# Intermediate A. Help Pages & Who Knows

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1 & Who Knows 83

2 Vocabulary Arithmetic Operations Difference the result or answer to a subtraction problem. Example: The difference of 5 and is 4. Product the result or answer to a multiplication problem. Example: The product of 5 and 3 is 5. Quotient the result or answer to a division problem. Example: The quotient of 8 and is 4. Sum the result or answer to an addition problem. Example: The sum of 5 and is 7. Factors and Multiples Factors are multiplied together to get a product. Example: and 3 are factors of 6. Multiples can be evenly divided by a number. Example: 5, 0, 5 and 0 are multiples of 5. Composite Number a number with more than factors. Example: 0 has factors of,, 5 and 0. Ten is a composite number. Prime Number a number with exactly factors (the number itself and ). Example: 7 has factors of and 7. Seven is a prime number. Greatest Common Factor (GCF) the highest factor that numbers have in common. )See p. 87) Example: The factors of 6 are,, 3, and 6. The factors of 9 are, 3 and 9. The GCF of 6 and 9 is 3. Least Common Multiple (LCM) the smallest multiple that numbers have in common. (See p. 87) Example: Multiples of 3 are 3, 6, 9,, 5 Multiples of 4 are 4, 8,, 6 The LCM of 3 and 4 is. Prime Factorization a number, written as a product of its prime factors. (See p. 87) Example: 40 can be written as x x 5 x 7 or x 5 x 7. (All are prime factors of 40.) Fractions and Decimals Improper Fraction a fraction in which the numerator is larger than the denominator. Example: 9 4 Mixed Number the sum of a whole number and a fraction. Example: 5 4 Reciprocal a fraction where the numerator and denominator are interchanged. The product of a fraction and its reciprocal is always. Example: The reciprocal of 3 5 is Repeating Decimal a decimal in which a number or a series of numbers continues on and on. Example: , , , etc. Geometry Acute Angle an angle measuring less than 90. Congruent figures with the same shape and the same size. Obtuse Angle an angle measuring more than 90. Right Angle an angle measuring exactly 90. Similar figures having the same shape, but different size. Straight Angle an angle measuring exactly

3 Vocabulary (continued) Geometry Circles Circumference the distance around the outside of a circle. Diameter the widest distance across a circle. The diameter always passes through the center. Radius the distance from any point on the circle to the center. The radius is half of the diameter. Geometry Polygons Number of Sides Name Number of Sides Name 3 Triangle 7 Heptagon 4 Quadrilateral 8 Octagon 5 Pentagon 9 Nonagon 6 Hexagon 0 Decagon Geometry Triangles Equilateral a triangle in which all 3 sides have the same length. Isosceles a triangle in which sides have the same length. Scalene a triangle in which no sides are the same length. Measurement Relationships Volume Distance 3 teaspoons in a tablespoon 36 inches in a yard cups in a pint 760 yards in a mile pints in a quart 580 feet in a mile 4 quarts in a gallon 00 centimeters in a meter Weight 000 millimeters in a meter 6 ounces in a pound Temperature 000 pounds in a ton 0 Celsius Freezing Point Time 00 Celsius Boiling Point 0 years in a decade 3 Fahrenheit Freezing Point 00 years in a century Fahrenheit Boiling Point Ratio and Proportion 3 Proportion a statement that two ratios (or fractions) are equal. Example: 6 Ratio a comparison of two numbers by division; a ratio may look like a fraction. (See p. 97) Example: 5 or to 5 or :5. 85

4 Vocabulary (continued) Statistics Mean the average of a group of numbers. The mean is found by finding the sum of a group of numbers and then dividing the sum by the number of members in the group. Example: The average of, 8, 6, 7 and is Median the middle value in a group of numbers. The median is found by listing the numbers in order from least to greatest, and finding the one that is in the middle of the list. If there is an even number of members in the group, the median is the average of the two middle numbers. Example: The median of 4, 7, 4, and 6 is 7., 4, 7, 4, 6 The median of 77, 93, 85, 95, 70 and 8 is , 77, 8, 85, 93, Mode the number that occurs most often in a group of numbers. The mode is found by counting how many times each number occurs in the list. The number that occurs more than any other is the mode. Some groups of numbers have more than one mode. Example: The mode of 77, 93, 85, 93, 77, 8, 93 and 7 is 93. (93 occurs more than the others.) Place Value Whole Numbers 8, 9 6 3, 7, Billions Hundred Millions Ten Millions Millions Hundred Thousands Ten Thousands Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones The number above is read: eight billion, nine hundred sixty-three million, two hundred seventy-one thousand, four hundred five. Decimal Numbers Hundreds Tens Ones Decimal Point Tenths The number above is read: one hundred seventy-eight and six hundred forty thousand, five hundred ninety-two millionths. Hundredths Thousandths Ten-thousandths Hundred-thousandths Millionths

5 Factors & Multiples The Prime Factorization of a number is when a number is written as a product of its prime factors. A factor tree is helpful in finding the prime factors of a number. Example: Use a factor tree to find the prime factors of Find any factors of 45 (5 and 9) If a factor is prime, circle it. If a factor is not prime, find factors of it Continue until all factors are prime. 4. In the final answer, the prime factors are listed in order, least to greatest, using exponents when needed. The prime factorization of 45 is or 3 5. The Greatest Common Factor (GCF) is the largest factor that numbers have in common. Example: Find the Greatest Common Factor of 3 and 40. The factors of 3 are,, 4, 8, 6, 3.. First list the factors of each number. The factors of 40 are,, 4, 5, 8, 0, 0, 40.. Find the largest number that is in both lists. The GCF of 3 and 40 is 8. The Least Common Multiple (LCM) is the smallest multiple that two numbers have in common. The prime factors of the numbers can be useful in finding the LCM. Example: Find the Least Common Multiple of 6 and 4.. If any of the numbers are even, factor 6, 4 8, 4, 6, 3 3, 3 out a.. Continue factoring out until all numbers left are odd. 3. If the prime number cannot be divided evenly into the number, simply bring the number down., 4. Once you are left with all s at the bottom, you re finished! Fractions The LCM is x x x x 3 or 48. Changing from an improper fraction to a mixed number. Example: Change the improper fraction, 5, to a mixed number. 5 (five halves) means 5. wholes 5 So, 5 is equal to wholes and half or. 4 half 5. Multiply all of the prime numbers (on the left side of the bracket) together to find the Least Common Multiple. 87

6 Fractions (continued) Changing from a mixed number to an improper fraction. Example: Change the mixed number, 7, to an improper fraction. 4. You re going to make a new fraction. To find the numerator of the new fraction, multiply the whole number by the denominator, and add the numerator.. Keep the same denominator in your new fraction as you had in the mixed number x The new numerator is 9. Keep the same denominator, 4. The new fraction is is equal to 9 4. Equivalent Fractions are fractions that are equal to each other. Usually you will be finding a missing numerator or denominator. Example: Find a fraction that is equivalent to 4 and has a denominator of x 7. Ask yourself, What did I do to 5 to get 35? (Multiply by 7.) 4? Whatever you did in the denominator, you also must do in the numerator. 4 x 7 8. The missing numerator is 8. x 7 So, 4 8 is equivalent to Example: Find a fraction that is equivalent to 4 5 and has a numerator of 4. x ? x 6. Ask yourself, What did I do to 4 to get 4? (Multiply by 6.). Whatever you did in the numerator, you also must do in the denominator. 5 x The missing denominator is 30. So, 4 4 is equivalent to Comparing Fractions means looking at or more fractions and determining if they are equal, if one is greater than (>) the other, or if one is less than (<) the other. A simple way to compare fractions is by cross-multiplying, using the steps below. Examples: Compare these fractions. Use the correct symbol. 3 > < So, 8 9 > and 8 9. Begin with the denominator on the left and multiply by the opposite numerator. Put the answer (product) above the right side. (9 x 3 7). Cross-multiply the denominator on the right and the opposite numerator and put the answer above the left side. 3. Compare the two answers and insert the correct symbol. HINT: Always multiply diagonally upwards! 7 <

10 Fractions (continued) When dividing mixed numbers, you must first change them into improper fractions. Example: Divide 4 by Change each mixed number to an improper fraction.. Keep the st fraction as it is. 3. Write the reciprocal of the nd fraction. 4. Change the sign to multiplication. 5. Cancel if you can and multiply. 6. Simplify your answer. Decimals When we compare decimals, we are looking at two or more decimal numbers and deciding which has the smaller or larger value. We sometimes compare by placing them in order from least to greatest or from greatest to least. Another way to compare is to use the symbols for less than (<), greater than (>) or equal to (). Example: Order these numbers from least to greatest Write the numbers in a column, lining up the decimal points.. Write zeroes, if necessary, so all have the same number of digits. 3. Begin on the left and compare the digits. So, in order from least to greatest: 0.65, 0.506, Since they all have 3 digits, we don t need to add zeroes. Beginning on the left, the five s are equal, but the one is less, so 0.65 is the smallest. Then, look at the next digit. The zero is less than the six, so is next smallest. Example: Place these numbers in order from greatest to least After lining up the numbers, we must add a zero to 0.44 to make them all have the same number of digits Beginning on the left, the zero is smaller than the four s, so is the smallest. Look at the next digit. The four is smaller than the six, so is the next smallest. In order from greatest to least: 0.463, 0.440,

11 Decimals (continued) When we round decimals, we are approximating them. This means we end the decimal at a certain place value and we decide if it s closer to the next higher number (round up) or to the next lower number (keep the same). It might be helpful to look at the decimal place-value chart on p. 86. Example: Round to the tenths place. There is a 5 in the rounding (tenths) place. Since 7 is greater than 5, change the 5 to a 6. Drop the digits to the right of the tenths place Identify the number in the rounding place.. Look at the digit to its right. 3. If the digit is 5 or greater, increase the number in the rounding place by. If the digit is less than 5, keep the number in the rounding place the same. 4. Drop all digits to the right of the rounding place. Example: Round.783 to the nearest hundredth There is an 8 in the rounding place. Since 3 is less than 5, keep the rounding place the same Drop the digits to the right of the hundredths place. Adding and subtracting decimals is very similar to adding or subtracting whole numbers. The main difference is that you have to line-up the decimal points in the numbers before you begin. Examples: Find the sum of 3.4 and.. Add 55., 6.47 and Line up the decimal points. Add zeroes as needed.. Add (or subtract) the decimals. 3. Add (or subtract) the whole numbers. 4. Bring the decimal point straight down Examples: Subtract 3.7 from 9.3. Find the difference of 4. and

12 Decimals (continued) When multiplying a decimal by a whole number, the process is similar to multiplying whole numbers. Examples: Multiply 3.4 by 4. Find the product of.3 and decimal places 0 decimal places Place decimal point so there are decimal places.. Line up the numbers on the right.. Multiply. Ignore the decimal point. 3. Place the decimal point in the product. (The total number of decimal places in the product must equal the total number of decimal places in the factors.) decimal place 0 decimal places Place decimal point so there is decimal place. The process for multiplying two decimal numbers is a lot like what we just did above. Examples: Multiply 0.4 by 0.6. Find the product of.67 and decimal place decimal place decimal places decimal place 0.4 Place decimal point so there are decimal places Place decimal point so there are 3 decimal places. Sometimes it is necessary to add zeroes in the product as placeholders in order to have the correct number of decimal places decimal places Example: Multiply 0.03 by decimal place 0. 0 Place decimal point so there are 3 decimal places. We had to add a zero in front of the so that we could have 3 decimal places in the product. The process for dividing a decimal number by a whole number is similar to dividing whole numbers. Examples: Divide 6.4 by 8. Find the quotient of 0.7 and Set up the problem for long division.. Place the decimal point in the quotient directly above the decimal point in the dividend. 3. Divide. Add zeroes as placeholders if necessary. (See examples below.) Examples: Divide 4.5 by 6. Find the quotient of 3.5 and Add a zero(es) Bring zero down Keep dividing

13 Decimals (continued) When dividing decimals the remainder is not always zero. Sometimes, the division continues on and on and the remainder begins to repeat itself. When this happens the quotient is called a repeating decimal. Examples: Divide by 3. Divide 0 by Add zeroes as needed This pattern (with the same remainder) begins to repeat itself. To write the final answer, put a bar in the quotient over the digits that repeat. The process for dividing a decimal number by a decimal number is similar to other long division that you have done. The main difference is that we have to move the decimal point in both the dividend and the divisor the same number of places to the right. Example: Divide.8 by 0.3. Divide by Geometry Change the divisor to a whole number by moving the decimal point as many places to the right as needed.. Move the decimal in the dividend the same number of places to the right as you did in the divisor. 3. Put the decimal point in the quotient directly above the decimal point in the dividend. 4. Divide Finding the area of a parallelogram is similar to finding the area of any other quadrilateral. The area of the figure is equal to the length of its base multiplied by the height of the figure. Area of parallelogram base height or A b h Example: Find the area of the parallelogram below. 8 cm 3 cm cm So, A 8 cm cm 6 cm.. Find the length of the base. (8 cm). Find the height. (It is cm. The height is always straight up and down never slanted.) 3. Multiply to find the area. (6 cm ) 95

14 Geometry (continued) To find the area of a triangle, it is helpful to recognize that any triangle is exactly half of a parallelogram. The whole figure is Half of the whole figure a parallelogram. is a triangle. So, the triangle s area is equal to half of the product of the base and the height. Area of triangle (base Examples: Find the area of the triangles below. height) or A bh or A bh 3 cm cm 8 cm So, A 8 cm cm 8 cm.. Find the length of the base. (8 cm). Find the height. (It is cm. The height is always straight up and down never slanted.) 3. Multiply them together and divide by to find the area. (8 cm ) 3 in 4 in 5 in So, A 4 in 3 in 6 in. The base of this triangle is 4 inches long. Its height is 3 inches. (Remember the height is always straight up and down!) The circumference of a circle is the distance around the outside of the circle. Before you can find the circumference of a circle you must know either its radius or its diameter. Also, you must know the value of the constant, pi (π ). π 3.4 (rounded to the nearest hundredth). Once you have this information, the circumference can be found by multiplying the diameter by pi. Circumference π diameter or C π d Examples: Find the circumference of the circles below. m. Find the length of the diameter. ( m). Multiply the diameter by π. ( m 3.4). 3. The product is the circumference. (37.68 m) So, C m m. Sometimes the radius of a circle is given instead of the diameter. Remember, the radius of any circle is exactly half of the diameter. If a circle has a radius of 3 feet, its diameter is 6 feet. 4 mm Since the radius is 4 mm, the diameter must be 8 mm. Multiply the diameter by π. (8 mm 3.4). The product is the circumference. (5. mm) So, C 8 mm mm. 96

15 Ratio and Proportion A ratio is used to compare two numbers. There are three ways to write a ratio comparing 5 and 7:. Word form 5 to 7. Fraction form Ratio form 5 : 7 You must make sure that all ratios are written in simplest form. (Just like fractions!!) A proportion is a statement showing that two ratios are equal to each other. There are two ways to solve a proportion when a number is missing.. One way to solve a proportion is already. Another way to solve a proportion familiar to you. You can use the equivalent is by using cross-products. fraction method. 4 x 8 To use Cross-Products: 0 n 5 n. Multiply downward on each 0 4 n 8 64 diagonal. 40 4n x 8. Make the product of each diagonal 40 4n equal to each other. 4 4 n Solve for the missing variable. 30 n So, So,

16 Who Knows??? Degrees in a right angle?...(90) A straight angle?...(80) Angle greater than 90?...(obtuse) Less than 90?...(acute) Sides in a quadrilateral?...(4) Sides in an octagon?...(8) Sides in a hexagon?...(6) Sides in a pentagon?...(5) Sides in a heptagon?...(7) Sides in a nonagon?...(9) Sides in a decagon?... (0) Inches in a yard?...(36) Yards in a mile?...(,760) Feet in a mile?...(5,80) Centimeters in a meter?...(00) Teaspoons in a tablespoon?...(3) Ounces in a pound?...(6) Pounds in a ton?...(,000) Cups in a pint?...() Pints in a quart?...() Quarts in a gallon?...(4) Millimeters in a meter?...(,000) Years in a century?...(00) Years in a decade?...(0) Celsius freezing?...(0 C) Celsius boiling?...(00 C) Fahrenheit freezing?...(3 F) Fahrenheit boiling?... ( F) Number with only factors? (prime) Perimeter?...(add the sides) Area of rectangle?...(length x width) Volume or prism? (length x width x height) Area of parallelogram?.. (base x height) Area of triangle?...( base x height) base + base Area of trapezoid..( height ) Area of a circle?...(πr ) Circumference of a circle?...(dπ) Triangle with no sides equal? (scalene) Triangle with 3 sides equal?...(equilateral) Triangle with sides equal?...(isosceles) Distance across the middle of a circle?...(diameter) Half of the diameter?... (radius) Figures with the same size and shape?...(congruent) Figures with same shape, different sizes?... (similar) Number occurring most often? (mode) Middle number?... (median) Answer in addition?...(sum) Answer in division?... (quotient) Answer in subtraction?...(difference) Answer in multiplication?... (product) 98

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