# Revision Topic 17: Probability Estimating probabilities: Relative frequency

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1 Revision Topic 17: Probability Estimating probabilities: Relative frequency Probabilities can be estimated from experiments. The relative frequency is found using the formula: number of times event occurs. total number of trials Example: This data shows the colour of cars passing a factory gate one morning. Estimate the probability that, at a random time, a car passing will be red. If 400 cars pass the factory gates the following morning, estimate the number of cars that will be red. Solution The relative frequency of red cars is (to 2 d.p.) 228 So the probability of a red car is 0.30 or 30%. Colour Frequency Red 68 Black 14 Yellow 2 Green 34 Blue 52 Grey 35 Other 23 Total 228 The following morning 400 cars pass the factory gate. The number of red cars will be approximately 30% of 400 = = 120. Examination Style Question The sides of a six-sided spinner are numbered from 1 to 6. The table shows the results for 100 spins. Number on spinner Frequency a) What is the relative frequency of getting a 1? b) Do you think the spinner is fair? Give a reason for your answer. c) The spinner is spun 3000 times. Estimate the number of times the result will be a 4. Dr Duncombe Easter

2 Number on dice Probability diagrams Example: Kevin has a spinner in the shape of a regular pentagon, and a normal dice. The five sections of the spinner are labelled 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Kevin spins the spinner once and rolls the dice once. He records the outcomes. a) Show all the outcomes in a probability diagram. b) Find the probability that both of the numbers are prime; c) Find the probability that the difference between the two numbers is 1. Solution: a) The outcomes can be shown in a table: Number on spinner ,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5 2 2,1 2,2 2,3 2,4 2,5 3 3,1 3,2 3,3 3,4 3,5 4 4,1 4,2 4,3 4,4 4,5 5 5,1 5,2 5,3 5,4 5,5 6 6,1 6,2 6,3 6,4 6,5 b) The outcomes for which both numbers are prime are shown in bold in the table above. There are 30 outcomes in the table and 9 have both numbers prime. The probability 9 3 therefore is c) The outcomes for which the difference between the numbers is 1 are shaded. 9 outcomes 9 3 have been shaded so the probability is also Examination Question: Jack has two fair dice. One of the dice has 6 faces numbered from 1 to 6. The other dice has 4 faces numbered from 1 to 4. Jack is going to throw the two dice. He will add the scores together tom get the total. Work out the probability that he will get a) a total of 7, b) a total of less than 5. Hint: Draw a diagram as in the example above. Dr Duncombe Easter

3 Mutually Exclusive Events Mutually exclusive events cannot occur at the same time. When A and B are mutually exclusive events: P(A OR B) = P(A) + P(B). Example: A box contains red, green, blue and yellow counters. The table shows the probability of getting each colour. Colour Red Green Blue Yellow Probability A counter is taken from the box at random. What is the probability of getting a red or blue counter? Solution P(red or blue) = P(red) + P(blue) = = 0.65 Examination Style Question: A bag contains some red, some white and some blue counters. A counter is picked at random. The probability that it will be red is 0.2. The probability that it will be white is 0.3. a) What is the probability that a counter picked at random will be either red or white? b) What is the probability that a counter picked at random will be either red or blue? Examination Style Question: Some red, white and blue cubes are numbered 1 and 2. The table shows the probabilities of obtaining each colour and number when a cube is taken at random. Red White Blue A cube is taken at random. a) What is the probability of taking a red cube? b) What is the probability of taking a cube numbered 2? c) State whether or not the following pairs of events are mutually exclusive. Give a reason for your answer. (i) Taking a cube numbered 1 and taking a blue cube. (ii) Taking a cube numbered 2 and taking a blue cube. Dr Duncombe Easter

4 Independent Events The outcomes of independent events do not influence each other. When A and B are independent events: P(A AND B) = P(A) P(B). Example (examination question): Nikki and Romana both try to score a goal in netball. The probability that Nikki will score a goal on the first try is The probability that Ramana will score a goal on the first try is 0.8. a) Work out the probability that Nikki and Ramana will both score a goal on their first tries. b) Work out the probability that neither Nikki nor Ramana will score a goal on their first tries. a) P(Nikki scores AND Ramana scores) = P(Nikki scores) P(Ramana scores) = = b) P(Nikki doesn t score AND Ramana doesn t score) = P(Nikki doesn t) P(Ramana doesn t) = = Examination Style Question Samantha takes examinations in maths and English. The probability that she passes maths is 0.7. The probability that she passes English is 0.8. The results in each subject are independent of each other. Calculate the probability that a) Samantha passes both subjects; b) Samantha passes maths and fails English. Tree Diagrams A tree diagram is a way of calculating probabilities when two events are combined. Example (worked examination question): Helen tries to win a coconut at the fair. She throws a ball at a coconut. If she knocks the coconut off the standard she wins the coconut. Helen has two throws. The probability that she wins a coconut with her first throw is 0.2. The probability that she will win a coconut with her second throw is 0.3. Work out the probability that, with her two throws, Helen will win a) 2 coconuts; b) exactly 1 coconut. Dr Duncombe Easter

5 Solution: We can draw a tree diagram to answer this question. 1 st attempt 2 nd attempt 0.3 wins = wins 0.7 doesn t win = 0.14 doesn t 0.8 win 0.3 wins = doesn t win = 0.56 Write probabilities on branches Multiply probabilities on branches together. a) From the diagram, the probability that Helen will win 2 coconuts is b) P(Helen wins exactly 1 coconut) = = Examination Question Tina has a biased dice. When she rolls it, the probability that she will get a six is Tina is going to roll the biased dice dice. Complete the tree diagram shown. Work out the probability that she will get: a) two sixes, b) exactly one six. 1 st roll 2 nd roll six six not six six not six not six Dr Duncombe Easter

6 Examination Question A machine makes two parts which fit together to make a tool. The probability that the first part will be made correctly is 0.9. The probability that the second part will be made correctly is a) Complete the tree diagram below giving the missing probabilities. 1 st part 2 nd part correct 0.9 correct incorrect incorrect correct incorrect b) Use the tree diagram to work out the probability that both parts will be made correctly. Examination Question: The probability of a person having brown eyes is ¼. The probability of a person having blue eyes is 1/3. Two people are chosen at random. Work out the probability that a) both people will have brown eyes; b) one person will have blue eyes and the other person will have brown eyes. Dr Duncombe Easter

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