# 1. 1 Square Numbers and Area Models (pp. 6-10)

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1 Math 8 Unit 1 Notes Name: 1. 1 Square Numbers and Area Models (pp. 6-10) square number: the product of a number multiplied by itself; for example, 25 is the square of 5 perfect square: a number that is the square of a whole number; for example, 16 is a perfect square because 16 = 4 2 It is a good idea to remember the perfect squares between = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 400 One way to model a square number is to draw a square whose area is equal to the square number. Ex. 1 Show that 49 is a square number. Use a diagram, symbols, and words. Draw a square with area 49 square units. The side length of the square is 7 units. Then, 49 = 7 x7 =7 2 We say: Forty-nine is seven squared Ex. 2 A square picture has area 169 cm 2. Find the perimeter of the picture. The picture is a square with area 169 cm 2. Find the side length of the square: Find a number which, when multiplied by itself, gives x13 =169 So, the picture has side length 13 cm.

2 Perimeter is the distance around the picture. So, P=13 cm+13 cm +13 cm+13 cm =52 cm The perimeter of the picture is 52 cm. Ex. 3 Find the side length of a square with each area. a)100 m 2 b)64 cm 2 c) 81 m 2 d)400 cm 2 Ex. 4 These numbers are not square numbers. Which two consecutive square numbers is each number between? Describe the strategy you used. a)12 b)40 c) 75 d)200

3 Ex. 5 Lee is planning to fence a square kennel for her dog.its area must be less than 60 m 2. a) Sketch a diagram of the kennel. b) What is the kennel s greatest possible area? c) Find the side length of the kennel. d) How much fencing is needed? e) One metre of fencing costs \$ What is the cost of the fencing? What assumptions do you make?

4 1.2 Squares and Square Roots (pp ) Here are some ways to tell whether a number is a square number. 1. If we can find a division sentence for a number so that the quotient is equal to the divisor, the number is a square number. For example, 16 4 =4, so 16 is a square number. 16 is the dividend 4 is the divisor 4 is the quotient 2. We can also use factoring. Factors of a number occur in pairs. When a number has an odd number of factors, it is a square number. When a number has an even number of factors, it is not a perfect square. When we multiply a number by itself, we square the number. Squaring and taking the square root are inverse operations. That is, they undo each other. Ex. 1 Find the square of each number a) 5 b) 15 a) The square of 5 is 5 2 = 5x5 = 25 b) The square of 15 is 15 2 = 15 x 15 = 225 Ex. 2 Find a square root of 64 What number multiplied by itself equals 64? Find pairs of factors of 64. Use division facts. 64 =1 x64 1 and 64 are factors. 64 =2 x32 2 and 32 are factors. 64 =4 x16 4 and 16 are factors. 64 =8 x8 8 is a factor. It occurs twice. = 4 The factors of 64 are: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 A square root of 64 is 8, the factor that occurs twice.

5 Ex. 3 The factors of 136 are listed in ascending order. 136: 1, 2, 4, 8, 17, 34, 68, 136 Is 136 a square number? How do you know? A square number has an odd number of factors. One hundred thirty-six has 8 factors. Eight is an even number. So, 136 is not a square number. Ex. 4 Find. a) 8 2 b) 3 2 c) 1 2 d) 7 2 Ex. 5 Find a square root of each number. a) 25 b) 81 c) 64 d) 169 Ex. 6 The factors of each number are listed in ascending order. Which numbers are square numbers? How do you know? a) 225: 1, 3, 5, 9, 15, 25, 45, 75, 225 b) 500: 1, 2, 4, 5, 10, 20, 25, 50, 100, 125, 250, 500 c) 324: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, 27, 36, 54, 81, 108, 162, 324 d) 160: 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 16, 20, 32, 40, 80, 160

6 1.3 Measuring Line Segments (pp ) We can use the properties of a square to find its area or side length. Area of a square length x length =(length) 2 When the side length is l, the area is l 2. When the area is A, the side length is We can calculate the length of any line segment on a grid by thinking of it as the side length of a square. Ex. 1 a) Find the area of square ABCD. b) What is the side length AB of the square? a) Draw an enclosing square JKLM. The area of JKLM =3 2 square units =9 square units The triangles formed by the enclosing square are congruent.

7 Each triangle has area: ½ x 1 unit x 2 units = 1 square unit So, the 4 triangles have area: 4x1 square unit =4 square units The area of ABCD =Area of JKLM -Area of triangles =9 square units -4 square units =5 square units b) So, the side length AB = units Ex. 2 The area A of a square is given. Find its side length. Which side lengths are whole numbers? a) A=36 cm 2 b) A =49 m 2 c) A=95 cm 2 d) A =108 m 2

8 Ex. 3 Copy each square on grid paper. Find its area. Order the squares from least to greatest area. Then write the side length of each square.

9 1.4 Estimating Square Roots (pp ) Ex. 1 What is an approximate square root of 20 (to 1 decimal place)? A square with area 20 lies between the perfect squares 16 and 25. Its side length is 20 is between 16 and 25, but closer to 16. So, is between and, but closer to An estimate of is 4.4 to one decimal place Ex. 2 Between which two consecutive whole numbers is each square root? How do you know? a) b) c) d) e) f) Ex. 3 Find the approximate side length of the square with each area. Give each answer to one decimal place (use your calculator). a) 92 cm 2 b) 430 m 2 c) 150 cm 2 d) 29 m 2

10 Ex. 4 A square carpet covers 75% of the area of a floor. The floor is 8 m by 8 m. a) What are the dimensions of the carpet? Give your answer to two decimal places. b) What area of the floor is not covered by the carpet?

11 1.5 The Pythagorean Theorem (pp ) We can use the properties of a right triangle to find the length of a line segment. A right triangle has two sides that form the right angle. The third side of the right triangle is called the hypotenuse. The two shorter sides are called the legs. Here is a right triangle, with a square drawn on each side. Notice that: 25 = A similar relationship is true for all right triangles. In a right triangle, the area of the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the areas of the squares on the legs. This relationship is called the Pythagorean Theorem.

12 We can use this relationship to find the length of any side of a right triangle, when we know the lengths of the other two sides Ex. 1 Find the length of the hypotenuse. Give the length to one decimal place. Label the hypotenuse h. The area of the square on the hypotenuse is h 2. The areas of the squares on the legs are 4 x 4 =16 and 4x4 =16. So,h 2 = =32 The area of the square on the hypotenuse is 32. So, the side length of the square is: h= Use a calculator. h = So, the hypotenuse is 5.7 cm to one decimal place. Summary: Finding the hypotenuse of a right triangle: 1. Square the two legs (the two other sides of the triangle) 2. Add the squares together 3. Find the square root of the sum. Ex. 2 Find the unknown length to one decimal place. Label the leg g. The area of the square on the hypotenuse is 10 x10 = 100.

13 The areas of the squares on the legs are g 2 and 5 x5 =25. So, 100 =g 2-25 To solve this equation, subtract 25 from each side =g =g 2 The area of the square on the leg is 75. So, the side length of the square is: g = Use a calculator. g = So, the leg is 8.7 cm to one decimal place. Summary: Finding the length of a leg of a right triangle. 1. Square the hypotenuse and the leg you know the length of. 2. Subtract the squares. 3. Find the square root of the difference. Ex. 3 Find the area of the indicated square.

14 Ex. 4 Find the area of the indicated square Ex. 5 Find the length of each side labelled with a variable. Give your answers to one decimal place where needed.

15 Ex. 6 The length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 15 cm. The lengths of the legs are whole numbers of centimetres. Find the sum of the areas of the squares on the legs of the triangle. What are the lengths of the legs? Show your work.

16 1.6 Exploring the Pythagorean Theorem (pp ) The Pythagorean Theorem is true for the right triangle only. We can use these results to identify whether a triangle is a right triangle If Area of square A +Area of square B = Area of square C, then the triangle is a right triangle. If Area of square A + Area of square B Area of square C, then the triangle is not a right triangle. A set of 3 whole numbers that satisfies the Pythagorean Theorem is called a Pythagorean triple. For example, is a Pythagorean triple because =5 2 Ex. 1 Which of these sets of numbers is a Pythagorean triple? How do you know? a) 8, 15, 18 b) 11, 60, 61 Suppose each set of numbers represents the side lengths of a triangle. When the set of numbers satisfies the Pythagorean Theorem, the set is a Pythagorean triple. a) Check: Does = 18 2? L.S = = 289 R.S 18 2 = 324 Since , is not a Pythagorean triple. b) Check: Does =61 2? L.S = =3721 R. S 61 2 = 3721 Since 3721 = 3721, is a Pythagorean triple.

17 Ex. 2 The area of the square on each side of a triangle is given. Is the triangle a right triangle? How do you know? Ex. 3 May Lin uses a ruler and compass to construct a triangle with side lengths 3 cm, 5 cm, and 7 cm. Before May Lin constructs the triangle, how can she tell if the triangle will be a right triangle? Explain.

18 Ex. 4 Look at the Pythagorean triples below. 3, 4, 5 6, 8, 10 12, 16, 20 15, 20, 25 21, 28, 35 a) Each set of numbers represents the side lengths of a right triangle. What are the lengths of the legs? What is the length of the hypotenuse? b) Describe any pattern you see in the Pythagorean triples Ex. 5 Is quadrilateral ABCD a rectangle? Justify your answer

19 1.7 Applying the Pythagorean Theorem (pp ) Ex. 1 A ramp is used to load a snow machine onto a trailer. The ramp has horizontal length 168 cm and sloping length 175 cm. The side view is a right triangle. How high is the ramp? The side face of the ramp is a right triangle with hypotenuse 175 cm. One leg is 168 cm. The other leg is the height. Label it a. Use the Pythagorean Theorem. h 2 = a 2 +b 2 Substitute: h =175 and b = = a a Subtract from each side to isolate a =a =a 2 The area of the square with side length a is 2401 cm2 a = = 49 The ramp is 49 cm high. Ex. 2 A 5-m ladder leans against a house. It is 3 m from the base of the wall. How high does the ladder reach?

20 Ex. 3 Joanna usually uses the sidewalk to walk home from school. Today she is late, so she cuts through the field. How much shorter is Joanna s shortcut?

21 Ex. 4 Two cars meet at an intersection. One travels north at an average speed of 80 km/h. The other travels east at an average speed of 55 km/h. How far apart are the cars after 3 h? Give your answer to one decimal place.

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