# The Willows Primary School Mental Mathematics Policy

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1 The Willows Primary School Mental Mathematics Policy

2 The Willows Primary Mental Maths Policy Teaching methodology and organisation Teaching time All pupils will receive between 10 and 15 minutes of mental mathematics teaching and learning on a daily basis. This could take place at any point during the day and will include the teaching and learning of new strategies along with recap, practice, application in different contexts including measures and money, and assessment of previously taught mental mathematics strategies Each session will begin with a recap of strategies (between 1 and 3 depending upon the age and confidence of the pupils) taught earlier in the week or the week before. This could include application of a taught strategy in a different context. A new strategy will then be explicitly taught and modelled by the teacher. The children will then have time to practice the new skill using whiteboards and pens. Any misconceptions will be addressed immediately and used as teaching points. Children will be encouraged to make appropriate jottings which will be used to help them remember numbers/part answers rather than holding the information in their head. They will not be encouraged to write down pencil and paper methods eg column additions, that are used to calculate answers. The session does not have to link to the objective being covered in the actual numeracy lesson. Neither does it have to be part of the actual numeracy session. N.B. New methods or vocabulary for year groups are shown in red.

4 Properties of shapes Whole class teaching then quick revisit. Visualising. Face, edge, side, hollow, solid, curved, straight, round, flat, circle, triangle, square, rectangle, star, cube, pyramid, sphere, cone How many sides does a triangle have?

5 The Willows Primary School Whole School Approach to Mental Mathematics Year 1 Objectives Methodology Exemplification MUST Teach Vocabulary Key Questions Counting forwards and backwards in 1s to 100, in 2s to 30, in 5s to 100 and 10s to not always starting at 1. Don t always start at 100 when counting back or 1 when counting on. Vary the number you begin counting on or back from. Forwards, Backwards Digit one digit, two digit, first digit, second digit, units digit, tens digit, Number, count What is one more, one less and ten more/ten less for multiples of 10 up to 100 Practical, counting, manipulating objects One more, One less, Multiple Add one, Subtract one, What is ten more than 80? What is ten less than 50? Know multiples of 2, 5 and 10 up to the tenth multiple forwards and backwards Counting starting at different multiples of 2, 5 and 10 multiple Number bonds to 10 rapid recall and related subtraction facts. I have 6, how many do I need to make 10? Practical, constant recall of number bonds. How many more to make 10? From given starting numbers Number bond, Add, sum, total, altogether, There are 10 sweets in a bag. If I give 3 to my friend, how many sweets do I have left? Doubles to 10 (answers to 20) Children should instantly recognise dice/domino patterns and be able to instantly know that two 4s doubled equals 8 Double, two lots of, Two lots of six. Double eight Ordering numbers to 50 Practical, counting, number lines, number square Smaller, Larger, More, Bigger Greater, Fewer, less Number before, number after, compare, order, between, next, above, below, first, second, third...tenth, Teens number, first, second, third...tenth, eleventh...twentieth, half-way between Add, more, and, make, sum, total, altogether How many more to make...? How many more is... than...? Take (away), leave, how many are left over? How many have gone? Difference between plus, how much less is...? equals, =, sign, tens, equal to, how much more is...?, Add or subtract two numbers Put the number in your head and then count on for add or count back for subtraction

6 subtract Properties of shapes Whole class teaching then quick revisit. Visualising. Face, edge, side, hollow, solid, curved, straight, round, flat, circle, triangle, square, rectangle, star, cube, pyramid, sphere, cone Cuboid, cylinder How many faces/edges does a cuboid have?

8 Counting in 10s to 500 and 5s and 2s to 100 starting at any number. Practice starting at different numbers Forwards, Backwards Digit one digit, two digit, first digit, second digit, units digit, tens digit, Number, count Round two-digit numbers to the nearest 10 Give me the multiple of 10 either side a given number Look at number and share the rule Ending 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 round up; 1, 2, 3,4 round down Round, nearest, round to the nearest 10 Round 73 to the nearest 10. Find one half, one quarter and three quarters of shapes and sets of objects Half divide/share by two Quarter half and half again Halve the tens, halve the units then add the answers Fraction, one whole, Half, quarter, ¾, partition, one quarter, two quarters, three quarters, four quarters Shade ¼ of the shape Properties of shapes Whole class teaching then quick revisit. Visualising. Face, edge, side, hollow, solid, curved, straight, round, flat, circle, triangle, square, rectangle, star, cube, pyramid, sphere, cone Cuboid, cylinder, circular, triangular, rectangular, pentagon, hexagon, octagon How many sides does a pentagon have?

9 The Willows Primary School Whole School Approach to Mental Mathematics Year 3 Objectives Methodology Exemplification MUST Teach Vocabulary Key Questions Finding half of whole numbers less than and including 100 (dividing by 2) Divide by 2. Halve the tens, halve the units then add the answers Halve, Divide by 2, Partition What is half of 48? 86 divided by 2. Doubling whole numbers up to 100 with answers to 200 (multiplying by 2) Double the tens, double the units add them together Double, partition, multiply by 2 What is double 74? Multiply 84 by 2. Change between one unit of measurement and another ml and litres; m and km, g and kg (whole kg, litres, km) 0 1kg 2kg g 2000g Adjacent number lines Gram, kilogram, litre, millilitre, How many m in 12km? Rounding to the nearest 10 (three digit numbers) Give me the multiple of 10 either side a given number Look at number and share the rule Ending 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 round up; 1, 2, 3,4 round down Round, nearest, round to the nearest 10 Round 181 to the nearest 10. Change from 20 when spending whole pounds Multiplication or division questions that test tables knowledge and involve the use of related vocabulary (x2, x3, x4, x5, x6, x10) Link to number bonds to 20 (year 2) Put the amount spent in your head and count up to the money given. Counting Use counting stick Highlight patterns 4, 8, 2, 6, 0 (in 4x table) Change, spent, spend, cost, bought, buy, pay, Note, amount Product Divisor Divisible I spend 11 in a shop. How much change will I get from a 20 note? How many lots of in? What is the remainder when 14 is divided by three? What is the product of 3 and 6? 4 Halve and halve again halve What is 36 divided by 4? What is 44 divided by 4? x4 Double and double again. double What is the product of 12 and 4? What is 13 multiplied by 4? How many in four lots of 14?

10 Write a three digit number in figures including with zeros in the tens column. Practical, place value cards Write under HTU headings to begin with. Hundreds, one-, two-, three digit number, place, place value, stands for, represents, Sequence, rule, one hundred more, one hundred less Four hundred and two Seven hundred and twenty 720 Properties of shapes Whole class teaching then quick revisit. Visualising. Face, edge, side, hollow, solid, curved, straight, round, flat, circle, triangle, square, rectangle, star, cube, pyramid, sphere, cone Cuboid, cylinder, circular, prism, triangular, rectangular, pentagon, hexagon, octagon, pentagonal, hexagonal, octagonal, quadrilateral, semi-circle, 2D, 3D, vertex, vertices. Fraction, one whole, Half, quarter, ¾, partition, one quarter, two quarters, three quarters, four quarters, divide How many sides does a quadrilateral have? Name to two quadrilaterals. Find one half, one quarter and three quarters of shapes and sets of objects Half divide/share by two Quarter half and half again Halve the tens, halve the units then add the answers Shade ¼ of the shape

11 The Willows Primary School Whole School Approach to Mental Mathematics Year 4 Objectives Methodology/Exemplification MUST Teach Vocabulary Key Questions Write a five digit number in figures including with zeros in the tens or hundreds column including both. To quickly x a number by 5 Two thousand and seven 2007 Four thousand and fifty six 4056 Eight thousand, seven hundred and one 8701 x by 10 and then halve the answer E.g. 34 x 5 = (34 x 10) 2 = = 170. Hundreds, one-, two-, three digit number, place, place value, stands for, represents, Sequence, rule, one hundred more, one hundred less Digit, Unit, ten, hundred, thousand, ten thousand, hundred thousand, million, four digit number, numeral Multiply Product halve Write twenty six thousand, five hundred and eight in digits. 46 x 5 Multiplication or division questions that test tables knowledge. (all up to 10x 10) Use related facts (e.g. to find 8x table double, double 2x table; to find 6x table double 3x table Area of rectangles/squares Counting Use counting stick Highlight patterns 4, 8, 2, 6, 0 (in 4x table) Add the 2 numbers together and divide by 2. What number is half way between 16 and 24? = = 20. Therefore 20 is halfway between 16 and 24. Product, Divisor, Divisible by Factor, lots of, groups of, times, multiply, multiplied by, multiplication, multiple, divide, divided by, division, divisible by, inverse, equal groups of How many lots of in? What is the remainder when 25 is divided by four? What is the product of 3 and 6? Find a number half way between 2 numbers. Change from 2 when spending multiples of five pence Fractions that add to make a whole Change between one unit of measurement and another minutes and hours Put the amount spent in your head and then count up to the money handed to the shop keeper. Practical Knowing that 7/7, 9/9 etc is a whole Minutes in whole and half hours Adjacent number lines 0 1/2hour 1 hour 0 30mins 60 mins Change, spent, spend, cost, bought, buy, pay, Note, amount If I spend 75p in a shop, how much change will I get from 2? Eighth, sixth, fifth, twentieth 4/7 of the class like horses, how many do not? Measurement, unit, How many minutes in 2.5 hours?

12 Rounding to the nearest 100 Give multiples of 100 before and after given number. Look at number and share the rule Ending 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 round up; 1, 2, 3,4 round down Round to the nearest hundred, integer Write 261 to the nearest 100 Properties of shapes e.g. Whole class teaching then quick revisit. Visualising. +9, 19, 29 etc Add next multiple of 10 then subtract 1 Face, edge, side, hollow, solid, curved, straight, round, flat, circle, triangle, square, rectangle, star, cube, pyramid, sphere, cone Cuboid, cylinder, circular, triangular, rectangular, pentagon, hexagon, octagon, pentagonal, hexagonal, octagonal, quadrilateral, semi-circle, 3d, 2d, vertex, vertices. three dimensional, two dimensional, spherical, cylindrical, tetrahedron, polyhedron, equilateral triangle, isosceles triangles, heptagon, polygon Add, multiple of ten, subtract +11, +21, +31 Add 10 then one more One more Change from 1 Number bonds to 10 (in hundredths column) number bonds to nine in tenths column Change, spent, spend, cost, bought, buy, pay, Note, amount Find a simple fraction of a number or shape. What is 1/3 of 15? Divide the number (15) by the denominator (3). How many faces/edges has a cuboid? What is the name of a shape with 6 sides? I spend 57p. How much change will I get from 1? Fraction, divide, denominator. Find 1/5 of 20p.

13 The Willows Primary School Whole School Approach to Mental Mathematics Year 5 Objectives Methodology Exemplification MUST Teach Vocabulary Key Questions Multiplication or division questions that test tables knowledge. Use related facts (e.g. to find 8x table double, double 2x table; to find 6x table double 3x table Area of rectangles/squares Counting Use counting stick Highlight patterns 4, 8, 2, 6, 0 (in 4x table) Find fractions of numbers with a numerator of one. Area of rectangles/squares Product, Divisor, Divisible by Factor, lots of, groups of, times, multiply, multiplied by, multiplication, multiple, divide, divided by, division, divisible by, inverse, equal groups of How many lots of in? What is the remainder when 25 is divided by seven? What is five multiplied by 4 multiplied by 2? Identify multiples of 20, 30, 40, 50 etc and 200, 300, 400, 500 etc Multiples of 2 ten times bigger for 20, 30, 40 etc and 100 times bigger for 200, 300 etc Multiple, ten times bigger, one hundred times bigger, A number multiplied by four equals two hundred and eighty. What is the number? List all of the factors of 40 Be able to identify FACTORS (no s that go into (divide) numbers e.g. 1, 2, 3 and 6 are all factors of 6) and MULTIPLES (times tables e.g. multiples of 20 are 20, 40, 60, 80 etc). 20 1, 2, 4, 5, Start on the outside and work identifying pairs beginning at one, then two and so on Factor, multiple, pair, divide, go into, divisible by, divisibility Change from 5 after buying two products Add the products together first and then think about number bonds to ten for the pence, number bonds to nine for the tenths pence column and then number bonds which are one less than the money handed to the shop keeper. Use a clock and share that between consecutive numbers is 30 0 ;find right angles Change, spent, spend, cost, bought, buy, pay, Note, amount I buy two apples which cost 17p each. How much change do I get from 5? Approximate size of angle Right angle, acute, obtuse, reflex, degree, whole turn, quarter turn, half turn Area, perimeter Estimate the size of a shown angle. Calculate the perimeter and area of shapes e.g. a square has sides of 5 cm what is the area (length x width = 5 x5 = 25 cm 2 ) or the perimeter (round the outside = = 20cm) The perimeter of a regular octagon is forty centimetres. What is the length of each side?

14 Find a fraction of a number What is 1/7 of 560? Divide the number (560) by 7. What are 2/3 of 180 = (180 3) then x 2 because you need 2 thirds. Find 2% of 400 First find 1% (which equals 1/100) = 4. Now find 2%, so you need 2 x the answer to 1% = 4 x2 = 8 Fraction Divide multiply Percentage, per cent, % Joe has some pocket money. He spends three quarter of it. He has fifty pence left. How much pocket money did he have? Find a percentage of an amount Change the percentage to a fraction 10% of 600. Change the 10% to 1/10, so you are finding 1/10 of 600 = = 60 Percentage, per cent, % What percentage of the bar is shaded? Find a number half way between 2 numbers Add the 2 numbers together and divide by 2. What number is half way between 38 and 57? = = Therefore Use number lines (horizontal and vertical) Add, divide by 2, Add together positive and negative numbers eg = 3 Positive, negative, above zero, below zero, minus Write a six number in figures (with zeros in eg. twenty thousand and sixty three). Emphasise the need for a comma to separate the thousands from the hundreds. Get the children to say comma when writing down the number. E.g. two hundred and three thousand, four hundred and eight = 203, 408 If the children are unsure they should write the place value column headings and write the number beneath. Hundreds, one-, two-, three digit number, place, place value, stands for, represents, Sequence, rule, one hundred more, one hundred less Digit, Unit, ten, hundred, thousand, ten thousand, hundred thousand, million, four digit number, numeral HTH TTH T, H T U 2 0 3,4 0 8 Change from 2/ 5/ 10 when spending pounds and pence Number bond to 10, number bond to 9, number bond to one less than the money. Change, spent, spend, cost, bought, buy, pay, Note, amount Rounding to the nearest 1000 Multiples of 1000 either side of the number. Look at number and share the rule Ending 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 round up; 1, 2, 3,4 round down Round to the nearest 1000 Change between one unit of measurement and another mm Adjacent number lines including 0km 1/4 km 1/2km 1km Measure, measurement, size, unit, metric unit, metre, centimetre, How many cm in 3m?

15 cm; cm and m including cm in whole, half and quarter of a metre and kilometre 0km 250m 500m 1000m kilometre, millimetre,

16 The Willows Primary School Whole School Approach to Mental Mathematics Year 6 Objectives Methodology Exemplification MUST Teach Vocabulary Multiplication or division questions that test tables knowledge. YOU MUST LEARN ALL OF YOUR TABLES. Use related facts (e.g. to find 8x table double, double 2x table; to find 6x table double 3x table Area of rectangles/squares Counting Use counting stick Highlight patterns 4, 8, 2, 6, 0 (in 4x table) Find fractions of numbers with a numerator of one. Area of rectangles/squares Product, Divisor, Divisible by Factor, lots of, groups of, times, multiply, multiplied by, multiplication, multiple, divide, divided by, division, divisible by, inverse, equal groups of Exemplification How many lots of in? What is the remainder when 25 is divided by seven? When a number is divided by 7, the answer is three remainder 4. What is the number? Know your fraction/decimal/percentage equivalents, especially:- i. ½ = 0.5 = 50% ii. ¼ = 0.25 = 25% iii. 1/10 = 0.1= 10% so 3/10= 0.3=30% etc iv. 1/3 = = % 2/3 = = % v. 1/100 = 0.01 = 1% so 4/100 = 0.04 = 4% so 34/100 = 0.34 = 34% vi. 1/5 = 0.2 = 20% 1/20 = 0.05 = 5% Always work in fraction families. Equivalent, fraction, decimal, percentage 0.14, 0.24, 0.34, 0.44, 0.54 Circle the decimal that is closest to one quarter. Write zero point seven as a fraction. 60%, 20%, 5%, 15%, 75% Put a ring around the percentage that is equal to three-fifths. Change between one unit of measurement and another Adjacent number lines including 0kg 1/4 km 1/2km 1km 0kg 250m 500m 1000m Measure, measurement, size, unit, metric unit, metre, centimetre, kilometre, millimetre, How many m in 12.5 km? How many minutes in 2.5 hours? How many grams are there in 2.7kg?

17 Rounding to nearest 10, 100 and 1000 (including decimals) Give whole number before and after the given decimal and then use rules below. Look at number and share the rule Ending 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 round up; 1, 2, 3,4 round down Be able to identify FACTORS, including those of square and prime numbers (no s that go into (divide) numbers e.g. 1, 2, 3 and 6 are all factors of 6) and MULTIPLES (times tables e.g. multiples of 20 are 20, 40, 60, 80 etc). 20 1, 2, 4, 5, Start on the outside and work identifying pairs beginning at one, then two and so on Factor, multiple, pair, divide, go into, divisible by, divisibility Square number, prime number List all of the factors for 36. Add or subtract 2 decimal numbers eg Make the numbers ten times bigger and then the answer ten times smaller becomes 48 subtract 39 = 9, then make the answer 10 times smaller eg. 0.9 x 20 - First double the number and then make it 10 x BIGGER. 20 First halve the number and then make it 10x smaller. E.g. 60 divided by 20 Half of 60 = 30. Ten times smaller than 30 = 3 If n is 3 what number is six greater than twice n Direct teaching and then using other strategies 3n = 3 x n Double or halve a decimal number Order decimal numbers or find the biggest or smallest number Find a number half way between 2 numbers x 25 Remove decimal point and then put back in after the operation Start with the most significant digit working towards the least significant Add the 2 numbers together and divide by 2. E.g. what number is half way between 16 and = = 20. Therefore 20 is halfway between 16 and 24. x by 100 and then by 4 (halve and halve again). Ten times bigger, ten times smaller, decimal point, tenths, hundredths, thousandths Double, ten time bigger, number, Decimal, decimal point, hundredth, thousandth, tenth, decimal place, place value Decimal, decimal point, hundredth, thousandth, tenth, decimal place, place value Half way between, add, divide by 2 Multiply, halve When m equals twenty, what is the value of ten plus three m? eg. double 1.6 halve circle the smallest number What number is halfway between zero point three and zero point four? (use knowledge of number-lines)

18 I think of number, halve it and add four. My answer is 52. What number did I think of? Use inverse inverse Square numbers and square roots Verbal recall Square number, square root, squared, one squared, two squared etc. What is 7 squared? Wjat is the square root of 81?

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