# Modelling and Simulation of New PV-Battery Based Hybrid Energy System for Z source Inverter using SVPWM fed Industrial Applications

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3 disposition (lpo), alternative phase opposite disposition (APOD) and phase opposite disposition (POD). a) Phase Shifted Carrier PWM (PSCPWM): Figure 2 shows the PSCPWM. In general, a multilevel inverter with m voltage levels requires (ml) triangular carriers. In the PSCPWM, all the triangular carriers have the same frequency and the same peak-to-peak amplitude, but there is a phase shift between any two adjacent carrier waves, given by <pcr=3600/ (m-l). the outputs values are set according to the disposition of carrier waves. After comparing, the output signals of comparator are transmitted to the IGBTs. Figures 3.3, 3.4 and 3.5 show the waveforms based on three schemes of LSCPWM: (a) in phase disposition (lpo) fig. 3.3, where all carriers are in phase; (b) alternative phase opposite disposition (APOO) fig. 3.4, where all carriers are alternatively in opposite disposition; and (c) phase opposite disposition (POD) fig. 3.5, where all carriers above zero reference are in phase but in opposition with those below the zero reference. Out of IPD, APOD and POD, it is observed that the IPD give better harmonic performance. Fig 2 phase shifted carrier PWM The modulating signal is usually a three phase sinusoidal wave with adjustable amplitude and frequency. The gate signals are generated by comparing the modulating wave with the carrier waves. It means for five-level inverter, four triangular carriers are needed with a 90 phase displacement between any two adjacent carriers. In this case the phase displacement of V cri = 0, Vcr2 = 90, V crl - = 1 80 and Vcr2- = Level Shifted Carrier PWM (LSCPWM): Figure 3 shows the LSCPWM. The frequency modulation index is given by (1) where fm i s modulating frequency and fcr are carrier waves frequency. The amplitude modulation index 'rna' is defined by (2) Fig 4 Alternative phase opposite deposition (MOD) Fig 5 Phase opposite disposition (POD) IV. MODELLING OF PMSM DRIVE The d-q axis model has been developed on rotor reference frame as shown in Fig At any time t, the rotating rotor d-axis makes an angle r with the fixed stator phase axis and rotating stator miff makes an angle a with the rotor d-axis. Stator mmf and the rotor rotate at the same speed. Fig 3 Level shifted carrier PWM (IPD) Where Vm is the peak value of the modulating wave and Vcr is the peak value of the each carrier wave. The amplitude modulation index, rna is 1 and the frequency modulation index, mf is 6. The triggering circuit is designed based on the three phase sinusoidal modulation waves V a, V b, and V c. The sources have been obtained with same amplitude and frequency but displaced 1 20 out of the phase with each others. For carriers signals, the time values of each carrier waves are set to [ ] while Fig 6 Motor Axis (3) (4) Available online: P a g e 1174

4 Flux linkages equations are (5) Solving above four equations (6) (7) Fig 7 Equivalent circuit of Single diode modal of a solar cell (8) Above two equations (7) and (8) can be written in matrix form (9) Electromagnetic torque developed by the motor is (10) IV. PV-BATTERY SYSTEM a) PV system: A photovoltaic system, converts the light received from the sun into electric energy. In this system, semi conductive materials are used in the construction of solar cells, which transform the self contained energy of photons into electricity, when they are exposed to sun light. The cells are placed in an array that is either fixed or moving to keep tracking the sun in order to generate the maximum power [9]. These systems are environmental friendly without any kind of emission, easy to use, with simple designs and it does not require any other fuel than solar light. On the other hand, they need large spaces and the initial cost is high. PV array are formed by combine no of solar cell in series and in parallel. A simple solar cell equivalent circuit model is shown in figure. To enhance the performance or rating no of cell are combine. Solar cell are connected in series to provide greater output voltage and combined in parallel to increase the current. Hence a particular PV array is the combination of several PV module connected in series and parallel. A module is the combination of no of solar cells connected in series and parallel. The photovoltaic system converts sunlight directly to electricity without having any disastrous effect on our environment. The basic segment of PV array is PV cell, which is just a simple p-n junction device. The fig.1.4 manifests the equivalent circuit of PV cell. Equivalent circuit has a current source (photocurrent), a diode parallel to it, a resistor in series describing an internal resistance to the flow of current and a shunt resistance which expresses a leakage current. The current supplied to the load can be given as. Where IPV Photocurrent current, IO diode s Reverse saturation current, V Voltage across the diode, a Ideality factor VT Thermal voltage Rs Series resistance Rp Shunt resistance (11) Fig 8 V-I & P-V Characteristics of a 36w PV module The Voltage vs Power characteristics and Voltage vs Current characteristics of a solar cell are mainly dependents upon the solar irradiation. If there is change in the environmental condition then the solar irradiation level change which results different maximum power. So maximum power point tracking algorithm are used to maintain the maximum power constant if there is any change in the solar irradiation level. If the solar irradiation level is higher, then the input to the solar sell is more which results more magnitude of the power with the same voltage value. Also when there is increase in the solar irradiation the open circuit voltage increases. Because, when there is more solar light fall on the solar cell, with higher excitation energy the electrons are supplied, they increase the mobility level of electron and more power is generated. V. MATLAB AND SIMULATION RESULTS Available online: P a g e 1175

5 Fig 14 Simulation waveform of Input voltage Fig 9 Simulation model of impedance source inverter Fig 15 Simulation waveform of Phase voltage Fig 10 Simulation model of SVPWM control technique Fig 16 Simulation waveform of Three phase induction motor characteristics Fig 11 Simulation waveform of Line voltage Fig 12 Simulation waveform of Line current Fig 17 Simulation waveform of PV-battery based impedance source inverter Fig 13 Simulation waveform of Three phase line current Fig 18 Simulation waveform of Voltage extracted from PV Available online: P a g e 1176

6 Fig 19 Simulation waveform of PV-Battery input voltage Fig 20 Simulation waveform of Line voltage Fig 21 Simulation waveform of Phase voltage drive the five level cascades H Bridge fed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor drive REFERENCES [1] F. Wang, "Motor shaft voltages and bearing currents and their reduc- tion in multilevel mediumvoltage PWM voltage source-inverter drive applications," IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 36, no.5, pp , Sep.lOct [2] S. Chen and T. A. Lipo, "Bearing currents and shaft voltages of an induction motor under hard- and soft-switching inverter excitation," IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 34, no. 5, pp , Sep.lOct [3] L. M. Tolbert, F. Z. Peng, and T. G. Habetler, "Multilevel converters for large electric drives," IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 35, no. I, pp , Jan./Feb [4] A. Muetze and A. Binder, "Calcu1ation of circulating bearing currents in machines of inverterbased drive systems," IEEE Trans. Ind. Elec1rrn., vol54, no. 2,pp ,Apr [5] J. Rodriguez, J. S. Lai, and F. Z. Peng, "Multilevel inverters: A survey of topologies, control and applications,"ieee Trans. Power EIec1rrn., vol.49,no. 4, pp ,Aug,2002. [6] P.W. Hammond, "A new approochto enhanced power quality for medium voltage drives," IEEE Trans. Ind Appl., vol.33, no. I, pp , JanlFeb [7] Y.S.Lai and F.S.Shyu. 'Topology for hybrid multi level inverter", lee Proc-Electr.Power Appl.Vol 149,No 6 nov 2002 [8] M.D. Manjrekar, P.\(. Steimer, and T.A. Lipo. "Hybrid multilevel power conversion system: A competitive solution for high power applications". IEEE Translations on Industry Applications,36(3) : , May /June Fig 22 Simulation waveform of IM characteristics VI. CONCLUSION Due to the advancement in power electronics technology had made it possible to vary the frequency and magnitude of the voltage. Thus, it made more extensive use in variable speed drive applications. By using of hybrid system improves the system stability and improves the reliability of the system. The renewable sources give improvement of power quality. A multilevel converter can operate at both fundamental switching frequency and high switching frequency PWM. It means that lower switching frequency usually means lower switching loss and higher efficiency. In high power applications efficiency can also be increased by reducing harmonic content of the output waveform. This can be achieved by using propped switching technique. In this paper Sinusoidal and third harmonic injected carrier based PWM technique In level shifted carrier PWM (a) in phase disposition (IPD), (b) alternative phase opposite disposition (APOD) and (c) phase opposite disposition (POD) modulating technique is applied. Better modulating technique is applied to Available online: P a g e 1177

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