# Lesson 4: Frequencies & Privileges

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1 Lesson 4: Frequencies & Privileges Preparation for Amateur Radio Technician Class Exam

2 Topics Frequency limits Frequencies and Wavelengths Band Sharing Operating Guidelines Emission Types Technician Frequency Privileges Exam Questions for this section Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 1

3 Reading Chapter , Chapter Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 2

4 Review questions What is the ITU and what do they do? What ITU region is the USA in? What is a radio frequency? What is a frequency band? What are the four license classes in the USA? Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 3

5 Frequency Limits When operating in ITU Region 2, we are limited to certain frequencies of certain bands, according to license class Some frequencies are in the VHF band Some frequencies are in the UHF band VHF = very high frequency UHF = ultra high frequency Remember: A shorter wavelength equals a higher frequency Longer wavelengths travel further This is why the 2 meter band is so popular it is almost the longest wavelength a Technician can use Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 4

6 VHF Frequency Limits VHF Band 6 meter 2 meters 1.25 meters 1.25 meters Frequency limits MHz MHz MHz MHz Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 5

7 UHF Frequency Limits UHF Band 70 centimeters 33 centimeters 23 centimeters 13 centimeters 13 centimeters Frequency limits MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 6

8 Frequencies and Wavelengths Remember: Frequency and wavelength are related by this formula: Speed of light (m/s) = frequency (Hz) X wavelength (m) C = f λ Speed of light = 300,000,000 meters per second 300 x 10 6 m/s Megahertz = Hertz x MHz meters f C λ Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 7

9 Frequencies and Wavelengths So given a frequency, we can find the wavelength band it belongs to Cover the cell for the quantity you don t know (wavelength or meters): This tells us that to find the wavelength, we divide speed of light by frequency 300 MHz meters Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 8

10 Frequencies and Wavelengths 28.4 MHz is what wavelength? 300 / 28.4 MHz = wavelength 300 / 28.4 = meters What is the ham radio band for that wavelength? 10 meters Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 9

11 Frequencies and Wavelengths MHz is what wavelength? 300 / MHz = wavelength 300 / = meters What is the ham radio band for that wavelength? 1.25 meters (because that is the closest band; there isn t a 1 meter band) Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 10

12 Band Sharing Some of the amateur radio bands are allocated exclusively for amateur radio No one else may use that band Other bands are shared A shared band has a primary service and a secondary service A secondary service must not cause harmful interference to, and must accept interference from, stations in a primary service Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 11

13 Band Sharing For example, if you cause interference to a radiolocation service outside the US a primary user of their frequency you must stop transmitting on that frequency or take other steps to avoid the interference On the other hand, all hams have equal rights to the amateur radio bands Higher classes of license grant you rights to more bands, but you still have to share equally with all other ham radio operators Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 12

14 Band Sharing All UHF bands and bands with higher frequencies have sharing arrangements If you want to use these frequencies, check the ARRL FCC rule book to be sure you are operating legally For example, one rule says that No amateur station shall transmit north of Line A in the MHz segment. This is in the 70 centimeter band Line A starts about 50 miles south of the Canada/ US border Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 13

15 Review: Operating Guidelines You may talk to all amateur stations at any time, unless prohibited by either government A reciprocal operating authority allows you to operate your radio in another country Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 14

16 Operating Guidelines In an emergency communication needs in connection with the immediate safety of human life and immediate protection of property when normal communications systems are not available you can do anything you need to do to communicate This includes: Operating on bands that you do not normally have access to because of your class of license Frequencies outside the amateur bands Communicating with other radio services police, fire, civil defense, etc. Just be sure it is really an emergency! Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 15

17 Operating Guidelines You many not broadcast communications Broadcasting means transmission of information intended for reception of the general public The only one-way communications allowed are with beacon or radio control operation, such as: Controlling model craft Adjusting a repeater remotely Also, the broadcast of Morse Code practice is allowed You may not transmit music of any form Unless you have permission to rebroadcast space shuttle transmissions that include incidental music Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 16

18 Operating Guidelines You may not use obscene or indecent language You may not use codes or ciphers to obscure meaning You may not cause harmful interference to other communications of any type You may not transmit false or deceptive signals Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 17

19 Operating Guidelines Communications must be non-commercial Personal communications only, without business reasons You may not accept any kind of compensation for the use of your station at any time, including passing messages for third parties Exceptions: You may notify other hams about the sale of ham gear using your radio Teachers may use amateur radios in the classroom as part of their classroom instruction You may call for pizza or to get a tow-truck when your car breaks down Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 18

20 Operating Guidelines You must identify all of your communications with your call sign, with these exceptions: When controlling model craft When sent from a space station Except for these cases, unidentified communications are not allowed Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 19

21 Emission Types An emission is any RF signal from a transmitter There are a number of emission types defined by the FCC CW Data Image MCW Phone Pulse RTTY SS Test Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 20

22 Emission Types CW = Morse Code Data = telemetry, telecommand, computer Image = Television, fax Phone = voice Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 21

23 Emission Types A steady radio frequency signal is unmodulated It is called a test emission It conveys no information To convey information, we have to modulate the signal A transmitter combines a radio signal with some kind of information signal The signals are later split apart by the receiver (demodulated) Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 22

24 CW Emission Types The simplest modulation On/off signals in a pattern On can be long (dah) or short (dit) Geri = dah dah dit dit dit dah dit dit dit Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 23

25 Emission Types There are several phone (voice) transmissions: AM, SSB, FM AM Amplitude Modulation It is as if two copies of the signal are produced One above the carrier frequency upper sideband One below the carrier frequency lower sideband Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 24

26 SSB Emission Types In single-side band, we split the AM signal in two and just broadcast one side of it, without the carrier This saves a lot of bandwidth! By convention, amateurs use: Upper sideband for 10-meter phone operation Upper sideband on VHF and UHF bands Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 25

27 FM Emission Types Frequency Modulation FM phone is the most common mode used by Technician class radio operators Almost all VHF and UHF repeaters use FM phone A good FM phone signal will quiet any background noise, so is called full quieting Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 26

28 Packet Emission Types A commonly used data transmission mode Transmitting information between computers using amateur radio as the connection Designed as a link between two stations When two stations are connected, one station is transmitting to the other, and the receiving station acknowledges receipt of the data Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 27

29 Technician Frequency Privileges 50 MHz and up all privileges on all frequencies allocated to the amateur service That is 6 meter and above (shorter wavelengths), or in the VHF, UHF, and microwave bands You are allowed up to 1500 watts PEP on these bands See page 2.6 in the book for a lot more details! For example: Point-to-point digital message forwarding is allowed in 219 MHz MHz frequency range Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 28

30 Technician Frequency Privileges Technicians with Morse Code credit get a few extra privileges in the HF bands (10 meter and below), but only at 200 watts PEP output For example: 80-meter band in ITU Region 2, khz, CW only 10-meter band in ITU Region 2, MHz, varies depending on frequency 10-meter band, 28.3 to 28.5 MHz, CW and single-sideband phone 7100 to 7150 khz in ITU Region 2, CW only Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 29

31 Exam Questions The following slides contain questions from the exam pool that are covered in this section of the notes Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 30

32 T1B01 T1B01 What are the frequency limits of the 6-meter band in ITU Region 2? A MHz B MHz C MHz D MHz Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 31

33 T1B02 T1B02 What are the frequency limits of the 2-meter band in ITU Region 2? A MHz B MHz C MHz D MHz Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 32

34 T1B03 T1B03 What are the frequency limits of the 1.25-meter band in ITU Region 2? A MHz B MHz C MHz D MHz Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 33

35 T1B04 T1B04 What are the frequency limits of the 70-centimeter band in ITU Region 2? A MHz B MHz C MHz D MHz Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 34

36 T1B05 T1B05 What are the frequency limits of the 33-centimeter band in ITU Region 2? A MHz B MHz C MHz D MHz Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 35

37 T1B06 T1B06 What are the frequency limits of the 23-centimeter band in ITU Region 2? A MHz B MHz C MHz D MHz Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 36

38 T1B07 T1B07 What are the frequency limits of the 13-centimeter band in ITU Region 2? A MHz and MHz B MHz and MHz C MHz and MHz D MHz and MHz Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 37

39 T1B08 T1B08 If the FCC rules say that the amateur service is a secondary user of a frequency band, and another service is a primary user, what does this mean? A. Nothing special; all users of a frequency band have equal rights to operate B. Amateurs are only allowed to use the frequency band during emergencies C. Amateurs are allowed to use the frequency band only if they do not cause harmful interference to primary users D. Amateurs must increase transmitter power to overcome any interference caused by primary users Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 38

40 T1B09 T1B09 What rule applies if two amateur stations want to use the same frequency? A. The station operator with a lesser class of license must yield the frequency to a higher-class licensee B. The station operator with a lower power output must yield the frequency to the station with a higher power output C. Both station operators have an equal right to operate on the frequency D. Station operators in ITU Regions 1 and 3 must yield the frequency to stations in ITU Region 2 Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 39

41 T1B10 T1B10 If you are operating on MHz, in what amateur band are you operating? A. 80 meters B. 40 meters C. 15 meters D. 10 meters Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 40

42 T1B11 T1B11 If you are operating on MHz, in what amateur band are you operating? A. 15 meters B. 10 meters C. 2 meters D meters Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 41

43 T1B13 T1B13 If you are operating FM phone on the 23- cm band and learn that you are interfering with a radiolocation station outside the US, what must you do? A. Stop operating or take steps to eliminate this harmful interference B. Nothing, because this band is allocated exclusively to the amateur service C. Establish contact with the radiolocation station and ask them to change frequency D. Change to CW mode, because this would not likely cause interference Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 42

44 T1B15 T1B15 What are the frequency limits for the amateur radio service for stations located north of Line A in the 70-cm band? A MHz B MHz C MHz D MHz Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 43

45 T1A04 T1A04 When is an amateur station authorized to transmit information to the general public? A. Never B. Only when the operator is being paid C. Only when the broadcast transmission lasts less than 1 hour D. Only when the broadcast transmission lasts longer than 15 minutes Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 44

46 T1A05 T1A05 When is an amateur station authorized to transmit music? A. Amateurs may not transmit music, except as an incidental part of an authorized rebroadcast of space shuttle communications B. Only when the music produces no spurious emissions C. Only when the music is used to jam an illegal transmission D. Only when the music is above 1280 MHz, and the music is a live performance Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 45

47 T1A06 T1A06 When is the transmission of codes or ciphers allowed to hide the meaning of a message transmitted by an amateur station? A. Only during contests B. Only during nationally declared emergencies C. Codes and ciphers may not be used to obscure the meaning of a message, although there are special exceptions D. Only when frequencies above 1280 MHz are used Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 46

48 T1A07 T1A07 Which of the following one-way communications may NOT be transmitted in the amateur service? A. Telecommand to model craft B. Broadcasts intended for reception by the general public C. Brief transmissions to make adjustments to the station D. Morse code practice Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 47

49 T1A10 T1A10 When may false or deceptive signals or communications be transmitted by an amateur station? A. Never B. When operating a beacon transmitter in a "fox hunt" exercise C. When playing a harmless "practical joke" D. When you need to hide the meaning of a message for secrecy Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 48

50 T1A11 T1A11 When may an amateur station transmit unidentified communications? A. Only during brief tests not meant as messages B. Only when they do not interfere with others C. Only when sent from a space station or to control a model craft D. Only during two-way or third-party communications Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 49

51 T1A12 T1A12 What is an amateur communication called that does NOT have the required station identification? A. Unidentified communications or signals B. Reluctance modulation C. Test emission D. Tactical communication Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 50

52 T1A13 T1A13 What is a transmission called that disturbs other communications? A. Interrupted CW B. Harmful interference C. Transponder signals D. Unidentified transmissions Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 51

53 T1A14 T1A14 What does the term broadcasting mean? A. Transmissions intended for reception by the general public, either direct or relayed B. Retransmission by automatic means of programs or signals from non-amateur stations C. One-way radio communications, regardless of purpose or content D. One-way or two-way radio communications between two or more stations Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 52

54 T1A15 T1A15 Why is indecent and obscene language prohibited in the Amateur Service? A. Because it is offensive to some individuals B. Because young children may intercept amateur communications with readily available receiving equipment C. Because such language is specifically prohibited by FCC Rules D. All of these choices are correct Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 53

55 T1A16 T1A16 Which of the following is a prohibited amateur radio transmission? A. Using an autopatch to seek emergency assistance B. Using an autopatch to pick up business messages C. Using an autopatch to call for a tow truck D. Using an autopatch to call home to say you are running late Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 54

56 T1C09 T1C09 Under what conditions are amateur stations allowed to communicate with stations operating in other radio services? A. Never; amateur stations are only permitted to communicate with other amateur stations B. When authorized by the FCC or in an emergency C. When communicating with stations in the Citizens Radio Service D. When a commercial broadcast station is using Amateur Radio frequencies for newsgathering during a natural disaster Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 55

57 T5C02 T5C02 What is one example of one-way communication that Technician class control operators are permitted by FCC rules? A. Transmission for radio control of model craft B. Use of amateur television for surveillance purposes C. Retransmitting National Weather Service broadcasts D. Use of amateur radio as a wireless microphone for a public address system Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 56

58 T2B13 T2B13 What name does the FCC use for voice emissions? A. RTTY B. Data C. CW D. Phone Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 57

59 T2B03 T2B03 What name does the FCC use for telemetry, telecommand or computer communications emissions? A. CW B. Image C. Data D. RTTY Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 58

60 T2B14 T2B14 What emission privilege is permitted a Technician class operator in the 219 MHz MHz frequency range? A. Slow-scan television B. Point-to-point digital message forwarding C. FM voice D. Fast-scan television Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 59

61 T2B01 T2B01 What are the frequency limits of the 80-meter band in ITU Region 2 for Technician class licensees who have passed a Morse code exam? A khz B khz C khz D khz Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 60

62 T2B02 T2B02 What are the frequency limits of the 10-meter band in ITU Region 2 for Technician class licensees who have passed a Morse code exam? A MHz B MHz C MHz D MHz Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 61

63 T2B05 T2B05 What emission types are Technician control operators who have passed a Morse code exam allowed to use from 7100 to 7150 khz in ITU Region 2? A. CW and data B. Phone C. Data only D. CW only Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 62

64 T2B06 T2B06 What emission types are Technician control operators who have passed a Morse code exam allowed to use on frequencies from 28.3 to 28.5 MHz? A. All authorized amateur emission privileges B. CW and data C. CW and single-sideband phone D. Data and phone Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 63

65 T2B07 T2B07 What emission types are Technician control operators allowed to use on the amateur 1.25-meter band in ITU Region 2? A. Only CW and phone B. Only CW and data C. Only data and phone D. All amateur emission privileges authorized for use on the band Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 64

66 T2B12 T2B12 What is the most transmitter power a Technician control operator with telegraphy credit may use on the 10-meter band? A. 5 watts PEP output B. 25 watts PEP output C. 200 watts PEP output D watts PEP output Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 65

67 T2A13 T2A13 What is the basic principle of radio communications? A. A radio wave is combined with an information signal and is transmitted; a receiver separates the two B. A transmitter separates information to be received from a radio wave C. A DC generator combines some type of information into a carrier wave so that it may travel through space D. The peak-to-peak voltage of a transmitter is varied by the sidetone and modulated by the receiver Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 66

68 T2B04 T2B04 What does "connected" mean in a packetradio link? A. A telephone link is working between two stations B. A message has reached an amateur station for local delivery C. A transmitting station is sending data to only one receiving station; it replies that the data is being received correctly D. A transmitting and receiving station are using a digipeater, so no other contacts can take place until they are finished Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 67

69 T2B08 T2B08 What term describes the process of combining an information signal with a radio signal? A. Superposition B. Modulation C. Demodulation D. Phase-inversion Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 68

70 T2B09 T2B09 What is the name of the voice emission most used on VHF/UHF repeaters? A. Single-sideband phone B. Pulse-modulated phone C. Slow-scan phone D. Frequency-modulated phone Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 69

71 T2B10 T2B10 What does the term "phone transmissions" usually mean? A. The use of telephones to set up an amateur contact B. A phone patch between amateur radio and the telephone system C. AM, FM or SSB voice transmissions by radiotelephony D. Placing the telephone handset near a transceiver's microphone and speaker to relay a telephone call Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 70

72 T2B11 T2B11 Which sideband is commonly used for 10-meter phone operation? A. Upper sideband B. Lower sideband C. Amplitude-compandored sideband D. Double sideband Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 71

73 T2B15 T2B15 Which sideband is normally used for VHF/UHF SSB communications? A. Upper sideband B. Lower sideband C. Double sideband D. Double sideband, suppressed carrier Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 72

74 T2B16 T2B16 Which of the following descriptions is used to describe a good signal through a repeater? A. Full quieting B. Over deviation C. Breaking up D. Readability zero Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 73

75 T2B17 [T2B17 - THIS QUESTION HAS BEEN FORMALLY WITHDRAWN BY THE QPC. IT WILL NOT BE USED ON TESTS.] Lesson 1: Intro to Ham Radio - 74

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