Probability. Chapter-13

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1 Chapter-3 Probability The definition of probability was given b Pierre Simon Laplace in 795 J.Cardan, an Italian physician and mathematician wrote the first book on probability named the book of games of chance Probability has been used extensively in many areas such as biology, economics, genetics, physics, sociology etc. We used probability in forecast of weather, result of an election, population demography, earthquakes, crop production etc. Random Experiment: An experiment is said to be a random experiment if its outcome cannot be predicted that is the outcome of an experiment does not obey any rule. i. Tossing a coin is a random experiment ii. Throwing a die is a random experiment Sample Space: The set of all possible outcomes of an experiment are called a sample space (or) probability space If coin is tossed, either head or tail may appear Hence sample space (s) = {H,T} Number of events n(s) = 2 If a die throw once every face has equal chance to appear (or 2 or 3 or 4 or 5 or 6) Hence sample space (s) = {, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} Number of events n(s) = 6 Event: Any sub set E of a sample space is called an event.

2 Ex: When a coin is tossed getting a head Elementary Event: An event having only one outcome is called an elementary event Ex: In tossing two coins {HH},{HT},{TH} and {TT} are elementary events. Equally Likely Events: Two or more events are said to be equally likely if each one of them has an equal chance of occurrence Ex:. When a coin is tossed, the two possible outcomes, head and tail, are Equally likely 2. When a die is thrown, the six possible outcomes,, 2,3,4,5, and 6 are Equally likely Mutually Exclusive Events: Two or more events are mutually exclusive if the occurrence of each event prevents the every other event. Ex: When a coin is tossed getting a head and getting a tail are mutually exclusive. Probability: The number of occasions that a particular events is likely to occur in a large population of events is called probability Theoretical Probability: The theoretical probability of an event sis written as P(E) and is defined as PE ( ) Number of outcomes favourable to E Number of possible outocmes of of theexp eriment The sum of the probabilities, of all the elementary events of an experiments is Complementary Events: Event of all other outcomes in the sample survey which are not in the favorable events is called Complementary event. For any event E, P(E) + P( E ) =, Where E stands for not E and E and E are called complementary events P( E) P( E) P( E) P( E)

3 Exhaustive Events: All the events are exhaustive if their union is the sample space Ex: when a die is thrown the events of getting an odd number, even number are mutually exhaustive. Impossible Event: An event which will not occur on any account is called an Impossible event. Ex: Getting 7 when a single die is thrown Sure Event: The sample space of a random experiment is called sure or certain event. Ex: When a die is thrown the events of getting a number less than or equal to 6 The probability of an event E is a number P(E) such that O P(E) About Cards There are 52 cards in a pack of cards Out of these,26 are in red colour an d26 are in black colour Out of 26 red cards, 3are hearts () and 3 are diamonds () Out of 26 black cards,3 are spades () 3 are clubs () Each of four varieties (hearts, diamonds, spades, clubs) has an ace. i.e A pack of 52cards has 4 aces. Similarly there are 4kings, 4queens and 4 jacks

4 Mark Questions. Sangeeta and Reshma, play a tennis match. It is known that the probability of Sangeeta wining the math is What is the probability of Reshma winning the match. A. The probability of Sangeeta winning chances P(S) = 0.62 The probability of Reshmas winning chances P (R) = -P(S) = = If P (E) = 0.05 what is the probability of not E? A. P (E) + P (not E) = P (not E) = P (not E) = = What is the probability of drawing out a red king from a deck of cards? A. Number of possible out comes = 52 n(s) = 52 The number of red king from a deck of cards = 2 n(e) = 2 ne ( ) 2 PE ( ) ns ( ) What are complementary events? A. Consider an event has few outcomes. Event of all other outcomes in the sample survey which are not in the favorable event is called complementary event 5. A die is thrown once find the probability of getting a even prime number A. Total no of outcomes = 6 n(s) = 6

5 No of outcomes favorable to a even prime number E = n(e)= Probability of getting a even prime ne ( ) PE ( ) ns ( ) 6 6. Can 7 be the probability of an event? Explain? 2 A. 7 Can t be the probability of any event 2 Reason: probability of any event should be between 0 and 7. One card is drawn from a well-shuffled deck of 52 cards. Find the probability of getting a queen. A. Number of outcomes favorable to the queen = 4 n (E) = 4 Number of all possible outcomes in drawing a card at random = 52 n(s) = 52 Probability of event ne ( ) 4 PE ( ) ns ( ) If P (E) = then find out p (not E)? 3 A. P(E) = 3 P(E) + P( E ) = 3 + P( E ) = P( E ) =

6 9. If a coin is tossed once what is the probability of getting a tail? A. Number of all possible outcomes s = 2 n(s) = 2 Number of outcomes getting a tail E =, n(e) = Probability of event ne ( ) PE ( ) ns ( ) 2 0. The probability of an event -. In it true? Explain? A. False. The probability of an event can never be negative it lies in between o and. A bag contain 3red and 2blue marbles. A marble is drawn at random. What is the probability of drawing a blue marbles A. Total number of marbles = 3red + 2blue n(s) = 5marbles Favorable no of blue marbles = 2 n(e) = 2 Probability of getting blue marble ne ( ) 2 PE ( ) ns ( ) 5 2. What is a sample space? A. The set of all possible outcomes of an event is called a sample space 3. What is the sum of fall probabilities of all elementary events of an experiment? A. The sum of all probabilities of al elementary even of an experiment is. 4. Write an example for impossible event A. When die is thrown the probability of getting 8 on the face.

7 . Suppose we throw a die once. 2 Mark Questions (i) What is the probability of getting a number getting a number greater than 4? (ii) What is the probability of getting a number getting a number less than or equal to 4? A. i) In rolling an unbiassed dice Sample space s ={, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} No of outcomes n(s) = 6 Favorable outcomes for number greater than 4, E = {5,6] No o favorable outcomes n(e) = 2 Probability p(e) = ii. Let F be the event getting a number less than or equal to 4 Sample space s = {,2,3.,4,5,6} No of outcomes n(s) = 6 Favorable outcomes for number less or Equal to 4, F = {,2,3,4} No o favorable outcomes n(f) = 4 Probability p(f) = 4 2 PF ( ) One card is drawn from a well shuffled deck of 52 cards calculate the probability that the card will (i) be an ace (ii) not be an ace A. Well shuffling ensures equally likely outcomes i. There are 4 aces in a deck Let E be the event the card is an ace The number of the outcomes favorable to E = 4

8 The number of possible outcomes = 52 4 PE ( ) 52 3 ii. Let F be the event card drawn is not an ace the number of outcomes favorable to the event F = 52-4 = 48 The number of possible outcomes = PE ( ) 52 3 Alternate method: Note that F is nothing but E. Therefore can also calculate P(F) as follows: 2 P( F) P( E) P( E) A bag contains lemon flavoured candies only Malini takes out one candy without locking in to the bag. What is the probability that she takes out i) An orange flavoured candy? ii) A lemon flavoured candy? A. Bag contains only lemon flavoured candies i. Taking an orange flavoured candy is an impossible event and hence the probability is zero ii. Also taking a lemon flavoured candy is a sure event and hence its probability is 4. A box contains 3blue, 2white and 4red marbles if a marble is drawn at random from the box, what is the probability that it will be i) White? ii) Blue? iii) Red? A. Saying that a marble is drawn at random means all the marbles are equally likely to be drawn The number of possible outcomes = =9 Let W denote the event the marble is white, B denote the event the marble is blue and R denote the event the marble is red.

9 i. The number of outcomes favourable to the event W = 2 So, p(w) = 2 9 Similarly, ii) 3 PB ( ) and PR ( ) 9 Note that P(W) + P(B) + P(R) = 5. Harpreet tosses two different coins simultaneously (say one is of one Rupee and other of two Rupee ). What is the probability that she gets at least one head? A. We write H for head and T for Tail when two coins are tossed simultaneously, The possible outcomes are (H,H),(H,T),(T,H) (T,T),which are all equally likely. Here (H,H) means heads on the first coin (say on Rupee) and also heads on the second coin (2Rupee) similarly (H,T) means heads up on the first coin and tail up on the second coin and so on The outcomes favourble to the even E, at least one head are (H,H), ( H,T) and ( T,H) so, the number of outcomes favourable to E is 3. 3 PE ( ) [Since the total possible outcomes = 4] 4 i.e. the probability that Harpreet gets at least one head is A carton consists of 00 shirts of which 88 are good, 8 have minor defects and 4 have major defects. Jhony, a trader, will only accept the shirts which are good, but Sujatha, another trader, will only reject the shirts which have major defects.one shirt is drawn at random from the carton. what is the probability that i) it is acceptable to Jhony? ii) it is acceptable to Sujatha? A. One shirt is drawn at ramdom from the carton of 00 shirts. Therefore, there are 00equally likely outcomes. i. The number of outcomes favorable (i.e acceptable) to Jhony = 88

10 p(shirt is acceptable to Jhony) = ii. The number of outcomes favourable to Sujatha = = 96 so, p (shirt is acceptable to Sujatha) = A bag contains 3red balls and 5black balls. A ball is drawn at random from the bag what is the probability that the ball drawn is i) Red? ii) Not red? A. i) Total number of balls in the bag = 3 red + 5 black =8 balls Number when a ball is drawn at random = = 8 Now, number of favourable out comes of the red ball = 3 Probability of getting a red ball 3 PE ( ) 8 ii. If PE ( ) is the probability of drawing no red ball then P( E) P( E) 3 5 P( E) P( E) Gopi buys a fish from a shop for his aquarium the shopkeeper takes out one fish at random from a tank containing 5male fish and 8female fish what is the probability that the fish taken out is a male fish? A. Number of male fishes = 5 Total number female fishes = 8 Total number of fishes = 5m + 8f = 3fishes Number in taking a fish at random from the aquarium = 3 Number of outcomes favourable to male fish = 5 The probability of taking a male fish

11 PE ( ) of favourable out comes outcomes / A bag contains 5red and 8white balls. If a ball is drawn at random from a bag, what is the probability that it will be i) white ball ii) not a white ball? A. of red balls n(r) = 5 of white balls n(w) = 8 Total no.of balls = = 3 Total no. of outcomes n(s) = 3 i. of white balls n (w) = 8 of favourable outcome in drawing a white ball = 8 Probability of drawing white ball 8 PE ( ) 3 ii. of balls which are not white balls = 3-8 = 5 in drawing a ball which is not white balls = 5 5 PW ( ) 3 0. Define i) equally likely events ii) Mutually exclusive events A. i. Equally likely events: Two or more events are said to be equally likely if each one of them has an equal chance of occurrence When a coin is tossed, getting a head and getting a tail are equally likely

12 ii. Mutually exclusive events: Two events are mutually exclusive if the occurrences of one event percents the occurrence of another event When a coin is tossed getting a head and getting a tail are mutually exclusive. 2 defective pens are accidentally mixed with 32 good ones. It is not possible to just look at a pen and tell whether or not it is defective one pen is taken out at random from this lot determine the probability that the pen taken out is a good one A. Number of good pens = 32 Number of defective pens = 2 Total numbers of pens = = 44 Total number of outcomes in taking a pen at random = 44 in taking a good pen = 32 Probability of taking a good pen = of favourableoutcomes What is the probability of drawing out a red king from a deck of cards? A. Numbers to red king = 2 Number = 52 (Number of cards in a deck of cards = 52) Probability of getting a red king p (red king) =

13 3. A girl thrown a die with sides marked as A, B, C, D, E, F. what is the probability of getting i) A and d i)d A. Faces of die are A, B, C, D, E, F. so the total outcomes = 6 i. Let the outcomes of getting A E = n(s) = 6 Probability of getting A ne ( ) PE ( ) ns ( ) 6 Similarly let the outcomes of getting D E = n(e) = Probability of getting D ne ( ) PE ( ) ns ( ) 6 4. Shyam and Ramulu visit a shop from Tuesday to Saturday. They may visit The shop on a same day or another day. Then find the probability they have to visit on the same day A. There are 5days from Tuesday to Saturday so each visit the shop 5times a Week. So both are visit the shop in a week, n(s) = Suppose they visited the shop on the same day like (Tuesday, Tuesday) (Wednesday, Wednesday) (Thursday, Thursday) (Friday, Friday) and (Saturday, Saturday) n(e) = 5 Probability of ne ( ) 5 PE ( ) ns ( ) 25 5

14 4Mark Questions. Give examples of 5 experiments that have equally likely outcomes and five more examples that do not have equally likely outcomes A. Equally likely events: a) Getting an even of odd number when a die is rolled. b) Getting a tail or head when a coin is tossed. c) Getting an even or odd number when a card is drawn at random from a pack of cards numbered form to0 d) Drawing a green or black ball from a bag containing 8green balls and 8black balls. e) Selecting a boy or girl from a class of 20boys and 20girls Events which are not equally likely: a) Getting a prime or composite number when a die is thrown. b) Getting an even or odd number when a card is drawn at random from a pack of cards numbered from to 5. c) Getting a number which is a multiple of 3 or not a multiple of 3 from numbers,2.0. d) Getting a number less than 5 or greater than5. e) Drawing a white ball or green balls from a bag containing 5 green balls and 8 white balls. 2. Write a few new pair of events that are complementary. A. a) When a die is thrown, getting an even number is complementary to getting an odd number. b) Drawing a red card from a deck of cards is complementary to getting a black card c) Getting an even number is complementary to getting an odd number from number,2 8. d) Getting a Sunday is commenting to getting any day other than Sunday in a week.

15 e) Winning a running race is complementary to losing it. 3. Sarada and Hamida are friends. What is the probability that both will have i) different birthdays? ii) The same birthday? (Ignoring a leap year) A. Out of the two friends, one girl, say, Saradas birthday can also e any day of 365 days in the year. We assume that these 365 days in the year we assume that these 365days in the year. We assume that these 365 outcomes are equally likely. i) If Hamidas birthday is different from Saradas the number for her birthday is 365- = 364 So, p (Hamidas birthaday is different form Saradas birthday) = ii) p (Sarada and Harmida have the same birthday ) = =-p(both have different birthdays ) (Using p P( E) P( E) )= There are 40 students in X class of a school of whom 25 are girls and 5are boys. The class teacher has to select one student as a class representative. She writes the name of each student on a separate cards, the cards being identical. Then she puts cards in a box and stirs them thoroughly. She then draw one card from the box. What is the probability that the name written on the card is the name of i)a girl? ii) a boy? A. There are 40 students and only one name card has to be chosen the number of all possible outcomes is 40. i) The no of all possible outcomes (favouravale for a card with the name of a girl) = 25 p( card with name of a girl ) = p(girl) = ii) The no of outcomes favourable for a card with the name of a boy = 5 p(card of name of a boy ) = p(boy) =

16 (Or) p(boy) = -p(not boy ) = -p(girl) = Rahim takes out all the hearts from the cards what is the probability of i) Picking out an ace from the remaining pack ii) Picking out a diamonds. iii) Picking out a card that is not a heart iv) Picking out the ace of hearts A. Total number of cards in the deck = 52 Total number of hearts in the deck and of cards = 3 When hearts are removed, remaining cards = 52-3 = 39 i) Picking an ace: No of outcomes favourable to ace = 3 Total no of possible outcomes from the remaining cards = 39-after removing hearts Probability p(a) = total no of outcomes ii) Picking a diamond: No to diamonds = 3 Total no of possible outcomes = 39 () p() = iii) Picking a card not heart As all hearts are removed it is an impossible event and hence it s probability is zero

17 Heart p() iv) Picking out the ace of hearts: a) If drown from the removed cards No = Total no of possible outcomes = 3 PE ( ) 3 b) If the picking from the rest of the cards, it is an impossible event an hence probability is zero 6. A box contains 5red marbles,8 white marbles and 4green marbles. One marble is taken out of the box at random. What is the probability that the marble taken out will be i) red ii) white? iii) not green? A. Total number of marbles in the box 5red + 8wht + 4green = = 7 No in drawing a marble at random from the box = 7 i) No of red marbles = 5 No of favouravle outcomes in drawing a red ball = 5 PR ( ) 5 PR ( ) 7 ii) No of write marbles = 8 No in drawing a write marble = 8 probability of getting a white marble

18 PW ( ) P(w) = 8 7 iii) No of non green marbles = 5red +8white = = 3 No of outcomes favourable to drawing a non green marble = 3 Probability of getting a non-green marble P(non-green) P(non-green) = A kiddy bank contains hundred 50p coins, fifty Rupee coins, twenty 2rupee coins and ten 5rupee coins. If it is equally likely that one of the coins will fall out when the kiddy bank is turned upside down, what is the probability of that the coin i) will be a 50p coins? ii) will not be a 5rupee coin? A. i) No of 50p coins = 00 No of rupee cons = 50 No of 2 rupee cons = 20 No of 5 rupee coins = 0 Total no of coins 80 No for a coin to fall down = 80 No of outcomes favourable to 50p coins to fall down =

19 ii) Let P(E) be the probability for a 5Rupee coin to fall down. No of outcomes favourable to 5Rupee coin = 0 Probability for a 5Rupee coins to fall down Then the PE ( ) is the probability of a coin which fall down is not a 5Rupee coin Again P( E) P( E) P( E) P( E) = A game of chance consists of spinning an arrow which comes to rest pointing at one of the number,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 and these are equally likely outcomes what is the probability that is will point at i)8? ii) an odd number? iii) a number greater than 2? iv) a number less than 9? A. No are (,2..8) = 8 i) No of outcomes favourable to 8 = PS ( ) 8 ii. No of odd number on the spinning wheel = (,3,5,7) = 4 No of outcomes favourable to an odd number Probability of getting an odd number P(odd) = 4 8 2

20 iii) No of chances greater than 2 are (3,4,5,6,7,8) No of outcomes favourable to greater than 2 are = 6 Probability of pointing a number greater than 2 PE ( ) iv) No of less than 9 are (,2,3,4,5,6,7,8) =8 No of outcomes favourable to pointing a number less than 9=8 PE ( ) of outcomes favourable to less than9 8 8 Note: This is a sure event and hence probability is. 9. One card is drawn from a well-shuffled deck of 52cards. Find the probability of getting i) a king of red colour ii)a face and iii) a red face card iv) The jack of hearts v) a spade vi) The queen of diamonds. A. Total no of cards = 52 No of all possible outcomes in drawing a card at random = 52 i) No of outcomes favourable to the king of red colour ii) No of face cards in deck of cards= 43 2(K, Q, J) No of outcomes favourable to draw a face card = 2

21 Probability of getting a face card iii) No of red face card= 23 6 No of outcomes favourable to draw a red face card = 6 Probability of getting a red face card iv) No of outcomes favourable to the jack of hearts = Probability of getting jack of hearts 52 v) No of spade cards = 3 No of outcomes favourable to a spade card = 3 Probability of drawing a spade card vi) No of outcomes favourable to the queen of diamonds = Probability of drawing the queen of diamonds 52

22 0. Five cards the ten, jack, queen, king, ace of diamonds, are well shuffled with their face downwards one card is then picked up at random i) What is the probability that the card is queen? ii) If the queen is drawn and put aside, what is the probability that the second card picked up is (a) an ace? (b)a queen? A. Total no of cards = 5 No in drawing a card at random = 5 i) No of outcomes favourable to queen = Probability of getting the queen ' Q ' 5 ii) When queen is drawn and put aside, remaining cards one four No in drawing a card at random = 4 a) No to ace = probability of getting an ace = 4 b) No to Q = 0 (as it was already drawn and put aside) Probability that the card is Q = A box contains 90discs which are numbered from to 90. If one disc is drawn at random from the box find the probability that it bears i) a two digit number ii) a perfect square number iii) a number divisible by5. A. Total number of discs in the box = 90 No in drawing a disc at random from the box = 90 i) No of 2-digit numbers in the box = 8 i.e No in drawing a disc bearing a 2-digit number

23 ii) No of favourable perfect squares in the box (, 2 4,3 9, 4 6,5 25,6 36,7 49,8 64,9 8) i.e no of favorable outcomes in drawing a disc with a perfect square iii) No of multiples of 5from to 90are (5,0.90) = 8 i.e no in drawing a disc with a multiple of 5 = 8 Probability of drawing a disc bearing a number multiple by Two dice are rolled simultaneously and counts are added i) complete the table given below Event: sum on 2 dice Probability ii) A student argues that there are possible outcomes 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,,2. Therefore each of the has a probability. Do you agree with this argument? Justify your answer

24 A. When two dice are rolled, total number of outcomes = ,,2,3,4,5,6 2 2, 2,2 2,3 2,4 2,5 2,6 3 3, 3,2 3,3 3,4 3,5 3,6 4 4, 4,2 4,3 4,4 4,5 4,6 5 5, 5,2 5,3 5,4 5,5 5,6 6 6, 6,2 6,3 6,4 6,5 6,6 Sum on 2dice Favourable outcomes of favourable outcomes Probability 2 (,) 36 3 (,2)(2,) (,3)(2,2)(3,) (,4)(2,3)(3,2)(4,) (,5)(2,4)(3,3)(4,2)(5,) (,6)(2,5)(3,4)(4,3)(5,2)(6,) (2,6)(3,5)(4,4)(5,3)(6,2) (3,6)(4,5)(5,4)(6,3) (4,6)(5,5)(6,4)

25 (5,6)(6,5) (6,6) 36 ii) The above arguement is wrong. The sum 2,3,4.& 2 have different no of farourable outcomes, moreover total number of outcomes are A game consists of tossing a one rupee coin 3 times and noting it s outcome each time. Hanif wins if all the tosses give the same result. i.e three heads or three tails and losses otherwise calculate the probability that Hanif will lose the game A. When a coin is tossed for n times the total number of outcomes = 2 n 3 If a coin is tossed for 3-times, then the total number of outcomes = 2 8 Note the following: T T T T T H T H T H T T H H T H T H T H H H H H Of the above no of outcomes with different results = 6 probability of losing the game

26 4. A die is thrown twice. What is the probability that i) 5will not come up either time? ii)5 will come up at least once? (Hint: Throwing a die twice and throwing two dice simultaneously are treated as the same experiment) A. If a die is thrown n-times or n-dice are thrown simultaneously then the total number of outcomes = (n-times) = 6 n 2 No in throwing a die for two times = ,,2,3,4,5,6 2 2, 2,2 2,3 2,4 2,5 2,6 3 3, 3,2 3,3 3,4 3,5 3,6 4 4, 4,2 4,3 4,4 4,5 4,6 5 5, 5,2 5,3 5,4 5,5 5,6 6 6, 6,2 6,3 6,4 6,5 6,6 Let E be the event that 5willnot come up either time, then the favorable outcomes are (,)(,2)(,3)(,4)(,6)(2,)(2,2)(2,3)(2,4)(2,6)(3,)(3,2)(3,3)(3,4)(3,6)(4,)4,2(4,3)4, 4(4,6)(6,)(6,2)(6,3)(6,4)(6,5)(6,6) = PE ( ) 36 ii) Let E be the event that 5will come up at least once then the favourable outcomes are(,5)(2,5)(3,5)(4,5)(5,5)(6,5)(5,)(5,2)(5,3)(5,4)(5,5)(5,6) = PE ( ) 36

27 Multiple Choice Questions. The probability of getting king or queen card from the play card ( deck) [ ] (a) 52 (b ) 3 (c) 45 (d) Among the numbers,2,3.5 the probability of choosing a number which is a multiple of 4? [ ] (a) 4 52 (b ) 2 52 (c) 5 (d) Gita said that the probability of impossible events is. Pravallika said that probability of sure events is 0 and Atiya said that the probability of any event lies in between 0 &. In above with whom you will agree? [ ] (a) Gita (c) Aliya (b) Pravallilka (d) All the three 4. The probability of a sure event is.. [ ] (a) - (b) (c) 2 (d)3 5. If a die is rolled then the probability of getting an even number is [ ] (a) - (b) (c) 2 (d) 2 6. P(E) = 0.2 then PE ( ) [ ] (a) 2.7 (b)8. (c) (d) No of playing cards in a deck of cards is.. [ ] (a) 52 (b) 25 (c) 8 (d) 0

28 8. In a single throw of two dice the probability of getting distinct number is [ ] (a) 6 (c) 2 (b) 5 6 (d) None 9. A card is pulled from a deck of 52cards, the probability of obtaining a club is [ ] (a) (b) 3 2 (c) 4 (d) 0. which of the following cannot be the probability of an event? [ ] (a)2.3 (b) -.5 (c)- (d) All the above. P( X ) P( X )... [ ] (a) 0 (b) (c) - (d) 2 2. P( E), then P( not E)... 2 [ ] (a) (b) 2 2 (c)- (d) 3. If two dice are rolled at a time then the probability that the two faces show same number is [ ] (a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 6 (d) If three coins are tossed simultaneously then the probability of getting at least two heads is [ ] (a) (b) 2 (c) 3 2 (d) 4

29 5. What is probability that a leap year has 53 Mondays [ ] (a) 4 (b) 2 7 (c) 7 (d) P( E) P( E)... [ ] (a) 0 (b) - (c) 8 (d) 7. A number is selected from numbers to 25. The probability that it is prime is [ ] (a) 0 (b) 9 25 (c) 2 (d) 3 Answers ) B 2) C 3) C 4) B 5) D 6) D 7) A 8) B 9) C 0) D ) B 2) B 3) C 4) B 5) B 6) D 7) B

30 Fill in the blanks. R = Red,Y = yellow. From the figure,the probability to get yellow colour ball is 2. A game of chance consists of spinning an arrow which comes to rest at one of the number,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 and these are equally likely outcomes the possibilities that the arrow will point at a number greater than 2is 3. For any event E, P( E) P( E) 4. When a die is thrown once, the possible number of outcomes is 5. The probability of an event lies between and 6. If two events have same chances to happen then they are called 7. In a single throw of two dice, the probability of getting distinct numbers is 8. P( E) then p( E) 3 9. The book of games of chance was written by 0. Getting 7 when a single die is throw is an example of. The probability of a baby born either boy (or) girl is 2. When a die is thrown the event of getting numbers less than are equal to 6 is an example event 3. If a card is drawn from a pack the probability that it is a king is 4. The probability of an event that cannot happen is 5. The probability of an event is.5. Is it true (or) false 6. If a two digit number is chosen at random that the probability that the number chosen is a multiple of 3 is

31 7. A number is selected at random from the 3,5,5,7,7,7,9,9,9,9. Then the probability that the selected number is their average is 8. If a number X is chosen from the number,2,3 and a number Y is selected from the numbers,4,9 then p(xy<9) is 9. A card is drawn dropped from a pack of 52 playing cards the probability that it is an ace is 20. Suppose you drop a die at random in the rectangular region shown in the figure what is the probability that it will land inside the circle with diameter m Answers ) 2 5 2) 3 4 3) 4) 6 5) 0, 6) Equally 7) ) 2 3 9) j.cardon 0) impossible ) 2 2) sure 3) 3 4) 0 5) false 6) 3 7) 3 0 8) 5 6 9) 3 20) 84

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