The Pythagorean Theorem is used in many careers on a regular basis. Construction


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1 Applying the Pythagorean Theorem Lesson 2.5 The Pythagorean Theorem is used in many careers on a regular basis. Construction workers and cabinet makers use the Pythagorean Theorem to determine lengths of materials and right angles. Engineers use the theorem to design buildings. Pilots and ship captains use the Pythagorean Theorem to plan routes. When a realworld situation requires finding a missing measure, it is helpful to draw a diagram. Label the diagram with the known information. Then solve for the missing measure. Example 1 An 8 foot ladder is placed 3.5 feet from the base of a wall. How high up the wall will the ladder reach? Round to the nearest tenth. Draw a diagram. 8 ft b 3.5 ft Substitute known values into the Pythagorean Theorem. 3.5² + b² = 8² Simplify by squaring b² = 64 Subtract from both sides of the equation b² = b 7.19 Round to the nearest tenth. b 7.2 The ladder will reach approximately 7.2 feet up the wall. b² = ± Lesson 2.5 ~ Applying the Pythagorean Theorem 67
2 Example 2 A ship travels 320 miles due north and then makes a turn due east. It travels 200 miles east. How far is the ship from its starting point? Round to the nearest mile. Draw a diagram. 200 mi End 320 mi c Start Substitute known values into the Pythagorean Theorem. 320² + 200² = c² Simplify by squaring = c² Add = c² ± = c² Round to the nearest whole number. 377 c The ship is approximately 377 miles from its starting point. Most things in the world are three dimensional. It is important to be able to solve problems using the Pythagorean Theorem in both two and three dimensions. explore! 3D PT Renee plays softball for her college team. She went home to visit her parents for the weekend and took her favorite bat to practice at the batting cages. After returning to college, she realized she left her bat at her parent s house. Step 1: The largest rectangular box that Renee s father can find has a base that is 28 inches by 18 inches. Use the Pythagorean Theorem to determine if Renee s 34inch bat will lie across the diagonal of the bottom of the box. Step 2: The box is 8 inches tall. Renee s father is hoping to put the bat at an angle in the box as shown by the green line in the diagram. Use the length of the base diagonal and the height of the box as the two legs of a new right triangle. Use the Pythagorean Theorem with this triangle to determine if the bat can fit in the box shown by the green line. 8 in 18 in 28 in Step 3: The Pythagorean Theorem works in three dimensions with the formula: a² + b² + c² = d² where a, b and c are the length, width and height of a rectangular prism. Use this formula to find the length of the longest diagonal in the box. Does it match your answer to Step 2? 68 Lesson 2.5 ~ Applying the Pythagorean Theorem
3 explore! (Continued) Step 4: As this Explore! shows, you can find the length of the longest diagonal using the Pythagorean Theorem twice or using the threedimensional Pythagorean Theorem formula. Which method do you prefer? Explain your reasoning. Step 5: Find a rectangular box in your classroom. Measure and record the length, width and height of the box to the nearest tenth of a centimeter. Step 6: Find the length of the longest stick that can fit in the box using either method in this Explore!. d a b c Example 3 What is the longest object that Simone can put in a rectangular box that is 10 inches wide, 12 inches long and 20 inches tall? Round to the nearest tenth of an inch. Write the threedimensional formula. a² + b² + c² = d² Substitute known values into the formula. 10² + 12² + 20² = d² Simplify by squaring = d² Add. 644 = d² ± 644 = d² Round to the nearest tenth d The longest object that can fit in the box is about 25.4 inches. Exercises In this Exercise set, round to the nearest tenth, when necessary. Show all work necessary to justify each answer. 1. Jeff just bought a house on a triangular lot. The sides measure 85 feet, 132 feet and 157 feet. Is his lot a right triangle? 2. Paul is locked out of his house. An 18foot ladder is outside and an upstairs window is open. Paul read the safety warning on the ladder recommending it be 6 feet away from the wall. He placed the ladder according to the warning and it reached the base of the window. How high up is the base of the window from the ground? Lesson 2.5 ~ Applying the Pythagorean Theorem 69
4 3. A ship traveled 140 miles due north, then made a turn due east. It traveled 180 miles east. How far is the ship from its starting point? 4. Jamar and Peggy live on opposite sides of a park. Peggy counted how many steps it takes her to get from her house to Jamar s house. She walks 52 steps west and 81 steps south. a. If she could just walk on a path directly from her house to Jamar s house, how many steps would it take? b. Approximately how many steps shorter would the direct route be? 5. A 60foot cable is stretched from the top of a pole to an anchor on the ground. It is anchored on the ground 19 feet away from the base of the pole. How tall is the pole? 6. The diagonal of a rectangle measures 18.2 inches. The width of the rectangle is 6.7 inches. a. Find the length of the rectangle. b. What is the perimeter of the rectangle? 7. A square has an area of 225 m². a. Find the length of one side of the square. b. Determine the perimeter of the square. c. What is the length of the square s diagonal? 8. Jessica s cat is stuck in a tree. The fire department no longer assists in getting cats out of trees. Jessica s dad knows the cat is approximately 22 feet high. He has a 25foot ladder and the directions say to be safe he must keep the base of the ladder 10 feet from the base of the tree. Will the ladder reach the cat so he can safely get it out of the tree? Use mathematics to justify your answer. 9. Maria walked 8 miles south and then 3 miles east. Find her distance from her original starting point. 10. Jake drives a truck with a slideout ramp for loading motorcycles. The tailgate of his truck is 1.6 meters above the ground. The ramp is 3.7 meters long. What is the horizontal distance the ramp can reach? 11. Talia needs to paint a 9.5 foot metal rod. She wants to place it on a tarp so the paint does not drip on the floor. She has a rectangular tarp that is 6 feet by 8 feet. Will the metal rod fit on the tarp or does she need to buy a new tarp for the project? Use words and/or numbers to justify your answer. 12. A rectangular prism is 12 inches wide, 5 inches long and 6 inches tall. Tamara s work to find the length of its longest diagonal is to the right. Unfortunately, she made a mistake. Identify the mistake and find the length of the longest diagonal in the rectangular prism. 13. A rectangular prism is 3 feet long, 4 feet wide and 2 feet tall. What is the length of its longest diagonal? 14. Petra is sending her brother a giant candy cane stick for a gift. She will use a box that measures 10 inches by 6 inches by 2 inches. What is the maximum length the candy cane stick can be to fit in the box? 70 Lesson 2.5 ~ Applying the Pythagorean Theorem Tamara s Work 6 in 5 in 12 in = d² 23 = d² ± 23 = d ² 4.8 d The longest diagonal is about 4.8 in.
5 15. Elena needs to ship a 61 cm concert flute to a customer. She has two rectangular boxes. One is 25 cm by 25 cm by 50 cm. The other box is 10 cm by 12 cm by 58 cm. a. What is the longest object that will fit in the 25 cm 25 cm 50 cm rectangular box? b. What is the longest object that will fit in the 10 cm 12 cm 58 cm rectangular box? c. In which box will the flute best fit? 16. A steel box measures 9 inches by 6 inches by 6 inches. What is the measure of the longest diagonal in the box? 17. A cube has a surface area of 600 square meters. a. How many faces does a cube have? b. What is the area of one face of the cube? c. Find the length of one edge of the cube. d. What is the length of the cube s longest diagonal? Use mathematics to justify your answer. Review Determine the two positive integers that each square root is between Solve for x. Round answers to the nearest tenth. 21. x2 + 5 = x2 4 = x2 = 45 Use the given Pythagorean triple to create another Pythagorean triple , 12, , 4, 5 TicTacToe ~ A ppl ications The Pythagorean Theorem is used in many types of realworld situations. Create a worksheet with ten realworld math problems that must be solved using the Pythagorean Theorem. At least two of the problems must include diagrams. At least two of the problems must require the use of the threedimensional Pythagorean Theorem. Include an answer key for your worksheet. Lesson 2.5 ~ Applying the Pythagorean Theorem 71
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