# CHAPTER 3 VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTER (VSI)

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1 37 CHAPTER 3 VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTER (VSI) 3.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter presents speed and torque characteristics of induction motor fed by a new controller. The proposed controller is based on fuzzy logic technique in order to reduce speed and torque pulsation due to load variations. The fuzzy based controller deals with the space vector pulse width modulation of the voltage source inverter and introduces a computationally very efficient three level SVPWM algorithm. In the past two decades several strategies of speed and torque control of induction motor were reported. Among them proportional controller (P), proportional plus integral controller (PI) and fuzzy logic controller are popular one. Furthermore, the proposed fuzzy based SVPWM algorithm is successfully generalized to allow equally efficient real time implementation of SVPWM to dc/ac converters with virtually any number of levels. More induction motors are used in industry because they are more rugged and reliable than DC machines. However, their dynamic behaviour is considerably more complex than that of a DC machine due to the highly nonlinear and time varying mathematical equations of the induction machine. Many industrial applications require ac/ac power conversion and ac/ac

2 38 converters take power from one ac system and deliver it to another with voltage waveforms of different amplitude, frequency or phase. Therefore, induction motors are often used in a closed loop for adjustable speed applications (Burnay 1989) while DC machines or stepping motors are preferred for high precision positioning tasks. Nevertheless, with the recent advances made in both power electronics data processing and control techniques, the speed control of induction motors can be reliably carried out. High performance electric drives require decoupled torque and flux control. This control is commonly provided through Field Oriented Control (FOC) which is based on decoupling of the torque producing current component and the flux producing component. FOC drive scheme requires current controllers with coordinates transformation techniques. Current regulated pulse width modulation inverter and inner current loops degrade the dynamic performance in the operating regions wherein the voltage margin is insufficient for the current control, particularly in the field weakening region (Leonhard 1996). The problem of decoupling the stator current in a dynamic fashion is avoided by Direct Torque Control. Direct torque control is nowadays widely used for induction motor drives. It provides a very quick and precise torque response without the complex field orientation block and the inner current regulation loop. Due to this shortcoming the application of fuzzy logic attracts the attention of many scientists and researchers all over the word. The fuzzy logic control strategy has been chosen for its simplicity and its robustness to external and plant parameter disturbances.

3 39 Indeed, the fuzzy logic theory offers the advantage of requiring only a simple mathematical model to formulate the algorithm. These features are appreciated for non linear processes for which there is no reliable model and for fast drives such as the induction motor. On the other hand, the ongoing research has concentrated on the elimination of the speed sensor at the machine shaft without deteriorating the dynamic performance of the drive control system. The advantages of fuzzy controller based speed sensor induction motor drives are reduced hardware complexity, lower cost, reduced size of the drive machine, better noise immunity, increased reliability and less maintenance requirements. In this work, the performance of the DTC based speed control of induction motor and torque pulsation strategies are presented. The Fuzzy Logic technique then replaces the switching table and hysteresis regulator of the conventional direct torque control while the rotation speed is estimated by the Adaptive System method. 3.2 PRINCIPLE OF VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTER Rectifier fed inverter system has two stage converters. In this research inverter side control is described. Rectifier side control is used to find out duty cycle. Most inverter applications require a means of voltage control. This control may be required because of variations in the inverter source voltage and regulation within the inverter. It can be grouped into three categories, Control of voltage supplied to the inverter Control of voltage within the inverter Control of voltage delivered by the inverter

4 40 There are a number of well known methods of controlling the d-c voltage supplied to an inverter or the a-c voltage delivered by an inverter. It includes the use of saturable reactor, magnetic amplifier, induction regulator, phase controlled rectifiers and transistor series or shunt regulators. With the introduction of high speed, efficient and extremely reliable solid state switching devices, including transistor and silicon controlled rectifier, considerable effort has been put to develop new methods of voltage control. In general, these improved controls involve switching techniques where the voltage control is achieved by some form of switching time-ratio control. One of the most advantageous means of controlling inverter output voltage is to incorporate switching time-ratio controls within the inverter circuit. This basic form of inverter voltage control is the principal emphasis of this chapter. With implementation of this technique, it is often possible to include inverter output voltage control without significantly adding to the total number of circuit components. A single phase pulse width control technique is discussed here to illustrate the important principles of this means of controls. By properly gating the inverter controlled rectifying device it is possible to vary the amplitude of fundamental component of inverter output voltage. With this method of control, it is possible to substantially reduce or eliminate lower frequency harmonics (Bowes 1975). Therefore with a minimum filtering a good output waveform is obtained over a wide inverter voltage control range.

5 41 Figure 3.1shows basic rectifier fed inverter system. There are six switches arranged in a sequence at inverter side. The upper end legs contain S1, S3 and S5. The lower end legs contain S4, S6 and S2. At the same instant, no two devices in a leg should be switched on simultaneously. It causes input short circuit. Possible On and Off states are tabulated in Table 3.1. Figure 3.1 Three Phase Rectifier Fed Inverter Table 3.1 Switching States of Voltage Source Inverter Switching State Leg U Leg V Leg W S 1 S 4 V UN S 3 S 6 V VN S 5 S 2 V WN

6 42 P On Off V d On Off V d On Off V d O Off On 0 Off On 0 Off On 0 The aim is to propose a controller to reduce torque and speed pulsation. The problem posed is to find the ripple and harmonic frequency content of squirrel cage induction machine characteristics (i.e. current, torque, rotor speed, and voltage) when various space vector modulation (SVM) algorithms are applied to the stator voltage. The discontinuous as well as continuous SVM with active pulses centered in each half-carrier cycle was implemented using basic SVM theory (Holmes and Lipo 2003). This thesis investigates space vector modulation algorithms conventional with active vectors. Space vector theory states that the conventional SVM to outperform the discontinuous modulation algorithms with respect to unwanted harmonic content and ripples. One may question the use of discontinuous modulation when faced with this fact. The reason to use discontinuous modulation is to decrease the switching losses in the transistors by periodically clamping one of the three phases to a rail to produce a zero vector. The decrease in switching losses associated with discontinuous modulation allows the system to utilize higher carrier switching frequency. However, this analysis only uses one carrier frequency which governs the period of modulation and switching of the inverter gates. It is desired the amplitude of the stator voltage V s, to reach 460*sqrt (2/3) V d on each phase for rated operation. This means that by virtue of the inverter circuit in Figure 3.1 and space vector modulation theory that the DC input to the inverter must be as given. π (3.1)

7 43 where V s is Source voltage Assuming that the magnitude of each space vector is (2/3) V d this relation is due to the limit of averaging the two nearest space vectors at the consecutive phases. With the input voltage as defined in Equation (3.1), the peak inverter output voltage at each phase θ k cannot exceed 460*sqrt (2/3) as indicated in Equation (3.2). θ π π (3.2) The voltage source inverter is modeled with ideal switches (e.g. S 1, S 2, S 3, S 4, S 5 and S ) and an infinitely stiff voltage source at the inverter input 6 terminals. Ideal switching operation assumes no conduction or switching losses in the transistors, and the stiff input voltage requires the capacitance, C in, across the inverter input terminals to be infinite. The inverter is pictured in Figure 3.1. The theory behind space vector modulation is to apply space vectors as illustrated in chapter 4 for varying time periods in a pattern based on the SVM algorithm. Six space vectors can be obtained in a three phase system through six different combinations of open and closed switches in the inverter. Only one switch may be closed per phase leg in order to prevent a short circuit. These space vectors represent the complex d-q voltage applied to the stator. 3.3 TORQUE AND SPEED PULSATION REDUCTION Torque control is one method used in variable frequency drives to control the torque (and thus finally the speed) of three phase induction motor. This involves calculating an estimate of the motor's magnetic flux and torque

8 44 based on the measured voltage and current of the motor. Figure 3.2 shows the basic torque control technique. It contains the following main blocks. a. Torque estimator b. Torque controller c. Flux controller d. Lookup table for pulse generator Stator flux linkage is estimated by integrating the stator voltages. Torque is estimated as a cross product of estimated stator flux linkage vector and measured motor current vector. The estimated flux magnitude and torque are then compared with their reference values. If either the estimated flux or torque deviates from the reference more than allowed tolerance, the transistors of the variable frequency drive are turned Off and On in such a way that the flux and torque will return to their tolerance bands as fast as possible. Thus direct torque control is one form of the hysteresis or bang-bang control. Flux Reference Current /Phase/3 Flux and Torque estimator Flux Flux Flux Controller Look up table Gate control Signal Voltage /Phase/3 Torque Controller Speed Torque Torque Reference Figure 3.2 Basic DTC Control (Sensor based)

9 PROPERTIES OF TORQUE CONTROL TECHNIQUE Torque and flux can be changed by changing the voltage and current references of the inverter The step response of torque control has no overshoot. Calculations are done using stationary coordinate system. The switching frequency of the inverter side switches is not constant. The torque and current ripple are minimized by controlling switching frequency. Digital simulation is possible and very easy to implement in real time. Its control algorithm is performed with high speed operation (10-30 microseconds). The direct torque method performs without speed sensors. The flux estimation is usually based on the integration of the motor phase voltages. This will perform well with speed sensor. 3.5 CONCLUSION In this chapter three level inverter and theory of torque control are illustrated. The induction motor voltages and currents are sensed to estimate the torque and the stator flux vector. Direct torque control ensures fast transient response and generates simple implementations due to the absence of closed loop current control. It can be implemented with speed sensor as well as in sensorless configurations. Here sensor based control is used. One

10 46 drawback in DTC is pulsating torque. This torque pulsation is minimized by generating suitable gate drive pulse using fuzzy logic controller. This proposed fuzzy based space vector pulse width modulation controller is analyzed in the following chapter 6. The proposed fuzzy based space matrix pulse width modulation will reduce torque pulsation.

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