# Network Theorems. Chapter

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1 Chapter 10 Network Theorems 10-2: Thevenin s Theorem 10-4: Thevenizing a Bridge Circuit 10-5: Norton s Theorem 10-6: Thevenin-Norton Conversions 10-7: Conversion of Voltage and Current Sources

2 10-2: Thevenin s Theorem Thevenin s theorem simplifies the process of solving for the unknown values of voltage and current in a network by reducing the network to an equivalent series circuit connected to any pair of network terminals. Any network with two open terminals can be replaced by a single voltage source (V TH ) and a series resistance (R TH ) connected to the open terminals. A component can be removed to produce the open terminals.

3 10-2: Thevenin s Theorem Determining Thevenin Resistance and Voltage R TH is determined by shorting the voltage source and calculating the circuit s total resistance as seen from open terminals A and B. V TH is determined by calculating the voltage between open terminals A and B.

4 10-2: Thevenin s Theorem = Fig. 10-3: Application of Thevenin s theorem. (a) Actual circuit with terminals A and B across R L. (b) Disconnect R L to find that V AB is 24V. (c) Short-circuit V to find that R AB is 2Ω.

5 10-2: Thevenin s Theorem Fig. 10-3: Application of Thevenin s theorem. (a) Actual circuit with terminals A and B across R L. (b) Disconnect R L to find that V AB is 24V. (c) Short-circuit V to find that R AB is 2Ω.

6 10-2: Thevenin s Theorem Fig. 10-3: Application of Thevenin s theorem. (a) Actual circuit with terminals A and B across R L. (b) Disconnect R L to find that V AB is 24V. (c) Short-circuit V to find that R AB is 2Ω.

7 10-2: Thevenin s Theorem Fig (d) Thevenin equivalent circuit. (e) Reconnect R L at terminals A and B to find that V L is 12V.

8 10-2: Thevenin s Theorem Note that R 3 does not change the value of V AB produced by the source V, but R 3 does increase the value of R TH. Fig. 10-4: Thevenizing the circuit of Fig but with a 4-Ω R 3 in series with the A terminal. (a) V AB is still 24V. (b) Now the R AB is = 6 Ω. (c) Thevenin equivalent circuit.

9 10-4: Thevenizing a Bridge Circuit A Wheatstone Bridge Can Be Thevenized. Problem: Find the voltage drop across R L. The bridge is unbalanced and Thevenin s theorem is a good choice. R L will be removed in this procedure making A and B the Thevenin terminals. Fig. 10-6: Thevenizing a bridge circuit. (a) Original circuit with terminals A and B across middle resistor R L.

10 10-4: Thevenizing a Bridge Circuit R AB = R TA + R TB = = 4.4 Ω V AB = 20 ( 12) = 8V Fig. 10-6(b) Disconnect R L to find V AB of 8 V. (c) With source V short-circuited, R AB is = 4.4 Ω.

11 10-4: Thevenizing a Bridge Circuit Fig. 10-6(d) Thevenin equivalent with R L reconnected to terminals A and B.

12 10-5: Norton s Theorem Norton s theorem is used to simplify a network in terms of currents instead of voltages. It reduces a network to a simple parallel circuit with a current source (comparable to a voltage source). Norton s theorem states that any network with two terminals can be replaced by a single current source and parallel resistance connected across the terminals.

13 10-5: Norton s Theorem Fig. 10-7: General forms for a voltage source or current source connected to a load R L across terminals A and B. (a) Voltage source V with series R. (b) Current source I with parallel R. (c) Current source I with parallel conductance G.

14 10-6: Thevenin-Norton Conversions Thevenin s theorem says that any network can be represented by a voltage source and series resistance. Norton s theorem says that the same network can be represented by a current source and shunt resistance. Therefore, it is possible to convert directly from a Thevenin form to a Norton form and vice versa. Thevenin-Norton conversions are often useful.

15 10-6: Thevenin-Norton Conversions Thevenin Norton Fig : Thevenin equivalent circuit in (a) corresponds to the Norton equivalent in (b).

16 10-6: Thevenin-Norton Conversions Fig : Example of Thevenin-Norton conversions. (a) Original circuit, the same as in Figs. 10-3a and 10-9a. (b) Thevenin equivalent. (c) Norton equivalent.

17 10-7: Conversion of Voltage and Current Sources Converting voltage and current sources can simplify circuits, especially those with multiple sources. Current sources are easier for parallel connections, where currents can be added or divided. Voltage sources are easier for series connections, where voltages can be added or divided.

18 10-7: Conversion of Voltage and Current Sources I 3 =?

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SHRI ANGALAMMAN COLLEGE OF ENGG & TECH., TRICHY 621105 (Approved by AICTE, New Delhi and Affiliated to Anna University Chennai/Trichy) ( ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution) DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS &