# Aperture & ƒ/stop Worksheet

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1 Tools and Program Needed: Digital C. Computer USB Drive Bridge PhotoShop Name: Manipulating Depth-of-Field Aperture & stop Worksheet The aperture setting (AV on the dial) is a setting to control the amount of light which reaches the cameras SD card. It is an adjustable opening inside the back of camera lens working similar the iris in your eye. The size of the opening regulates how much light passes through the lens to hit the sensor. The larger the opening the more light is allowed through. The smaller the opening the less light is allowed through. Targets: 1. Know and be able to use the mathematical series for apertures known as stops. 2. Be able to predict the next stop in the series. 3. Be able to explain the relationship between stops and the size of an aperture. 4. Explain the relationship between shutter speed and aperture. 5. Use exposure compensations to correct changes in stop. 6. Use stops to control depth-of-field. 7. Create images showing shallow and deep depth-of-field. 8. Demonstrate the relationship between depth-of-field and aperture. The time the more light is allowed through. The smaller the time the less light is allowed through. The larger the opening the more light is allowed through. The smaller the opening the less light is allowed through. Notice the time & stop differences result in equal amounts. Breaking Down the Chart 1. Aperture settings are referred to as stops. 2. stop = focal length aperture diameter 3. The smaller the number (2.8) the larger the opening (more light and less in focus) 4. The larger the number (22) the smaller the opening (less light and more in focus) 5. An aperture of 2.8 will let in twice as much light as an aperture setting of As the numbers get bigger the less light gets in. 7. Each change in stop will double or half the amount of light. 8. The increase from one stop to the next is times. The decrease is it divided by. 9. The number (stop) alternately doubles or halves. Making sense of f/stops At-a-glance guide to aperture scales, and what the settings mean LE LIGHT MORE LIGHT MORE DEPTH OF FIELD LE DEPTH OF FIELD ONE STOP TWO STOPS SMALL APERTURES WIDE APERTURES Wide apertures Mid apertures Small apertures

2 Name: 2 Photography Vocabulary Aperture & stop Worksheet Term Definition As it pertains to photography Aperture As it pertains to exposure Bracketing Circle(s) of confusion As it pertains to photography As it pertains to photography Depth-of-field Depth-of-Field Preview As it pertains to photography As it pertains to photography, Include formula stop As it pertains to photography Focal Length Hyperfocal Distance As it pertains to photography As it pertains to photography Include symbol Infinity As it pertains to photography, as it relates to exposure Lens Speed As it pertains to exposure Reciprocity Selective Focus Stop As it pertains to photography As it pertains to photography

3 Aperture & stop Worksheet 3 Name: Aperture Mount from Canon 50mm ƒ1/8 lens 24mm Lens Cutaway Lens Speed Edges of lens cut Fast Lenses off for mounting Fast lenses have large aperture openings. They let in more light which allows for faster shutter speeds. This is why they are called fast lenses. A fast lens would have a stop range of 1.4 for a 55mm lens (normal) to 2.8 for a longer lens. Most photographers prefer faster lenses as they let in more light allowing for faster shutter speeds and lower settings. Because larger diameter glass lenses must be used and more care given in mounting these lenses they are more expensive. Slow Lenses Most zoom lenses (lenses with a variable focal length) are slower lenses as they have smaller aperture openings (4-5.6) because of the number of glass lenses and the amount which each lens is covered by it s mounting. Zoom Lens Cutaway

4 Name: Standard Aperture & stop Settings{ 4 Aperture & stop Worksheet Reciprocity When you keep the exposure the same (equal amount of light reaches film) in all photos. Where 1 stop of light equals 1 change in... a. shutter speed b. stop (aperture) c. (sensor sensitivity)* If you change your shutter speed, then you must change your stop. If you change your stop, then you must change your shutter speed. * changes are usually only made as last resort (keep them low because of noise). Bracketing When you purposefully change the exposure so each photo has a different exposure (+2, +1, N, -1, -2) making some photos over exposed (no details in highlights) and others under exposed (no details in shadows). Change only one, either... a. the shutter speed (or) b. the stop (aperture) Same Different Shutter Speed & stop Chart

5 Complete the Equations Name: 1 = = 2 = 2.8 = One ± change in exposure value or one stop. One change in a stop is equivalent to one change in exposure value. This change will double or half the amount of light which passes through a lens. = = = = = = = Factoid Because of internal mounting of lenses there can never be a 1 aperture.

6 Name: 6 Reciprocal Exposure Problems Aperture & stop Worksheet Work the following problems using the Shutter Speed & stop chart for help: Problem 1. Initial exposure is /250. a. How do you change exposure to allow for greater DoF using a typical lens? Explain why you chose these settings and give new exposure. New Reasoning: Exposure Refined Exposure (if needed) b. If you wanted the greatest DoF using the chart on the bottom of page 6, what would your new exposure be? Explain why you chose these settings and give new exposure. New Reasoning: Refined Exposure Exposure (if needed) c. How would you change the initial exposure to allow for selective focus? Explain why you chose these settings and give new exposure. New Exposure Reasoning: Refined Exposure (if needed)

7 Aperture & stop Worksheet 7 Name: Reciprocal Exposure Problems Work the following problems using the Shutter Speed & stop chart for help: Problem 2. Initial exposure is 800 1/250. a. How do you change exposure to allow for greater DoF? Explain why you chose these settings and give new exposure. New Reasoning: Exposure Refined Exposure (if needed) b. If you wanted the greatest DoF using the chart what would your new exposure be? Explain why you chose these settings and give new exposure. New Exposure Reasoning: Refined Exposure (if needed) c. How would you change the initial exposure to allow for selective focus? Explain why you chose these settings and give new exposure. New Exposure Reasoning: Refined Exposure (if needed)

8 Name: 8 Depth-of-Field or DoF Aperture & stop Worksheet The Basics DoF is the variable distance between two points that is or is not in focus. It is a measure of how much of a picture is in focus. A lens only focuses s at a single point, but there will be an area or zone of acceptable sharpness stretching in front and behind this point still appearing sharp. This zone is known as the depth of field. It s not a fixed distance, it changes in size and can be described as either shallow (where only a narrow zone appears sharp) or deep (where more of the picture appears sharp). It is dependent on three things: 1. the focal length of the lens 2. the distance from the lens 3. the stop (aperture) Images are often discussed in terms of shallow (little in focus) or deep (lots in focus) DoF. Generally: stops with smaller openings like 11+ will produce an image with a deeper or greater DoF. stops with larger openings like 2.8 or wider (larger hole) will produce an image with a shallow or lesser DoF. Distance, Focal Length & Depth-of-field Depth-of-field increases with distance. The farther the camera is from a subject, the deeper DoF. Example Subject is photographed from five and then from 20 feet away Zone of sharpness (DoF) in the foreground and background is deeper (greater) at 20 feet. Landscapes generally have deeper (greater) DoF. Macro (close-up) photographs tend to have very little DoF because the subject is close to the lens. If the lens focal length and shooting distance stay the same, the depth of field is deeper at 16 than 1.4. Shorter lens focal length = deeper DoF (all else the same). Example 28mm lens vs. 50mm lens with same aperture and shooting distance. 28 mm lens has deeper DoF.

9 Aperture & stop Worksheet 9 Name: Depth-of-Field or DoF Circles of Confusion The circle of confusion is defined as the largest blur spot that is indistinguishable from the point source being rendered. The term CoC is used to define how much a point needs to be blurred in order to be perceived as unsharp. When the CoC becomes perceptible to one s eyes, this region is said to be outside the depth-of-field and thus no longer acceptably sharp. Another way to think about this is inside the DoF the CoC is seen as a tiny, sharp point. As a subject nears the edge of the DoF the CoC will grow gradually. As the subject moves beyond the edge of DoF zone the CoC point is large enough to be seen. Now the subject is out of focus, unsharp, beyond the point of being acceptably sharp. It will become more blurred as the subject continues toward the lens. Outside DoF zone a larger CoC overlapping with other points nearby creating a blurred area of the image. Visit DBP Consulting s web page at and try out the COC Tool. The CoC below has been exaggerated for clarity; in reality this would be only a tiny fraction of the camera sensor s area. Shallow Depth-of-Field Deep Depth-of-Field Adapted from

10 Name: 10 Depth-of-Field or DoF Selective Focus Selective focus uses shallow DoF to place the center of attention on the subject by throwing all other objects out of focus. Only the subject is in clear focus everything else is blurry. This is done by: a. Using low stop b. Large aperture c. Close focus Aperture & stop Worksheet Shallow Selective Focus Deep Shallow Close up Shallow

11 Aperture & stop Worksheet 11 Name: Sunny 16 Rule 16 on a sunny day between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. (3 hrs. after sunrise / 3 hrs. before sunset) So 400 means 1/500 (it s closest, there is not a 1/400 shutter

12 Name: 12 Aperture & stop Worksheet Depth-of-Field Assignment Shallow Depth-of-field 2, 2.8, 4 Deep Depth-of-field 11, 16,

13 Aperture & stop Worksheet 13 Name: Depth-of-Field Assignment How to set up your composition & directions Focus Lens Here Area in Focus Directions You are to take eight sets of two photos (16 photos total) demonstrating shallow and deep depth-of-field. Each set consists of: Identical photos with the same exact content and focus. Five similar items in a row. The only change should be the stop with the exposure adjusted (±0) so the exposure is reciprocal between the two. One photo should be with an stop less than 4 (or as low as you can get i.e. 5.6). The other photo should be with an stop greater than 11 (16+ better). Remember to adjust shutter speed and/or when changing stop. All photos should have reciprocal exposures. What to turn in 1. This worksheet fully filled out 2. Contact sheet fully labeled with exposures 3. One set of favorite photos printed out w/exposures 4. Aperture & stop rubric Area in Focus 2-4

14 Name: 14 Set #1 Describe location in detail including weather and light conditions: Aperture & stop Worksheet Exp. # stop Shutter Speed Shallow or Deep Comments & Notes, Detail when Taking Photo Set #2 Describe location in detail including weather and light conditions: Exp. # stop Shutter Speed Shallow or Deep Comments & Notes, Detail when Taking Photo Set #3 Describe location in detail including weather and light conditions: Exp. # stop Shutter Speed Shallow or Deep Comments & Notes, Detail when Taking Photo Set #4 Describe location in detail including weather and light conditions: Exp. # stop Shutter Speed Shallow or Deep Comments & Notes, Detail when Taking Photo

15 Aperture & stop Worksheet 15 Set #5 Describe location in detail including weather and light conditions: Name: Exp. # stop Shutter Speed Shallow or Deep Comments & Notes, Detail when Taking Photo Set #6 Describe location in detail including weather and light conditions: Exp. # stop Shutter Speed Shallow or Deep Comments & Notes, Detail when Taking Photo Set #7 Describe location in detail including weather and light conditions: Exp. # stop Shutter Speed Shallow or Deep Comments & Notes, Detail when Taking Photo Set #8 Describe location in detail including weather and light conditions: Exp. # stop Shutter Speed Shallow or Deep Comments & Notes, Detail when Taking Photo

16 Name: 16 Reflection Questions Aperture & stop Worksheet 1. When is the use of bracketing suggested? 2. If initial exposure reading is 400 1/125 when bracketing by +2 stops, what would the new exposure be (there are at least three answers)? Remember to list all exposure components for each answer.. A. B. C. 3. Reciprocal Exposure Problems Initial exposure is 400 1/250. a. How do you change exposure to allow for greater DoF? Explain why you chose these settings and give new exposure. New Exposure Reasoning: Refined Exposure (if needed) b. If you wanted the greatest DoF using the chart what would your new exposure be? Explain why you chose these settings and give new exposure. New Exposure Reasoning: Refined Exposure (if needed)

17 Aperture & stop Worksheet 17 Name: 3. Reciprocal Exposure Problems (cont.) Initial exposure is 400 1/250. c. How would you change the initial exposure to allow for selective focus? Explain why you chose these settings and give new exposure. New Exposure Reasoning: Refined Exposure (if needed) 4. How do you know if you have a fast lens? 5. How did changing the aperture effect exposure? 6. What happens to DoF when your subject is close to the camera? 7. What type of composition typically lends itself to this assignment? 8. What happens to the amount of light when you... (don t use the term stop in your answer give a relative amount of light)...increase your stop by one?...decrease your stop by one?

18 Name: 18 Reflection Questions (cont.) 9. If your setting is 400 and the light meter reads 8 then: a. Would you change your aperture to show deep DoF? b. Would you change your aperture to show shallow DoF? c. Would you change your aperture to show selective focus? d. Would you change your aperture to show foreground and background in focus? a Y N How change? New exposure My reasoning behind the change: Yes, I d change the exposure. No, I d leave the exposure the same. How I d change: Version 1 Revision (as needed) Aperture & stop Worksheet b Yes, I d change the exposure. No, I d leave the exposure the same. How I d change: Version 1 Revision (as needed) c Yes, I d change the exposure. No, I d leave the exposure the same. How I d change: Version 1 Revision (as needed) d Yes, I d change the exposure. No, I d leave the exposure the same. How I d change: Version 1 Revision (as needed)

19 Aperture & stop Worksheet How is DoF effected when using a longer focal length lens? Name: Reflection Questions (cont.) 11. Using the Sunny 16 Rule, if your is 800 what would your exposure be? What kinds of adjustments might you have to do & why? New Exposure Reasoning: Refined Exposure (if needed) 12. Which camera settings produced the best final images for you? Think about how depthof-field was demonstrated in your photos when explaining why you think these settings worked the best. Remember there are two types of DoF. 13. In your words, what was the hardest and easiest part of this assignment for you? 14. What did you learn that you did not expect?

20 Name: 20 Aperture & stop Worksheet 15. Why did you pick your favorite photo and how does it demonstrate what you have learned about apertures and stops? 16. Describe the composition of your favorite photo set. 17. Can you add any information which will assist me in determining your grade? 18. How would you change this assignment to improve it for future students? Note: the math needs to stay.

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