# Photonics (OPTI 510R 2017) - Final exam. (May 8, 10:30am-12:30pm, R307)

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1 Photonics (OPTI 510R 2017) - Final exam (May 8, 10:30am-12:30pm, R307) Problem 1: (30pts) You are tasked with building a high speed fiber communication link between San Francisco and Tokyo (Japan) which goes under the North Pacific Ocean through Hawaii (See map below). Assume that you are going to use SMF28 and S1000 DCF fibers from Corning, DFB diode lasers from JDSU, APD receivers from Fujitsu, and EDFAs from a local company. The specifications and cost of these devices are shown below. a) What is the length of each of the fibers you are going to need? (10pts) b) How many lasers, receivers, EDFAs are needed? What is the distance between EDFAs? The total loss (from the starting point to the first EDFA, or from one EDFA to the next EDFA) on splices and connectors is ~ 2dB. (10pts) c) What is the estimated cost of the optical parts to build the whole network that you need to come up with? (10pts). SMF28 fiber: D = 17ps/nm/km, Core diameter: 8.3µm, NA = 0.13, MFD = 10.4µm; Loss1550nm=0.19dB/km, 10 cents per meter S1000 DCF fiber: D = -38ps/nm/km, MFD = 5.9µm, Loss1550nm = 0.235dB/km, 20 cents per meter DFB lasers: Operating wavelength C/L band; 10mW maximum output power; <1MHz spectral linewidth, \$100/piece Intensity modulators: 10Gb/s bandwidth, \$100/piece Fujitsu APD receivers: Bit rate: up to 10.7Gb/s; sensitivity: -27dBm, \$20/piece EDFAs: Small signal gain=30db (you can assume flat gain over C and L band); Saturation power: 200µW; Maximum output power: 26dBm, \$1000/unit

2 Problem 2: (10pts) Calculate stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering threshold for a 100 fs pulse at 1550nm in a 10 m SMF28 fiber. Problem 3: Pulse propagation in a laser cavity (20pts) The figure above shows a typical schematic diagram of a mode-locked (which generates femtosecond pulses) ring fiber laser cavity. a) What are the components (1), (2), (3)? Explain their function in the ring laser cavity.

3 b) The length of the active Er-doped fiber is 2 meters; the total length of the passive fibers in the cavity is about 5 meters. What is the spacing between the longitudinal modes of this ring laser cavity? You can assume the group index of the mode in all the fibers is c) The mode-locked laser is designed to generated 100 fs pulses. How many longitudinal modes will be oscillating in the laser cavity? d) The net dispersion of the laser cavity is the sum of the dispersion of all the fibers in the cavity: Dtotal = Dactive + Dpassive. The laser would generate soliton pulses if Dtotal >>0 (anomalous dispersion). In soliton regime the pulse circulates around the laser cavity is transform-limited and does not change its shape significantly (as shown in the figure below). Plot the evolution of the pulse in the laser cavity for two cases: Dactive < 0 and Dpassive >0 (Dtotal ~ 0); Dactive < 0 and Dpassive <0 (all normal dispersion cavity design). Problem 4: (20pts) An optical circulator is analogous to an electronic circulator and both perform similar functions. An optical circulator is a three-port device that allows light to travel in only one direction. A signal entering to Port 1 will exit Port 2 with minimal loss, while a signal entering Port 2 will exit Port 3 with minimal loss. Light entering port 2 experiences a large amount of loss at port 1, and light entering port 3 experiences a large amount of loss at ports 2 and 1. Because of its high isolation and low insertion loss, optical circulators are widely used in advanced communication systems as add-drop multiplexers, bi-directional pumps, and chromatic dispersion compensation devices.

4 The example above (on the right) depicts the use of a circulator to drop an optical channel from a DWDM system using a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG). The input DWDM channels are coupled into Port 1 of the device with a FBG device connected to Port 2. The single wavelength reflected from the FBG then reenters the circulator in port 2 and is routed accordingly to Port 3. The remaining signals pass through the FBG and exit on the top fiber. A standard specification sheet of a circulator working at around 1550nm is shown below. a) If you launch 1 mw of a fiber-coupled DFB 1550nm laser into port #1 of the circulator, what is the power on port #2 and #3? b) You would like to do an experiment to measure the stimulated Brillouin threshold of the DFB laser on a 50km fiber spool (SMF28). How would you use the circulator in this experiment? Problem 5: (20pts) You need to do important measurements on a 1064 nm CW laser source using the DET20C detector (a typical biased InGaAs photodetector). The basic electrical circuit and optical specifications of the detector are shown below. a) What is the lowest power from the 1060nm laser that the photodetector can detect assuming full operating bandwidth? b) What is the saturation laser power of the detector? The saturation power is the power beyond which the output voltage does not increase anymore.

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