# RADIO AMATEUR EXAM GENERAL CLASS

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1 RAE-Lessons by 4S7VJ 1 CHAPTER-7 RADIO AMATEUR EXAM GENERAL CLASS MEASURMENTS By 4S7VJ 7.1 TEST EQUIPMENT & MEASUREMENTS Correct operation of amateur radio equipment involves measurements to ensure optimum performance, to comply with the terms of the amateur transmitting licence and to avoid interference to other users. The purpose of these measurements is to give the operator information regarding the conditions under which his equipment is functioning. Basically, they are concerned with voltage, current and frequency.

2 RAE-Lessons by 4S7VJ 2 Fig Galvanometer The basis of most instruments for the measurement of voltage, current and resistance is the moving coil galvanometer,(fig 7.1) calibrated for microampere ( A) or milli-ampere (ma) or with an arbitrary scale. If it is calibrated for ma, it is called milliammeter. The heart of this is a coil with very thin wire generally wound on a rectangular former, is mounted on two pivots in the field of a permanent magnet. The coil experiences a torque proportional to the flow of current through it. Current is fed to the coil through two hairsprings mounted near to each end of the spindle. These springs also serve to return the pointer to the zero position when the current stops. Normally the scale is linear. This instrument can only be used on dc, but it can be adapted to measure ac with using a diode as a rectifier Ammeter Milliammeters and microammeters are commonly manufactured with basic full-scale deflection (F.S.D.) of 50 A, 100 A, 1mA. For higher current ratings, a shunt resister with very low value, connected across the meter (Fig 7.2a). There are two methods for select the correct shunt resistor. 1. Compare with accurately calibrated ammeter and adjust the resistance of the shunt.(fig 7.2b) 2. Calculate the resistance of the shunt with using Ohm s law. The following formula is derived with using this method. (Fig 7.2c) Fig 7.2

3 RAE-Lessons by 4S7VJ 3 Rs = Rm/(n-1) Wherer, Rs is the resistance of the shunt. Rm is the internal resistance of the milliammeter. n is the scale multiplying factor. n = FSD of the ammeter/ FSD of the milliammeter Example:- Internal resistance of a milliammeter is 10 and FSD is 1mA. What is the shunt resistor for converting it to an ammeter with 1A of FSD? 1 st Method:(with using the above formula) Rm = 10, n = 1A/1mA = 1000mA/1mA = 1000 Rs = Rm/(n-1) = 10/(1000-1) = 10/999 = or 10.01m (approximately 10m ) 2 nd Method: (with using Ohm s law) We can solve this problem without use any formula other than Ohm s law. As shown fig 7.2(c) when it is 1A FSD, the input current to the system is 1A and it is divided into two portions; 1mA flown through the milliammeter and the balance 999mA is passing through the shunt resistor Rs. Now apply Ohm s law (V = I R) to the milliammeter V = 0.001x10 because I = 1mA = 0.001A, R = 10 = 0.01 volt Now apply Ohm s law for the shunt resistor, Rs 0.01 = 0.999xRs Because V=0.01 (voltage across the milliammter and shunt resistor are same), I = 0.999A Therefore Rs = 0.01/0.999 = (10.01m ) = 10m (Approximately) For this shunt resistor you can use a piece of copper wire. If you use 24swg copper wire, about 14.23cm is suitable. one meter of 24swg enameled wire having a resistance of 70.3 mω.( This type of data available in two books. 1. CLARK S TABLE, 2. Physical and Mathematical tables by Clark)

4 RAE-Lessons by 4S7VJ Volt meter Fig 7.3 A milliammeter may be used to read small dc voltages; few milli volts. For example, if the FSD 0.5mA and the internal resistance 100, by using Ohm s law, the voltage between the terminals of the meter is 0.5x100 or 50mV. That means it can be used as a mv meter with 50mV FSD. We can calibrate the scale accordingly. It is possible to extend the scale or use to read higher voltages by connecting a large resistor (multiplier) in series with it (Fig 7.3a). The value of this resistor depends on the FSD of the meter (original FSD and extended FSD) and may be calculated from Ohm s law. The following formula can be used for the calculation: Rs = Rm x( n-1) Where n = FSD of voltmeter/fsd of mv-meter If n is a large value (100 or more), n and n-1 approximatly equal, then Rs = Rm x n Where Rs is the value of the series resistor and Rm is the internal resistance of the meter and n is the scale multiplying factor;

5 RAE-Lessons by 4S7VJ 5 Example:- Internal resistance of a milliammeter is 10 and FSD is 10mA. What is the series resistor for converts it into a voltmeter with 10V of FSD? 1 st methode:- (using the formula) Apply Ohm s low for the milliammeter, then FSD voltage = 10mA x 10 = 0.01A x 10 = 0.1V n = 10V/0.1V = 100 Rm = 10 Rs = Rm x(n-1) = 10 x (100-1) = 990 (approximately 1k ) 2 nd Methode:- With using Ohm s law (without formula) Apply Ohm s law for the milliammeter V = IR I = 10mA = 0.01A, R = Rm = 10 Therefore V = 0.01 x 10 = 0.1 volt Now apply the Ohm s law for the series resistor-rs V = = 9.9 volt, I = 10mA =0.01A V = IR Therfore 9.9 = 0.01 x Rs Rs = 9.9/0.01 = 990 (approximatly 1k ) Ohm meter

6 RAE-Lessons by 4S7VJ 6 Fig 7.4 The measurement of resistance is based on Ohm s low, simple arrangement being shown in Fig 7.4. It will be seen that the circuit comprises a battery in series with a milliammeter, a variable resistor, Rv and an unknown resistor Rx. In practice, the terminals across which Rx is connected are first, short circuited and Rv adjusted until the meter reads full scale. The zero is in the right hand end or the FSD point and left-hand corner marked as infinity and the scale is not leaner. Connecting a number of resistors of known value across the terminals in turn marking the scale accordingly can therefore carry out calibration Multimeter A number of shunts and multipliers selected by a switch can be used in association with a single basic meter to form a multi-range meter or multimeter measuring current, voltage, (ac and dc) and resistance. This is very useful basic instrument for radio amateurs Digital Multimeter This is an advanced version of the Multi meter, having digital display for the reading of voltage, current and resistance. Some digital multimeters have some more facilities as follows:- 1. Capacitance meter 2. Inductance meter 3. Transistor checker Frequency Counter

7 RAE-Lessons by 4S7VJ 7 This instrument can use for measure the exact frequency with high accuracy for AF or RF, which is indicating a digital display Dip meter (GDO) This is also a frequency measuring instrument. This is really nothing more than a calibrated oscillator, which can be tuned over wide range of frequencies (1.5 to 250MHz) and which has a moving coil meter indicating the grid current (for valve type old version) or collector current (for solid state modern version). The valve type old version named as Grid Dip Oscillator (GDO) Since the Dip Meter provides it s own RF energy it does not require the circuit being checked to be energized. It is therefore useful for checking the resonant frequency of tuned circuits or antenna systems. The Dip Meter is also useful as an absorption wavemeter or simple signal generator.

8 RAE-Lessons by 4S7VJ 8 Fig 7.5 (Dip meter)

9 RAE-Lessons by 4S7VJ Osciloscope The oscilloscope is one of the most versatile instruments an amateur can possess and permits the visual display of AF and RF signals. It is particularly useful for monitoring the wave-form, measure the frequency and voltage. Fig 7.6 shows an Oscilloscope with the wave-form of a sin-wave signal. If two sin-wave signals input as the horizontal and vertical deflections, the result will be special kind of a curve called as Lissajous curve. The shape of this curve depends on the ratio of two frequencies and the phase difference. Fig 7.6 (Oscilloscope) RF milliammeter Measuring RF current and voltages, there is a special type of a milliammeter, using with a thermocouple. The measuring current is passing through a resistance wire, therefore it is getting heated. Junction of a thermocouple is connected to the middle portion of this wire and two

10 RAE-Lessons by 4S7VJ 10 terminals of the thermocouple are connected to an ordinary galvanometer. While heating the junction of the thermocouple junction small dc voltage is generating and it is measured by the galvanometer. The meter should be calibrated for RF current. Fig POWER MEASURMENTS Power in dc circuit is determined by measuring the current and voltage. When these are known, the power is equal to the voltage multiply by the current. If the voltage in Volts and current in Amperes, then the power will be in Watts.( W = VI ) Multiplication of the RF current and the voltage of a TX is the RF power output. If it is properly matched to the transmission line, it can be calculate with using the RF current and the characteristic impedance of the transmission line. (W = I²Z, W = V² / Z ) More convenient way is to measure the dc input power of the RF amplifier. For valve amplifiers this power is proportional to the anode current or cathode current of the final valve because the anode voltage is a constant, known value. For solid state amplifiers it is proportional to the collector current of the final power transistors SWR and Power meter SWR and power meter is very essential equipment for any Amateur Radio shack (see Fig-7.8A and Fig-7.8B). This is very simple instrument, explained in chapter-6 (Fig 6.4)

11 RAE-Lessons by 4S7VJ 11 for HF use. You can calibrate the meter dial for SWR and relative power levels. For get the reading of SWR first keep the steady power output and adjust the middle knob of the SWR meter until the power meter (forward power) indicator shows SET position, then SWR meter (reflected power) shows the correct SWR. Fig-7.8A Fig 7.8B

12 RAE-Lessons by 4S7VJ 12 Fig 7.8C Fig 7.9 shows the correct calibration. The FSD of this meter is 10 units ( ma or μa or any unit) according to the middle scale. Lower scale calibrated for SWR and upper scale for power, if the output power is 100 watts then the meter should be adjusted for FSD at 100w. Then FSD-10 is equivalent to FSD of 100 watts. If you use a cheaper quality meter,( like record level indicator meter) the scale may not a linear scale. So you can use the ma or mv scale as the scale reading.

13 RAE-Lessons by 4S7VJ 13 Fig-7.9 *********************************************** EXERCISES 7.1 FSD of a moving coil meter is 500 μa and the internal resistance is 200Ω. If it is converts to an Ammeter with 10A of FSD what is the value of shunt resister? (Ans:- 10 m Ω) 7.2 FSD for voltage and current of a moving coil instrument are 10mV and 0.2mA If it is converts to:

14 RAE-Lessons by 4S7VJ 14 (a) Ammeter having 10A, FSD (b) DC Voltmeter having FSD of 150V How do you connect a shunt or series resistor and draw a circuit diagram. Ans:- (a) 1m Ω parallel with meter (b) Ω or approximately 750kΩ resistor with series 7.3 Final stage of a valve transmitter having 300V of anode voltage and 200mA of anode current. What is the RF power output of this transmitter? Answer:-Little bit lower than 60W 7.4 Final stage of a solid state transmitter having 12V of collector voltage and 8A of collector current. What is the RF power output of this transmitter? Answer:- Little bit less than 96W 7.5 A transmitter connected to an antenna system having 50 Ohm impedance. The output RF current is 1.8A. What is the output RF power? Answer:- 162W

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