point, ll three lmps should be blinking in synchronism t very low frequency. If the lmps re blinking one t time, then the phse sequence is incorrect. If this is the cse, reduce the motor speed to zero, switch off the source pnel, nd swp the "b" nd "c" terminls of the synchronous mchine. When you bring the motor up to 1800 RPM gin, ll lmps should blink t the sme time. With the lmps blinking slowly, throw the synchronous mchine switch t n instnt when ll of the lmps go off. This will bypss the lmps nd connect the synchronous mchine to the line. At this point, the synchronous genertor is running with no lod s evidenced by the power reding of nerly zero. Reduce the field current to 1.5 A. Set the Lod Size to 0W in the softwre nd obtin set of Vcurves by incresing the field current from 1.5 A to 3.5 A nd logging the dt for ech point (by clicking Add). Reduce the field bck current to 1.5 A. The ctul power consumption will be nonzero nd will vry due to friction nd other losses. The next step is to generte some power nd send it into the line by chnging the DC motor torque. Increse the rheostt setting until the synchronous genertor power reds 50 W on the computer screen. Set the Lod Size to 50W in the softwre nd record nother set of Vcurves. Be sure to djust the rheostt t ech point to keep the power constnt. Increse the rheostt gin so tht the genertor power reds 100 W. Set the Lod Size to 100W in the softwre nd record nother set of Vcurves (gin djusting the rheostt to keep the power constnt).
9 Synchronous Genertor Line Synchroniztion 9 Switch off the source pnel circuit breker nd then reduce the source pnel vric to zero. Switch off the synchronous genertor nd the mchine will come to stop. Switch off the MgnPower power supply.
10 Synchronous Genertor Line Synchroniztion 10
11 Synchronous Genertor Line Synchroniztion 11 Clcultions nd Questions 1. Crete plot of ctive power nd rective power versus field current for ll three levels of loding. Mke seprte plot for ech lod level, but use the sme xes scles for ech plot. The ctive power remins constnt nd the rective power trnsitions from negtive to positive. Note tht the mesured ctive nd rective power re positive going into the mchine which is opposite of the wy it is defined in the model. For this reson, it is best to first multiply the mesured ctive nd rective powers by 1 before doing the clcultions. 2. Crete the Vcurve plots for this genertor by plotting the rmture current mgnitude versus field current. This should be one plot with ll power levels. Also compute theoreticl V curves using dt from the opencircuit nd shortcircuit tests on the sme mchine. 3. Sketch the phsor digrms for three operting points logged in the 100 W test; one for leding power fctor, one for unity power fctor, nd one for lgging power fctor. For synchronous rectnce use the vlue obtined from opencircuit nd shortcircuit tests. 4. For the 0 W Vcurve dt, compute the effective vlues of inductnce nd cpcitnce for the lowest nd highest vlues of field current respectively.
Synchronous Machine Parameter Measurement
Synchronous Mchine Prmeter Mesurement 1 Synchronous Mchine Prmeter Mesurement Introduction Wound field synchronous mchines re mostly used for power genertion but lso re well suited for motor pplictions
More informationSynchronous Machine Parameter Measurement
Synchronous Mchine Prmeter Mesurement 1 Synchronous Mchine Prmeter Mesurement Introduction Wound field synchronous mchines re mostly used for power genertion but lso re well suited for motor pplictions
More informationThreePhase Synchronous Machines The synchronous machine can be used to operate as: 1. Synchronous motors 2. Synchronous generators (Alternator)
ThreePhse Synchronous Mchines The synchronous mchine cn be used to operte s: 1. Synchronous motors 2. Synchronous genertors (Alterntor) Synchronous genertor is lso referred to s lterntor since it genertes
More informationModule 9. DC Machines. Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur
Module 9 DC Mchines Version EE IIT, Khrgpur esson 40 osses, Efficiency nd Testing of D.C. Mchines Version EE IIT, Khrgpur Contents 40 osses, efficiency nd testing of D.C. mchines (esson40) 4 40.1 Gols
More informationUniversity of North CarolinaCharlotte Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering ECGR 4143/5195 Electrical Machinery Fall 2009
Problem 1: Using DC Mchine University o North CrolinChrlotte Deprtment o Electricl nd Computer Engineering ECGR 4143/5195 Electricl Mchinery Fll 2009 Problem Set 4 Due: Thursdy October 8 Suggested Reding:
More informationCompared to generators DC MOTORS. Back e.m.f. Back e.m.f. Example. Example. The construction of a d.c. motor is the same as a d.c. generator.
Compred to genertors DC MOTORS Prepred by Engr. JP Timol Reference: Electricl nd Electronic Principles nd Technology The construction of d.c. motor is the sme s d.c. genertor. the generted e.m.f. is less
More informationEET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 5 Control of a Separately Excited DC Machine
EE 438 Automtic Control Systems echnology bortory 5 Control of Seprtely Excited DC Mchine Objective: Apply proportionl controller to n electromechnicl system nd observe the effects tht feedbck control
More informationExercise 11. The Sine Wave EXERCISE OBJECTIVE DISCUSSION OUTLINE. Relationship between a rotating phasor and a sine wave DISCUSSION
Exercise 11 The Sine Wve EXERCISE OBJECTIVE When you hve completed this exercise, you will be fmilir with the notion of sine wve nd how it cn be expressed s phsor rotting round the center of circle. You
More informationLab 8. Speed Control of a D.C. motor. The Motor Drive
Lb 8. Speed Control of D.C. motor The Motor Drive Motor Speed Control Project 1. Generte PWM wveform 2. Amplify the wveform to drive the motor 3. Mesure motor speed 4. Mesure motor prmeters 5. Control
More informationLecture 16: Four Quadrant operation of DC Drive (or) TYPE E Four Quadrant chopper Fed Drive: Operation
Lecture 16: Four Qudrnt opertion of DC Drive (or) TYPE E Four Qudrnt chopper Fed Drive: Opertion The rmture current I is either positive or negtive (flow in to or wy from rmture) the rmture voltge is lso
More information(CATALYST GROUP) B"sic Electric"l Engineering
(CATALYST GROUP) B"sic Electric"l Engineering 1. Kirchhoff s current l"w st"tes th"t (") net current flow "t the junction is positive (b) Hebr"ic sum of the currents meeting "t the junction is zero (c)
More informationExperiment 8 Series DC Motor (II)
Ojectives To control the speed of loded series dc motor y chnging rmture voltge. To control the speed of loded series dc motor y dding resistnce in prllel with the rmture circuit. To control the speed
More informationABB STOTZKONTAKT. ABB ibus EIB Current Module SM/S Intelligent Installation Systems. User Manual SM/S In = 16 A AC Un = 230 V AC
User Mnul ntelligent nstlltion Systems A B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 30 ma 30 ma n = AC Un = 230 V AC 30 ma 9 10 11 12 C ABB STOTZKONTAKT Appliction Softwre Current Vlue Threshold/1 Contents Pge 1 Device Chrcteristics...
More informationA Novel Back EMF Zero Crossing Detection of Brushless DC Motor Based on PWM
A ovel Bck EMF Zero Crossing Detection of Brushless DC Motor Bsed on PWM Zhu Bopeng Wei Hifeng School of Electricl nd Informtion, Jingsu niversity of Science nd Technology, Zhenjing 1003 Chin) Abstrct:
More informationTUTORIAL Electric Machine Modeling
TUTORIAL Electric Mchine Modeling October 206 Electric Mchine Modeling One cn crete electric chine odels using the bsic unction blocks in PSIM. In this tutoril, we will illustrte how to crete the odel
More informationThe Discussion of this exercise covers the following points:
Exercise 4 Bttery Chrging Methods EXERCISE OBJECTIVE When you hve completed this exercise, you will be fmilir with the different chrging methods nd chrgecontrol techniques commonly used when chrging NiMI
More informationExperiment 3: NonIdeal Operational Amplifiers
Experiment 3: NonIdel Opertionl Amplifiers Fll 2009 Equivlent Circuits The bsic ssumptions for n idel opertionl mplifier re n infinite differentil gin ( d ), n infinite input resistnce (R i ), zero output
More informationSLOVAK UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Faculty of Material Science and Technology in Trnava. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND ELECTRONICS Laboratory exercises
SLOVAK UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Fulty of Mteril Siene nd Tehnology in Trnv ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND ELECTRONICS Lbortory exerises Róbert Riedlmjer TRNAVA 00 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND ELECTRONICS Lbortory
More informationExperiment 3: NonIdeal Operational Amplifiers
Experiment 3: NonIdel Opertionl Amplifiers 9/11/06 Equivlent Circuits The bsic ssumptions for n idel opertionl mplifier re n infinite differentil gin ( d ), n infinite input resistnce (R i ), zero output
More informationKirchhoff s Rules. Kirchhoff s Laws. Kirchhoff s Rules. Kirchhoff s Laws. Practice. Understanding SPH4UW. Kirchhoff s Voltage Rule (KVR):
SPH4UW Kirchhoff s ules Kirchhoff s oltge ule (K): Sum of voltge drops round loop is zero. Kirchhoff s Lws Kirchhoff s Current ule (KC): Current going in equls current coming out. Kirchhoff s ules etween
More informationSection Thyristor converter driven DC motor drive
Section.3  Thyristor converter driven DC motor drive.3.1 Introduction Controllble ACDC converters using thyristors re perhps the most efficient nd most robust power converters for use in DC motor drives.
More information(1) Nonlinear system
Liner vs. nonliner systems in impednce mesurements I INTRODUCTION Electrochemicl Impednce Spectroscopy (EIS) is n interesting tool devoted to the study of liner systems. However, electrochemicl systems
More informationAlternatingCurrent Circuits
chpter 33 AlterntingCurrent Circuits 33.1 AC Sources 33.2 esistors in n AC Circuit 33.3 Inductors in n AC Circuit 33.4 Cpcitors in n AC Circuit 33.5 The LC Series Circuit 33.6 Power in n AC Circuit 33.7
More informationSafety Relay Unit. Main contacts Auxiliary contact Number of input channels Rated voltage Model Category. possible 24 VAC/VDC G9SA501.
Sfety Rely Unit The Series Offers Complete Lineup of Compct Units. Four kinds of mm wide Units re ville: A pole model, pole model, nd models with poles nd OFFdely poles, s well s Twohnd ler. Simple
More informationEE Controls Lab #2: Implementing StateTransition Logic on a PLC
Objective: EE 44  Controls Lb #2: Implementing Stternsition Logic on PLC ssuming tht speed is not of essence, PLC's cn be used to implement stte trnsition logic. he dvntge of using PLC over using hrdwre
More informationDESIGN OF CONTINUOUS LAG COMPENSATORS
DESIGN OF CONTINUOUS LAG COMPENSATORS J. Pulusová, L. Körösi, M. Dúbrvská Institute of Robotics nd Cybernetics, Slovk University of Technology, Fculty of Electricl Engineering nd Informtion Technology
More informationECE 274 Digital Logic. Digital Design. Datapath Components Shifters, Comparators, Counters, Multipliers Digital Design
ECE 27 Digitl Logic Shifters, Comprtors, Counters, Multipliers Digitl Design..7 Digitl Design Chpter : Slides to ccompny the textbook Digitl Design, First Edition, by Frnk Vhid, John Wiley nd Sons Publishers,
More information& Y Connected resistors, Light emitting diode.
& Y Connected resistors, Light emitting diode. Experiment # 02 Ojectives: To get some hndson experience with the physicl instruments. To investigte the equivlent resistors, nd Y connected resistors, nd
More informationSection 2.2 PWM converter driven DC motor drives
Section 2.2 PWM converter driven DC motor drives 2.2.1 Introduction Controlled power supply for electric drives re obtined mostly by converting the mins AC supply. Power electronic converter circuits employing
More informationUnderstanding Basic Analog Ideal Op Amps
Appliction Report SLAA068A  April 2000 Understnding Bsic Anlog Idel Op Amps Ron Mncini Mixed Signl Products ABSTRACT This ppliction report develops the equtions for the idel opertionl mplifier (op mp).
More informationMEASURE THE CHARACTERISTIC CURVES RELEVANT TO AN NPN TRANSISTOR
Electricity Electronics Bipolr Trnsistors MEASURE THE HARATERISTI URVES RELEVANT TO AN NPN TRANSISTOR Mesure the input chrcteristic, i.e. the bse current IB s function of the bse emitter voltge UBE. Mesure
More informationElectronic Circuits I  Tutorial 03 Diode Applications I
Electronic Circuits I  Tutoril 03 Diode Applictions I 1 / 9  T & F # Question 1 A diode cn conduct current in two directions with equl ese. F 2 When reversebised, diode idelly ppers s short. F 3 A
More informationFirst Round Solutions Grades 4, 5, and 6
First Round Solutions Grdes 4, 5, nd 1) There re four bsic rectngles not mde up of smller ones There re three more rectngles mde up of two smller ones ech, two rectngles mde up of three smller ones ech,
More informationSimulation of Transformer Based ZSource Inverter to Obtain High Voltage Boost Ability
Interntionl Journl of cience, Engineering nd Technology Reserch (IJETR), olume 4, Issue 1, October 15 imultion of Trnsformer Bsed Zource Inverter to Obtin High oltge Boost Ability A.hnmugpriy 1, M.Ishwry
More informationHomework #1 due Monday at 6pm. White drop box in Student Lounge on the second floor of Cory. Tuesday labs cancelled next week
Announcements Homework #1 due Mondy t 6pm White drop ox in Student Lounge on the second floor of Cory Tuesdy ls cncelled next week Attend your other l slot Books on reserve in Bechtel Hmley, 2 nd nd 3
More informationLecture (11) Three Phase Transformers
Lecture (11) Three Phase Transformers 111 High Low I = 1000 10 ( ) 4. 16 10 = 18. 8 6. 8 69 / 4.16 Kv The line current in the low voltage 1000 kv 0.8 p.f. lagging 112 For different connections, I2 V
More informationFuzzy Logic Controller for Three Phase PWM ACDC Converter
Journl of Electrotechnology, Electricl Engineering nd Mngement (2017) Vol. 1, Number 1 Clusius Scientific Press, Cnd Fuzzy Logic Controller for Three Phse PWM ACDC Converter Min Muhmmd Kml1,, Husn Ali2,b
More informationPostprint. This is the accepted version of a paper presented at IEEE PES General Meeting.
http://www.divportl.org Postprint This is the ccepted version of pper presented t IEEE PES Generl Meeting. Cittion for the originl published pper: Mhmood, F., Hooshyr, H., Vnfretti, L. (217) Sensitivity
More informationCHAPTER 3 AMPLIFIER DESIGN TECHNIQUES
CHAPTER 3 AMPLIFIER DEIGN TECHNIQUE 3.0 Introduction olidstte microwve mplifiers ply n importnt role in communiction where it hs different pplictions, including low noise, high gin, nd high power mplifiers.
More informationModeling of Conduction and Switching Losses in ThreePhase Asymmetric MultiLevel Cascaded Inverter
Proceedings of the 5th WEA nt. onf. on Power ystems nd Electromgnetic omptibility, orfu, Greece, August 2325, 2005 (pp176181) Modeling of onduction nd witching Losses in ThreePhse Asymmetric MultiLevel
More informationLow noise SQUID simulator with large dynamic range of up to eight flux quanta
Low noise SQUID simultor with lrge dynmic rnge of up to eight flux qunt A. Mrtinez*, J. Flokstr, C. Rillo**, L.A. Angurel**, L.M. Grci** nd H.J.M. ter Brke Twente University of Technology, Deprtment of
More informationOPERATING INSTRUCTION
2 AUTOMATIC POLARIMETER OPERATING INSTRUCTION Plese red through these operting instruction before using MRC.VER.01. CONTENTS I. APPLICATIONS.1 II. III. IV. PERFORMANCE 1 CONSTRUCTION AND PRINCIPLE 2
More informationDirect Current Circuits. Chapter Outline Electromotive Force 28.2 Resistors in Series and in Parallel 28.3 Kirchhoff s Rules 28.
P U Z Z L E R If ll these pplinces were operting t one time, circuit reker would proly e tripped, preventing potentilly dngerous sitution. Wht cuses circuit reker to trip when too mny electricl devices
More informationPolar Coordinates. July 30, 2014
Polr Coordintes July 3, 4 Sometimes it is more helpful to look t point in the xyplne not in terms of how fr it is horizontlly nd verticlly (this would men looking t the Crtesin, or rectngulr, coordintes
More informationExample. Check that the Jacobian of the transformation to spherical coordinates is
lss, given on Feb 3, 2, for Mth 3, Winter 2 Recll tht the fctor which ppers in chnge of vrible formul when integrting is the Jcobin, which is the determinnt of mtrix of first order prtil derivtives. Exmple.
More informationDynamic Power Quality Compensator with an Adaptive Shunt Hybrid Filter
Interntionl Journl of Electronics nd Drive System (IJPEDS) Vol. 4, No. 4, December 2014, pp. 508~516 ISSN: 20888694 508 Dynmic Qulity Compenstor with n dptive Shunt Hybrid Filter Sindhu M R, Mnjul G Nir,
More informationReversible and Proportional Electric Actuators
Reversible nd Proportionl Electric s The MP s re used for twoposition, floting, nd proportionl control of dmpers, vlves, nd progrm switches in heting, ventiltion, nd ir conditioning pplictions or similr
More informationJoanna Towler, Roading Engineer, Professional Services, NZTA National Office Dave Bates, Operations Manager, NZTA National Office
. TECHNICA MEMOANDM To Cc repred By Endorsed By NZTA Network Mngement Consultnts nd Contrctors NZTA egionl Opertions Mngers nd Are Mngers Dve Btes, Opertions Mnger, NZTA Ntionl Office Jonn Towler, oding
More informationREVIEW, pages
REVIEW, pges 510 515 6.1 1. Point P(10, 4) is on the terminl rm of n ngle u in stndrd position. ) Determine the distnce of P from the origin. The distnce of P from the origin is r. r x 2 y 2 Substitute:
More informationStudent Book SERIES. Patterns and Algebra. Name
E Student Book 3 + 7 5 + 5 Nme Contents Series E Topic Ptterns nd functions (pp. ) identifying nd creting ptterns skip counting completing nd descriing ptterns predicting repeting ptterns predicting growing
More informationCOMPARISON OF THE EFFECT OF FILTER DESIGNS ON THE TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION IN THREEPHASE STANDALONE PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS
O. 0, NO., NOEMBER 05 ISSN 896608 ARPN Journl of Engineering nd Applied Sciences 00605 Asin Reserch Pulishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved. www.rpnjournls.com OMPARISON OF THE EFFET OF FITER ESIGNS
More informationModule D1 Introduction to Distribution Systems
D ntroduction to Distriution Systems 30 Module D ntroduction to Distriution Systems Primry Author: Gerld B. Shele, ow Stte University Emil Address: gshele@istte.edu Prerequisite Competencies: Stedy Stte
More informationJob Sheet 2. Variable Speed Drive Operation OBJECTIVE PROCEDURE. To install and operate a Variable Speed Drive.
Job Sheet 2 Vrible Speed Drive Opertion OBJECTIVE To instll nd operte Vrible Speed Drive. PROCEDURE Before proceeding with this job, complete the sfety check list in Appendix B. 1. On the Vrible Speed
More informationSection 17.2: Line Integrals. 1 Objectives. 2 Assignments. 3 Maple Commands. 1. Compute line integrals in IR 2 and IR Read Section 17.
Section 7.: Line Integrls Objectives. ompute line integrls in IR nd IR 3. Assignments. Red Section 7.. Problems:,5,9,,3,7,,4 3. hllenge: 6,3,37 4. Red Section 7.3 3 Mple ommnds Mple cn ctully evlute line
More informationMisty. Sudnow Dot Songs
Sudnow Dot Songs isty T The Dot Song is nottionl system tht depicts voiced chords in wy where the nonmusic reder cn find these firly redily. But the Dot Song is not intended be red, not s sight reder
More informationEnergy Harvesting TwoWay Channels With Decoding and Processing Costs
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GREEN COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING, VOL., NO., MARCH 07 3 Energy Hrvesting TwoWy Chnnels With Decoding nd Processing Costs Ahmed Arf, Student Member, IEEE, Abdulrhmn Bknin, Student
More informationSeries AE W PFC INDUSTRIAL POWER SUPPLY
FEATURES Progrmmle output voltge (0%~05%) Progrmmle output current (0%~05%) Universl AC input / Full rnge Constnt current limiting Optionl glol control vi RS3 Selectle +5V / 0.5A or +9V / 0.3A uxiliry
More informationApplication Note. Differential Amplifier
Appliction Note AN367 Differentil Amplifier Author: Dve n Ess Associted Project: Yes Associted Prt Fmily: CY8C9x66, CY8C7x43, CY8C4x3A PSoC Designer ersion: 4. SP3 Abstrct For mny sensing pplictions, desirble
More informationControls. SolidState Switching Devices. Reference Manual April LowVoltage Controls and Distribution
Controls SolidStte Switching Devices Reference Mnul April 2009 LowVoltge Controls nd Distribution Controls SolidStte Switching Devices 4 Introduction SolidStte Switching Devices 5 Generl dt SolidStte
More informationStudy on SLT calibration method of 2port waveguide DUT
Interntionl Conference on Advnced Electronic cience nd Technology (AET 206) tudy on LT clibrtion method of 2port wveguide DUT Wenqing Luo, Anyong Hu, Ki Liu nd Xi Chen chool of Electronics nd Informtion
More informationAlgorithms for Memory Hierarchies Lecture 14
Algorithms for emory Hierrchies Lecture 4 Lecturer: Nodri Sitchinv Scribe: ichel Hmnn Prllelism nd Cche Obliviousness The combintion of prllelism nd cche obliviousness is n ongoing topic of reserch, in
More informationPassive and Active DC Breakers in the Three GorgesChangzhou HVDC Project
Pssive nd Active DC Brekers in the Three GorgesChngzhou HVDC Project Dg Andersson, Dr, nd Anders Henriksson, B.Sc.E.E, ABB, Sweden explined below) re AbstrctA new type of DC breker, bsed on stndrd SF
More informationDirect Current Circuits
8 Direct Current Circuits CHAPTE OUTLNE 8 Electromotive Force 8 esistors in Series nd Prllel 8 Kirchho s ules 84 C Circuits 85 Electricl Meters 86 Household Wiring nd Electricl Sety ANSWES TO QUESTONS
More informationGEH2024E Supersedes GEH INSTRUCTIONS MULTICONTACT AUXILARY RELAY. TYPE HFASl. www. ElectricalPartManuals. com. GENERAL fl ELECTRIC
INSTRUCTIONS MULTICONTACT AUXILARY RELAY TYPE HFASl GENERAL fl ELECTRIC E Supersedes 0 MULTICONTACT AUXILIARY RELAY TYPE HFASl DESCRIPTION The HFASl relys re instntneous, hingedrmture, multicontct, uxiliry
More information5 I. T cu2. T use in modem computing systems, it is desirable to. A Comparison of HalfBridge Resonant Converter Topologies
74 EEE TRANSACTONS ON POER ELECTRONCS, VOL. 3, NO. 2, APRL 988 A Comprison of HlfBridge Resonnt Converter Topologies AbstrctThe hlfbridge seriesresonnt, prllelresonnt, nd combintion seriesprllel
More informationEE 340L EXPERIMENT # 3 SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS
EE 340L EXPERIMENT # 3 SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS A. EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT PARAMETERS A.1. OPEN CIRCUIT TEST (a) Mechanically couple the generator with a shuntexcited DC motor as shown in figure 4(a). (b) With
More informationDataflow Language Model. DataFlow Models. Applications of Dataflow. Dataflow Languages. Kahn process networks. A Kahn Process (1)
The slides contin revisited mterils from: Peter Mrwedel, TU Dortmund Lothr Thiele, ETH Zurich Frnk Vhid, University of liforni, Riverside Dtflow Lnguge Model Drsticlly different wy of looking t computtion:
More informationARC DISCHARGE AND EROSION BEHAVIOR OF SILVER ELECTRIC CONTACTS BETWEEN STATIC GAP
ARC DISCHARGE AND EROSION BEHAVIOR OF SILVER ELECTRIC CONTACTS BETWEEN STATIC GAP Chung, HH. 1 Lee, RT. 2. Chiou, YC. 2 1 Deprtment of Automtion Engineering KoYun Institute of Technology 2 Deprtment
More informationUltra Low Cost ACCELEROMETER
Chip Scle Pckged Digitl Therml Orienttion Sensing Accelerometer MXC6226XC Document Version D Pge 1 of 13 Fetures Generl Description Fully Integrted Therml Accelerometer X/Y Axis, 8 bit, Accelertion A/D
More informationNP10 DIGITAL MULTIMETER Functions and features of the multimeter:
NP10 DIGITL MULTIMETER. unctions nd fetures of the multimeter: 1000 V CT III tri requencies from 10.00...10 M. Diode mesurement nd continuity testing. HOLD mesurement. Reltive mesurement. Duty cycle (%)
More informationCHAPTER 2 LITERATURE STUDY
CHAPTER LITERATURE STUDY. Introduction Multipliction involves two bsic opertions: the genertion of the prtil products nd their ccumultion. Therefore, there re two possible wys to speed up the multipliction:
More informationIncremental encoders Solid shaft with clamping or synchro flange pulses per revolution
Incrementl encoders Solid shft with clmping or synchro flnge 0 5000 pulses per revolution ExEIL580  solid shft Fetures Size mm Precise opticl sensing Output signl level TTL or HTL Clmping or synchro flnge
More informationMATH 118 PROBLEM SET 6
MATH 118 PROBLEM SET 6 WASEEM LUTFI, GABRIEL MATSON, AND AMY PIRCHER Section 1 #16: Show tht if is qudrtic residue modulo m, nd b 1 (mod m, then b is lso qudrtic residue Then rove tht the roduct of the
More informationEngineertoEngineer Note
EngineertoEngineer Note EE297 Technicl notes on using Anlog Devices DSPs, processors nd development tools Visit our Web resources http://www.nlog.com/eenotes nd http://www.nlog.com/processors or emil
More informationGEI E INSTRUCTIONS M ULTICONTACT AUXILIARY RELAYS TYPE HFA53. GE Protection and Control 205 Great Valley Parkway Malvern, PA
GEI6871 9E INSTRUCTIONS M ULTICONTACT AUXILIARY RELAYS TYPE HFA53 GE Protection nd Control 205 Gret Vlley Prkwy Mlvern, PA 193551337 2 for Semiflush Mounting (Front View) Connected Rely with Flnge
More informationModeling of Inverter Fed Five Phase Induction Motor using V/f Control Technique
Interntionl Journl of Current Engineering nd Technology EISSN 2277 4106, PISSN 2347 161 201INPRESSCO, All Rights Reserved Avilble t http://inpressco.com/ctegory/ijcet Reserch Article Modeling of Inverter
More informationCS2204 DIGITAL LOGIC & STATE MACHINE DESIGN fall 2008
CS224 DIGITAL LOGIC & STATE MACHINE DESIGN fll 28 STAND ALONE XILINX PROJECT 2TO MULTIPLEXER. Gols : Lern how to develop stnd lone 2to multiplexer () Xilinx project during which the following re introduced
More informationDesign And Implementation Of Luo Converter For Electric Vehicle Applications
Design And Implementtion Of Luo Converter For Electric Vehicle Applictions A.Mnikndn #1, N.Vdivel #2 ME (Power Electronics nd Drives) Deprtment of Electricl nd Electronics Engineering Sri Shkthi Institute
More informationDigital Design. Sequential Logic Design  Controllers. Copyright 2007 Frank Vahid
Digitl Design Sequentil Logic Design  Controllers Slides to ccompny the tetook Digitl Design, First Edition, y, John Wiley nd Sons Pulishers, 27. http://www.ddvhid.com Copyright 27 Instructors of courses
More informationApplication of Feed Forward Neural Network to Differential Protection of Turbogenerator
16th NATIONAL POWER SYSTEMS CONFERENCE, 15th17th DECEMBER, 21 464 Appliction of Feed Forwrd Neurl Network to Differentil Protection of Turbogenertor Amrit Sinh Dept. of Electricl Engg., Ntionl Institute
More informationIncremental encoders Solid shaft with clamping or synchro flange pulses per revolution programmable (interpolated system)
Incrementl encoders Solid shft with clmping or synchro flnge 1 6556 pulses per revolution progrmmle (interpolted system) EIL580P  solid shft  OptoPulse Fetures Size mm Precise opticl sensing (interpolted)
More informationWind Driven Induction Generator Regulation Using Ant system Approach to Takagi Sugeno Fuzzy PID Control
Wind Driven Induction Genertor Regultion Using Ant system Approch to Tkgi Sugeno Fuzzy PID Control A.H.Besheer 1 Electricl Engineering Deprtment, Fculty of Engineering University of Tbuk P.O. Box 7031,
More informationSri Ramakrishna Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, India 6. College of Engineering, Guindy, Chennai, India
DC Position Control System Determintion of Prmeters nd Significnce on System Dynmics C.Gnesh 1, B.Abhi 2, V.P.Annd 3, S.Arvind 4, R.Nndhini 5 nd S.K.Ptnik 6 1,2,3,4,5 Sri Rmkrishn Institute of Technology,
More informationFTU263. Ripple Control Receiver. Technical Data. Load Management Ripple Control
Lod Mngement Ripple Control Ripple Control Receiver FTU263 Technicl Dt The FTU263 comines the functionlity of ripple control receiver nd full clendr time switch. The FTU263 receiver is suited for opertion
More informationExponentialHyperbolic Model for Actual Operating Conditions of Three Phase Arc Furnaces
Americn Journl of Applied Sciences 6 (8): 15391547, 2009 ISSN 15469239 2009 Science Publictions ExponentilHyperbolic Model for Actul Operting Conditions of Three Phse Arc Furnces 1 Mhdi Bnejd, 2 RhmtAllh
More informationA Development of EarthingResistanceEstimation Instrument
A Development of ErthingResistnceEstimtion Instrument HITOSHI KIJIMA Abstrct:  Whenever erth construction work is done, the implnted number nd depth of electrodes hve to be estimted in order to obtin
More informationUltra Low Cost ACCELEROMETER
Chip Scle Pckged Fully Integrted Therml Accelerometer MXC622xXC Rev,A 8/19/2011 Pge 1 of 13 Fetures Generl Description Fully Integrted Therml Accelerometer X/Y Axis, 8 bit, Accelertion A/D Output (± 2g)
More informationArray chip resistors size ARC241/ARC242 ARV241/ARV242
Arry chip resistors FEATURES 4 0603 sized resistors in one 1206sized pckge Reduced reel exchnge time Low ssembly costs Reduced PCB re Reduced size of finl equipment Higher component nd equipment relibility.
More informationA Cost Effective Speed Control Method for BLDC Motor Drive
IJCTA, 9(33), 2016, pp. 0110 Interntionl Science Press Closed Loop Control of Soft Switched Forwrd Converter Using Intelligent Controller 1 A Cost Effective Speed Control Method for BLDC Motor Drive M.
More informationMagnetic monopole field exposed by electrons
Mgnetic monopole field exposed y electrons A. Béché, R. Vn Boxem, G. Vn Tendeloo, nd J. Vereeck EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenorgerln 171, 22 Antwerp, Belgium Opticl xis Opticl xis Needle Smple Needle
More informationCAL. NX15 DUODISPLAY QUARTZ
L. NX15 UOISPLY QURTZ l nlogue time disply l igitl time nd clendr l hronogrph l Tchymeter l t recll function l lrm l Illuminting light (Electroluminescent pnel) ENGLISH Illuminting light (TIME/LENR mode
More informationPerformance Comparison of Sliding Mode Control and Conventional PI Controller for Speed Control of Separately Excited Direct Current Motors
Journl of Science nd Technology Vol. 13, No. 2 Engineering nd Computer Sciences (ECS) Performnce Comprison of Sliding Mode Control nd Conventionl PI Controller for Speed Control of Seprtely Excited Direct
More informationFault Diagnosis Based on ANN for TurntoTurn Short Circuit of Synchronous Generator Rotor Windings
J. Electromgnetic Anlysis & Applictions, 2009, 3: 187191 doi:10.4236/jem.2009.13028 Published Online September 2009 (www.scirp.org/journl/jem) 187 Fult Dignosis Bsed on ANN or TurntoTurn Short Circuit
More informationPassive and Active Hybrid Integrated EMI Filters
Pssive nd Active Hybrid Integrted EMI Filters J. Biel, A. Wirthmueller, R. Wespe, M.. Heldwein, J. W. Kolr Power Electronic Systems bortory Swiss Federl Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerlnd Emil:
More informationADVANCED MODULATION TECHNIQUES FOR NEUTRAL POINT CLAMPED THREELEVEL INVERTERS IN AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS
ADVANCED MODULAION ECHNIQUES FOR NEURAL POIN CLAMPED HREELEVEL INVERERS IN AUOMOIVE APPLICAIONS NAZAK SOLEIMANPOUR A hesis In the Deprtment of Electricl nd Computer Engineering Presented in Prtil Fulfilment
More informationECE 274 Digital Logic Fall 2009 Digital Design
igitl Logic ll igitl esign MW :PM, IL Romn Lysecky, rlysecky@ece.rizon.edu http://www.ece.rizon.edu/~ece hpter : Introduction Slides to ccompny the textbook igitl esign, irst dition, by rnk Vhid, John
More informationSYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES The geometry of a synchronous machine is quite similar to that of the induction machine. The stator core and windings of a threephase synchronous machine are practically identical
More information10.4 AREAS AND LENGTHS IN POLAR COORDINATES
65 CHAPTER PARAMETRIC EQUATINS AND PLAR CRDINATES.4 AREAS AND LENGTHS IN PLAR CRDINATES In this section we develop the formul for the re of region whose oundry is given y polr eqution. We need to use the
More informationCS 135: Computer Architecture I. Boolean Algebra. Basic Logic Gates
Bsic Logic Gtes : Computer Architecture I Boolen Algebr Instructor: Prof. Bhgi Nrhri Dept. of Computer Science Course URL: www.ses.gwu.edu/~bhgiweb/cs35/ Digitl Logic Circuits We sw how we cn build the
More informationDesign and implementation of a highspeed bitserial SFQ adder based on the binary decision diagram
INSTITUTE OFPHYSICS PUBLISHING Supercond. Sci. Technol. 16 (23) 1497 152 SUPERCONDUCTORSCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PII: S953248(3)671113 Design nd implementtion of highspeed itseril SFQ dder sed on the
More information