The computer simulation of communication for PLC systems

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1 The computer simultion of communiction for PLC systems Jiri Misurec Milos Orgon Dept. of Telecommunictions Fculty of Electricl Engineering nd Communiction Brno University of Technology Purkynov Brno Czech Republic Dept. of Telecommunictions Slovk Technicl University Fculty of Electricl Engineering nd Informtion Technology Ilkovicov Brtislv Slovk Republic Abstrct Dt communiction over power lines tkes nowdys gin center stge; there is need for online communiction with vrious mesuring nd signling devices for the mngement of energy networks. This technology is known s PLC (Power Line Communictions). In mny energy compnies re currently being implemented the pilot projects using PLC technology for Smrt Grids nd energy networks mngement. But this technology shows mny drwbcks. It is minly interferences of useful signl on the lines noise emission nd smll rnge of useful signl nd power system components tht ffect trnsmission. Power lines re not primrily designed for dt trnsfer nd the lines for dt trnsmission re not designed for electricity trnsmission. It is necessry to merge two contrdictory requirements. The computer model of the power line component tht ffects the dt trnsfer is useful to hve for the nlysis of sub-problems. The pper suggested the model prts tht hve mjor impct on dt trnsmission. It is minly power line cble nd the coupler in PLC modem. The bsic models of power line the coupler model nd the frequency chrcteristics of models re in this pper. This rticle is contribution to PLC modelling problemtic. Index Terms Power line communiction PLC dt communiction model of power line. Introduction The PLC (Power Line Communiction) technology exploits power lines for dt trnsfer. The need to use the distribution of electric power lso for the trnsmission of control signls telephony etc. hs ppered lmost concurrently with the development of power grids. Tody this technology is growing in importnce. This is given in the first plce by the gret need for dt chnnels for communicting with control nd metering systems in energetics. They re expected to further develop with the introduction of the AMR (Automted Meter Reding) nd AMM (Automted Meter Mngement) systems s prt of the ltest trend in metering nd mngement the so-clled Smrt Metering systems. The PLC technology is certin lterntive to the other existing dt chnnels. Reltively different nd rther conflicting demnds re mde on power lines in this cse. In energetics power lines re minly monitored from the viewpoint of power trnsmission (mximum trnsmission of power qulity losses cost etc.) with 50 Hz (for USA 60 Hz) network frequency. In the PLC technology the trnsmission of HF signls hs to be ssured. In the cse of AMR nd AMM systems limited bnd of nrrow-bnd PLC will obviously be concerned using the khz bnd. Efforts re therefore being mde to describe power lines from the viewpoint of both energetics (trnsmission of electric power) nd telecommunictions (dt trnsfer). Currently the PLC technology counts on the ppliction of power lines t lowvoltge (LV) levels 30/400 V nd high-voltge (HV) levels up to 35 kv. Power lines re one of numerous elements of power grids contining further elements such s trnsformers protective devices genertors compenstors choke coils vrious lods etc. Power lines trnsmit nd distribute electric power. They connect two nodes of the power grid. A node is the site where source electricl pplince or trnsformer is connected the site of network brnching or switching sttion the site where the type of line is chnged. For the description nd modelling of power line the pper focuses only on the description of power line between two network nodes connected by one type of line nd considered t the low-voltge level 30/400 V. In view of the rel rnge of PLC technology signls nd the communiction chnnel requirements it is the LV level where mximum development nd exploittion cn obviously be expected. In both energetics nd communictions four principl prmeters re used in the bsic description of power lines. These prmeters determine the bsic properties of power line nd they lso form the bsic model of power line. The following primry prmeters describing electricl properties re considered: specific resistnce R [Ω/km] specific inductnce L [H/km] specific conductnce G [S/km] specific cpcitnce C [F/km]. These prmeters cn be used to estblish the opertion prmeters of line in prticulr the chrcteristic (wve) impednce nd trnsmission coefficient (propgtion constnt). In power lines the system is considered in stedy stte with 50 Hz (60 Hz) lternting current. The following derived prmeters cn be introduced: direct-xis impednce Z per unit of length Z R jl R jx [Ω/km] () 39

2 line shunt dmittnce Y per unit of length Y G jc G jb. [S/km] () In energetics the prmeters of power lines re generlly given by series impednce Z nd shunt dmittnce Y t frequency f (50 Hz or 60 Hz). These prmeters describe specific line of certin length conductor clernce elevtion bove ground mterils used insultion position of cores in the cble etc. Bsed on the primry prmeters other prmeters of line cn be determined such s specific trnsmission coefficient (propgtion coefficient) where α is the specific ttenution in db/km nd β is the specific phse shift in rd/km nd chrcteristic impednce R L G C ZY j j j (3) Z 0 Z Y These prmeters re the secondry prmeters of line; see for exmple [] [8] [9] etc.. Models of power lines in energetics R G jl. jc The model of power line with uniformly distributed prmeters is not much used in energetics. This is minly given by wht prmeters should be monitored from the viewpoint of power trnsmission. For this reson two-port replcement of power line is used s model. For the purpose of electric power trnsmission this replcement is sufficiently precise. The line prmeters re concentrted into only one point nd current nd voltge t one prticulr time re the sme t ll points of the line. The most frequently used two-ports re the Π-element Γ-element nd T-element. Using these two-ports both the whole element nd certin section of the element cn be replced. The further properties should be modeled by connecting further two-ports. The whole networks cn be connected in cscde yielding whole section of the power chin e.g. from the trnsformer to model of lod s given for exmple in []. (4) the equivlent schemtic of homogeneous line (see Fig. ) the chosen direction of output current is opposite to tht in the description of circuits. In the cse of power line description the chosen voltge nd current orienttions re for the description of reltions long the line more logicl. The cscde equtions of the two-port re then in the mtrix form: V A BV V I C D I A I. (5) In [9] which dels with the description of power line mtrix A is referred s mtrix ABCD of trnsmission prmeters nd individul members of the mtrix re given in cpitl letters A B C nd D. In energetics these members re referred to s the so-clled Blondel constnts. In circuit theory the mtrix contins cscde prmeters denoted to. The bove reltions serve to determine voltge nd current t the beginning of the power line if the reltions t the end of the power line re known. If the reltions t the beginning of the power line re known nd we clculte voltge nd current t the end of the power line the cscde eqution is chnged ccordingly. The physicl mening of cscde prmeters is obvious nd it expresses the open nd short circuit conditions of the line. Prmeter is the return voltge trnsfer function is the trnsmission impednce is the return current trnsmission. In the simultion of generl circuits most of the circuit simultion softwre for the simultion of electronic circuits (such s PSpice MicroCp etc.) cn use two-ports represented by cscde prmeters. In the computer modelling of prts of line inclusive of the elements connected to the power grid it is therefore of dvntge to represent individul blocks by cscde prmeters nd to model the whole chin using cscded two-ports. This enbles modelling the line s whole nd lso exmining the effect of individul prts. Since the mjority of simultion progrms for the simultion of electronic circuits (e.g. PSpice MicroCp etc.) use the cscde prmeter nottion to this nottion will lso be used in the following text. Cscde solution offers the possibility of choosing certin degree of complexity nd precision of the line being modelled. It is lso possible to define individul blocks s mcromodels describing dt chnnel. An exmple cn be seen in the solution given in [] [3] nd shown in Fig.. I I V A V V s Z s ~ Signl source A Coupling device A Power cble line A 3 Coupling device Z L Signl trget Fig.. Two-port for estblishing the cscde prmeters of power line. The description of two-ports therefore uses the cscde form of eqution bsed on common two-port see Fig.. Unlike the description of the properties of common two-port s used in circuit theory in the cse of power line description the output current I is in opposite direction. In the solution of 40 Fig.. Cscde model of power line with two coupling devices As is obvious ech prt of the line with connected elements (in this cse there re two coupling elements of PLC modems power cble) is described by seprte cscde mtrix A to A 3. Internl series impednce Z s of signl

3 source V s nd prllel impednce of lod Z L cn lso be described by cscde prmeters nd included in the resultnt trnsfer function. The resultnt cscde mtrix of the line being modelled is obtined simply s the product of prtil cscde mtrixes i.e. power interfce series frction C L R prllel frction L C R R 3 signl interfce where n is the number of prts described by the cscde mtrix. Tking into ccount tht the trnsfer function of elementry two-port voltge is K v =/ then the resultnt trnsfer function of the trnsmission chin considered is where 3 re the respective cscde prmeters of two-ports described by mtrices A A A 3. This pproch provides the possibility of working in the simultion progrm with prmeters nd representtion tht is used in the solution of clssicl electronic circuits. These progrms provide pproprite tools for working with elements defined in this wy nd they possess tools for trnsfer function nlysis sensitivity function clcultion nd tolernce nlysis in the frequency nd time domins. 3. Model of coupling element A possible connection of coupling element tht enbles coupling the PLC modem to power lines is given in Fig. 3 [3]. This is cpcitive coupling element with isolting trnsformer. A prcticl solution nd experimentl mesurement re given in []. power interfce K K K K n A A i (6) i V V V V3 3 L PE L C C L L Tr D D D3 The coupling element is n importnt prt of PLC chnnel from the trnsfer point of view. In contrst to other elements of the power grid the properties of coupling element cn be modified vi suitble circuit solution. An dded coupling element entils further ttenution nd contributes to the totl ttenution which is seen s essentil in dt trnsfer vi the PLC technology. In [] model of the coupling element is given nd bsed on mesurement the prmeters of individul elements of the model re determined. The model is given in Fig. 4 nd its ppliction is minly in the frequency bnd 00 khz 30 MHz. D4 D5 D6 R Tx/Rx Tx/Rx (7) signl interfce Fig. 3. Circuit digrm of coupling element (fons et origo []). The vlues of elements in the model re: C = 374 pf (cpcitnce of coupling cpcitor) L =.3 µh (lekge inductnce of the trnsformer) R = 4.5 Ω (resistnce of the winding) L =.5 µh (mgnetiztion inductnce of the trnsformer nd prllel inductnces) C = 56 pf (lekge cpcitnce of the trnsformer winding nd diodes) R = 5 Ω (series resistnce of the lekge cpcitnce) R 3 = 0 kω (resistnce of the loding). Then the vlues of the cscde prmeters of coupling element re s.77 0 s.670 s s s s s s.90 s s s s s.80 s s s s. 4. Model of power cble The power line cble cn be modeled by Π-network. If the longitudinl impednce Z represents series combintion of resistnce R nd inductnce L nd the trnsverse dmittnce Y represents prllel combintion of cpcitnce C nd conductnce G () nd () ll of which represent the primry prmeters of the power line then in this cse it holds for the cscde prmeters: RG s( LG CR) s LC (8) (9) R sl 4 (4 ) ( ) 4. Fig. 4. Model of coupling element. 3 G RG s C RCG G L s C RC LG s C L Now it is necessry to either obtin the prmeters of power line cble on specific frequency tht the PLC system opertes on or nlyticlly describe the frequency dependence of the primry prmeters. Fig. 5 gives the wveforms of primry prmeters mesured on two types of power line cble: CYKY 3x.5 (three-conductor cble with copper core core cross-section.5 mm ) nd AYKY 3x.5 (three-conductor cble with luminium core core crosssection.5 mm ). The prmeters mesured hve been reclculted per km of length. To mesure the frequency dependence of the primry prmeters the HP/AGILENT 49A impednce nlyzer ws used. The nlyzer mesures Z Y R X G B L C D Q nd others. The frequency bnd is given by the nlyzer rnge. 4

4 s s s s (0) 5. Simultion of cscde power line model Bsed on the determined cscde prmeters of prts of the model given in Fig. the resultnt trnsfer function of the trnsfer pth cn be estblished using reltion (7). In the simultion progrms use cn be mde of for exmple the Lplce controlled sources connected in series nd the respective clculted prtil trnsfer functions. The frequency chrcteristics of model set up in this wy nd hving the prmeters of individul prts s considered bove re given in Fig. 6. G(dB) coupling element K 00K M 0M 00M ) F (Hz) G(dB) power line K 00K M 0M 00M b) F (Hz) Fig. 6. Frequency chrcteristic of cscde model ) coupling element b) power-line cble. Fig. 5. Mesured primry prmeters of power line cbles. We obtin the true prmeters of power line cble for required frequency from mesured digrms (see Fig. 5).For exmple the primry prmeters were mesured of fourconductor cble with.5 mm cross-section of ech conductor with PVC insultion nd PVC sheth designed for rted voltge of 450/750 V. The vlues of primry prmeters mesured hve been reclculted for cble length of km; they re: R = 00 Ω L = 650 μh C = 65 nf nd G = 0.00 ms t frequency of 50 khz. If the cble line is modelled by two-port then for the given vlues of primry prmeters the corresponding cscde prmeters of the cble re 4 It is evident from the wveforms tht for the nrrow-bnd PLC ( khz) considered the trnsfer over the bove power-line cble is possible but the coupling element cnnot be used for the given bnd. The bove method cn esily be used to exmine seprtely individul prts nd then to verify the function of the whole nd thus rrive t design of n cceptble solution for the given requirements. 6. Conclusion In the pper possible method for modelling dt communiction over power lines is suggested. The strting point is the description of prtil elements using cscde

5 mtrixes. Individul elements re then nlyzed nd modelled. The models given re bsed on models reported in the literture; in the pper clcultion method is proposed for cscde rrngement of prtil models nd elements of prtil cscde mtrixes of the bsic elements of the totl model re clculted. Some of the simultions given in the pper confirm the conclusions given in the literture nd indicte good reproducibility of the results. The pper follows up on these conclusions nd provides clcultion pprtus for the construction of models of power lines for the simultion of dt trnsfer by the PLC technology. This method of modelling enbles reltively simply insertion of blocks into the model. Such model is suitble for modelling of the prticulr problemtic re of this technology such s the rnge of useful signl interference with useful signl long the line or the effect of individul elements of the power grid on dt trnsfer etc. The present pper is intended s contribution for solving these problems. References [] DOSTERT K. Powerline Communictions. Prentice-Hll PTR 00 ISBN [] AHOLA J. Applicbility of power-line communictins to dt trnsfer of on-line condition monitoring of electricl drives. Thesis for the degree of Doctor of Science (Technology). Lppeenrnt University of Technology Lppeenrnt 003 ISBN ISSN [3] KOSONEN A. Power line communiction in motor cbles of vrible-speed electric drives nlysis nd implementtion. Thesis for the degree of Doctor of Science (Technology). Lppeenrnt University of Technology Lppeenrnt 008 ISBN ISBN (PDF) ISSN [4] SCHLEGEL D. WRATE G. KERKMAN R. SKIBINSKI G. Resonnt Tnk Motor Model For Voltge Reflection Simultions With PWM Drives. In Proceedings of the IEEE Interntionl Electricl Mchines nd Drives Conference. Settle USA 9- My 999 pp [5] ZHONG E. LIPO T. Improvements in EMC Performnce of Inverter-Fed Motor Drives. In Proceedings IEEE Trnsctions on Industry Applictions. Vol. No. 6 November/December 995. [6] AHOLA J. LINDH T. PARTANEN J. Simultion Model for Input Impednce of Low Voltge Electric Motor t Frequency Bnd 0 khz 30 MHz In Proceedings IEEE IEMDC 03. Mdison Wisconsin USA -4 June 003. [7] HRASNICA H. HAIDINE A. LEHNERT R. Brodbnd Powerline Communictions Networks. Englnd: Wiley pp. ISBN [8] EL HAVARY M. E. Electricl power systems. Design nd Anlysis. IEEE Press New York 995. ISBN X. [9] RAUSCHMAYER D. J. ADSL/VDSL Principles: A Prcticl nd Precise Study of Asymmetric Digitl Subscriber Lines nd Very High Speed Digitl Subscriber Lines. Indinopolis USA: Mcmilln Technicl Publishing 999. ISBN

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