# Vallabh Vidyanagar , Gujarat, India

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1 Consideration of Material Alternatives in Enhancement to get Unique Solution in Design of Screw Jack Nitinchandra R. Patel 1, Dipen B. Rokad 2, Ankit V. Vekariya 3, Pratik J. Chauhan 4 Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering department, G.H. Patel college of Engineering & technology, Vallabh Vidyanagar , Gujarat, India 1 Final year student, Mechanical Engineering department, G.H. Patel college of Engineering & technology, 2, 3, 4 Vallabh Vidyanagar , Gujarat, India Abstract: Power screw is used to convert rotary motion into translation motion. A screw jack is an example of a power screw in which a small force applied in a horizontal plane is used to raise or lower a large load. By analyzing different parameters in design of screw jack and by considering analytical method along with programming software enhancement is done to get the most suitable combination of thread profile and selection of best suited material for screw and nut pair at different load. Keywords: Thread Profile, Co-efficient of friction, Buckling, Efficiency. I. INTRODUCTION A screw jack is a portable device consisting of a screw mechanism used to raise or lower the load. there are two types of screw jack namely hydraulic and mechanical screw jack. a hydraulic jack consists of a cylinder and piston mechanism. Mechanical jack can be either hand operated or power driven. Screw jacks are made of different type of material having different thread profiles like square, trapezoidal, acme, buttress, etc. jacks are frequently used in raising cars, industrial machinery and even airplanes. Fig. 1- Screw Jack 464

2 A. DESIGN OF SCREW II. FORMULATION OF DESIGN The screw is subjected to pure compression and hence its core diameter is calculated from б c= W / (π/4)*d c 2 dc = d-p dm = d-0.5p tanα = l/π*dm tanф = µ Fig. 2- Compression Of Screw Also When Ф > α, screw is self locking. Torque required to raise the load, M t = W*(dm/2) * tan(ф+α) Fig.3 Torque Diagram At section x-x τ max = 16M t / (π*d c^3) τ perm.= (0.5 * S yt) / fs Fig.4 - Bending Moment Diagram Stress due to bending: Force due to hand i.e. P is responsible for bending of screw thus bending moment at any section x-x can be given as, Mb = P * l1 σb = 32*Mb/(πdc^3) The principal shear stress at X-X τ b = Buckling Criterion:- When load is raised the screw acts as column & there are chances of buckling or crushing of it. So we have to decide whether column is long or short. Since one end of screw is fixed & other is free the end fixity coefficient is border line 465

3 between short &long column is Syt / 2 = (η*π 2 *E) / (l/k) 2 k= (I/A) I=π/4 * dc^4 Slenderness ratio l/k Slenderness ratio is more than critical slenderness ratio then we treat screw as long column hence using Eulers formula. Pcr = ( π^2ei / (l/k)^2) B.DESIGN OF NUT The permissible bearing pressure between steel screw & bronze nut is 10mpa No. of threads required Pb = W / ( π/4 (d^2 dc^2)*z) Height of Nut, H= z*p Transverse shear stress at root of threads in nut is given by, τ=w / (π*d*t*z) Fig. 5 - Nut C. DESIGN OF CUP D = 1.6 * d D = 0.8 * d Collar Frictional Torque T f = (µ *W/4)*(D o+d i) Fig. 6 - Cup III. FLOW CHART FOR DESIGN OF SCREW JACK Fig.7- Flowchart for design of screw jack 466

4 IV. PROGRAM FOR DESIGN OF SCREW JACK clc; clear all; close all; syc=input('yield tensile strenght in MPa : '); fs=input('factor of safety : '); p=input('pitch in mm : '); w=input('load in N : '); d=input('nominal diameter of screw in mm : '); u=input('co-efficent of friction : '); E=input('Modulus of Elasticity of screw material in Mpa : '); P=0.9*400; l=570; L=550; N=0.25; sigmac=syc/fs; dc=sqrt((4*w)/(pi*sigmac)); dc_in_mm=d-p dm_in_mm=d-0.5*p Helix_angle=atan(p/(pi*dm_in_mm))*(180/pi) Friction_angle=atan(u)*(180/pi) Torque_in_KNmm=(0.5*w*dm_in_mm*tan((Friction_angle+Helix_angle)*pi/180))/1000 sigmas_in_mpa=((16000*torque_in_knmm)/(pi*(dc_in_mm^3))) Mb_in_KNmm=P*l/1000 sigmab_in_mpa=((32000*mb_in_knmm)/(pi*(dc_in_mm^3))) Smax_in_MPa=sqrt((sigmaB_in_MPa/2)*(sigmaB_in_MPa/2)+(sigmaS_in_MPa*sigmaS_in_MPa)) FOS=(0.5*syc)/Smax_in_MPa if (FOS>fs) disp('the design is safe'); else disp('the design is not safe'); end k=dc_in_mm/4; A=pi*dc_in_mm*dc_in_mm/4; x=l/k; y=sqrt(2*n*pi*pi*e/syc); if(x<y) C=(syc*x*x)/(4*N*pi*pi*E); else C=(syc*y*y)/(4*N*pi*pi*E); end Pcr_in_kN=(syc*A*(1-C))/1000 fos=(pcr_in_kn*(1000)/w); if (fos>fs) disp('the design is safe against buckling'); else disp('the design fails in buckling'); end 467

6 Efficiency v/s Pitch µ= 0.08 (Hardened Steel-Bronze) Efficiency Square Trapezoidal Acme Modified Buttress Chart 1-4Efficiency v/s 6 Pitch for 8standard thread 10 profiles Pitch Table -1 and corresponding Chart -1 show the efficiency of different thread profiles at different standard pitch. From various four material combinations, Hardened Steel-Bronze (µ= 0.08) gives higher efficiencies in different thread profiles while for a square thread, it is maximum. i.e.50%. The following material combinations are taken to do analytical calculations. [1] EN 24 C.I. μ =0.15 [2] EN24 SI BRONZE/ PH. BRONZE, μ =0.08 [3] EN 8 C.I., μ =0.15 [4] EN8 SI BRONZE/ PH. BRONZE, μ =0.08 [5] C55Mn75 C.I, μ =0.15 [6] C55Mn75 SI BRONZE/ PH. BRONZE, μ =0.08 [7] AISI- 409, SS C.I., μ =0.17 [8] AISI- 409, SS PH. BRONZE / SI BRONZE μ =0.10 [9] C20 C.I. μ =0.17 [10] C20 PH. BRONZE / SI BRONZE μ =0.10 Now, for various screw-nut material combinations, different parameters of screw and nut are design. From the combinations, we will get design parameters in tabular format. The above table is created based on various screw-nut material combinations and hence coefficient of friction between them. For design of screw, the standard materials like EN24, EN8, C55Mn75, AISI409 (SS) and C20. While for a nut the materials like CI, silicon bronze and phosphorous bronze are considered. For a particular load, EN24 is better material for screw. It induces lower value of σ smax and σ cmax. While for a nut CI is better. It induces lower value of σ smax and Pb. For both the materials the above values are generalized lower as compared to their maximum values. 469

7 Cripling Load (KN) Pitc h mm Dia. mm ISSN: Torqu e KN mm TABLE-2 Comparison of calculated and design stress Screw-nut combination: EN 24 CI.( μ =0.15) SCREW σs (cal) N/mm ² σs (allow) N/mm² σc (cal) N/mm² σc (allow) N/mm² Wcr KN Pb (cal) N/mm ² Pb (allow ) N/mm ² NUT σs (cal)) N/mm ² σs (allow) N/mm² Cripling Load v/s Pitch AISI C20 C55Mn75 EN8 EN24 Pitch (mm) Chart 2- Cripling Load v/s Pitch for standard thread profiles 470

8 200 Stress v/s Pitch σc(allow) =130MPa σs(allow) =65MPa Induced Stress (MPa) Pitch (mm) Shear Stress Compression Chart 3- Stress v/s Pitch for standard thread profiles VI. CONCLUSION In this work a successful attempt is made to design a screw jack. The design is done by varying different parameters like thread profile, screw-nut material combination, pitch and diameter. Different stress values have been obtained by using MATLAB software. The whole design focuses on how the values of efficiency, stresses, crippling load, torque varies with coefficient of friction and pitch. Here, the basic concept is established for choosing the best material combination and thread profile for given load. In design of screw jack thread profile is very much important. A square thread gives maximum efficiency of screw up to 50%. For low coefficient of friction, it is maximum i.e. µ = In screw-nut material combinations, hard steel - bronze gives minimum torque required to be applied as compared to other groups. For higher value of µ torque applied will be higher. A screw has number of alternatives for material. From them, EN 24 is better material than other materials. It develops low σ smax and σ cmax which causes large margin of stresses between induced value and standard value i.e. 64 N/mm 2 in shear and 126 N/mm 2 in compression. A nut also number of alternatives of materials. From them, CI is better material. It develops low σ smax and P b which causes large margin of stresses between induced value and standard value i.e. 38 N/mm 2 in shear and 11 N/mm 2 for bearing pressure. So, EN 24-CI is the best combination of screw-nut pair in screw jack. ACKNOWLEDGMENT We express our deepest thanks to motivator Prof. Nitinchandra R. Patel (Assistant Professor), the Guide of the research work for various documents of ours and also because of his attention and care. Also we are thankful to G.H.Patel College of Engineering & technology, for extending his support. REFERENCES [1] R.S. Khurmi, J.K. Gupta, "Machine Design Book", Fourteenth Edition, S. Chand And Company Ltd., New Delhi. [2] P.S.G. Design Data Book, Second Edition, Koimbtoor. [3] V.B. Bhandari, "Design of Machine Elements", Third Edition, Tata McGraw Hill Education Pvt. Ltd. 471

9 [4] P.J. Shah, "Machine Drawing", S. Chand Publication. [5] P.C. Sharma and D.K. Aggarwal, "Machine Design", S.K. Kataria and Sons, [6] Abdulla Shariff, "Handbook of Properties of Engineering Materials and Design Data for Machine Elements", Dhanpat Rai & Sons Publication. [7] Joseph Edward Shigley and Charles R. Mischke, "Mechanical Engineering Design", McGraw Hill International Edition. AUTHORS BIOGRAPHY Prof. Nitinchandra R. Patel is an Assistant Professor in Mechanical Engineering department of G.H. Patel College of Engineering & technology, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India. He has completed Master degree in Mechanical Engineering with specialization in Machine Design in 2004 from Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar and Bachelor degree in Mechanical Engineering in 1997 from B.V.M. Engineering College, Sardar Patel University. He has 5 years working experience in industries and 12 years in teaching. He has presented two technical research papers in international conferences and published six technical research papers in international journals. He is a member of ASME, Associate member of Institute of Engineers (I) and Life member of ISTE. He is also recognized as a Chartered Engineer by Institute of Engineers (I) in Mechanical Engineering Division in Rokad Dipen Babubhai, Final year student of Bachelor degree in Mechanical Engineering department of G. H. Patel College of Engineering & Technology, Vallabh Vidyanagar Vekariya Ankit Vasantbhai, Final year student of Bachelor degree in Mechanical Engineering department of G. H. Patel College of Engineering & Technology, Vallabh Vidyanagar Chauhan Pratik Jaisriram, Final year student of Bachelor degree in Mechanical Engineering department of G. H. Patel College of Engineering & Technology, Vallabh Vidyanagar 472

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Cast-in Ferrule Connections Load/Displacement Characteristics in Shear Ian Ferrier 1 and Andrew Barraclough 2 1 Product Manager - Connections, ITW Construction Systems ANZ. 2 Research and Development Manager,

### Module 1 Fundamentals of machine design. Version 2 ME, IIT Kharagpur

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### SPECIFICATION FOR HIGH STRENGTH STRUCTURAL BOLTS

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### LINEAR MOTION Screw Jack Actuator Models

Advantages: Positive, Mechanical Positioning Uniform, Lifting Speed Multiple Arrangements Anti-Backlash Feature (Optional) Lifting Screw Threaded end as standard and available with screw on clevis end

### TECH SHEET PEM - REF / TESTING CLINCH PERFORMANCE. SUBJECT: Testing clinch performance of self-clinching fasteners.

PEM - REF / TESTING CLINCH PERFORMANCE SUBJECT: Testing clinch performance of self-clinching fasteners. A self-clinching fastener s performance can be divided into two major types. The first is self-clinching

### Notes. Modifications and constructional corrections arising particularly from technological development excepted.

Notes Our service staff and application en gineers will be pleased to offer you their assistance to answer your questions or to work out in cooperation with you specific solutions with the aid of our own

### EXAMPLE 1-4 EXAMPLE 1-5

EXAMPLE 1- Calculate the maximum shear stress τmax in a simply supported wood beam carrying a uniform load of (w=18 kn/m) if the length is 1.75 m and the cross section is rectangular with width 150 mm

### A New Technique to Determine the Load Transfer Capacity of Resin Anchored Bolts

University of Wollongong Research Online Coal Operators' Conference Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences A New Technique to Determine the Load Transfer Capacity of Resin Anchored Bolts N. Aziz

### Features. Continuous Duty Cycle Actuators

Features Predictable life. Continuous operation. Oil lubricated. High mechanical and thermal efficiency 2 models available. Capacity 3,500 to 27,000 pounds Available with C-Face motor adaptors and speed

### VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF DRILLING OPERATION

VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF DRILLING OPERATION Amit S. Wani 1, Gayatri S. Sagavkar 2, Vaibhav K. Bhate 3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Fr.Conceiceo Rodrigues Institute of Technology, Vashi, Navi Mumbai,

### DESIGN OF MACHINE MEMBERS-I

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### Overview Grinding Applications

GRINDING 14E Overview Grinding Applications SRG Workpieces High precision grinding Steady Rests Grinding diameter Ø 20-85 mm Camshafts Crankshafts Shafts Chapter 1 Fine adjustment of the grinding center

### DESIGN AND ANNALYSIS OF COMBI-SWITCH BRACKET

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### Fig. (8.1) types of riveted joints

8 Riveted Joints 8. Introduction Riveting was the standard method of joining plates and structural parts before welding began to replace it with increasing rapidity. are widely used in many engineering

### Fixture design of connecting rod parts

Abstract Fixture design of connecting rod parts Junchen Cao a, Hongen Ge b College of mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China; a cjch789@126.com,

### A Review on Design and Optimization with Structural Behavior Analysis of Central Drum in Mine Hoist

A Review on Design and Optimization with Structural Behavior Analysis of Central Drum in Mine Hoist Sarang Mangalekar 1, Mr. Vaibhav Bankar 2, Mr. Pratik Chaphale 3 1 M-Tech Student, Department of Mechanical

### DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF BENDING WITH TWISTING & CUTTING MACHINE

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### Worm Gears. Direction of Rotation and Thrust Right Hand. Right Hand Worm and Gear. Single, Double, Quadruple Thread Worms G-57

Worm Gears Originally, worm gearing was used to secure, by compact means, a large reduction of speed between driving and driven shafts with a proportionate increase (except for frictional loss) in the

### Design and Fabrication of Flexible Drilling Machine

IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development Vol. 6, Issue 04, 2018 ISSN (online): 2321-0613 Design and Fabrication of 360 0 Flexible Drilling Machine M. Kumar 1 K. Rajan 2 1,2 Lecturer

### In normal joints, the clamping force should equal the working load. In gasketed joints, it should be sufficient to create a seal.

Fastener Quality Act Information Unbrako offers this link to the National Institute of Standards homepage on the Fastener Quality Act as an aide to individuals who need detailed and complete information

### Design of Machine Elements I Prof. G. Chakraborty Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur

Design of Machine Elements I Prof. G. Chakraborty Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur Lecture - 22 Rivet Joints Dear student, welcome to the video lectures on

### INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED RESEARCH IN ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

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### Moment-Resisting Connections In Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) Frames

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### ROOP LAL Unit-6 Lathe (Turning) Mechanical Engineering Department

Notes: Lathe (Turning) Basic Mechanical Engineering (Part B) 1 Introduction: In previous Lecture 2, we have seen that with the help of forging and casting processes, we can manufacture machine parts of

### Evaluation of In-Pavement Light Fixture Designs and Performance

Evaluation of In-Pavement Light Fixture Designs and Performance Presented to: IES ALC Fall Technology Meeting By: Joseph Breen Date: Background In-Pavement Light Fixture Assemblies Utilize a Circle of

### of Screwed Joints. Screwed Joints n 377

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### SCREW THREADS. = minor diameter. d 3. d 2. = pitch diameter

ISO : 6 Part 2 DIN : Part /20 Metric (ISO) screw thread, coarse series -M- T-00 T-002 for M to incl. M,4, fit H/6h The bold lines indicate the maximum material profiles. The maximum material profile of

Pg 1 / 8 Badri FKM UTM BOLT nalsis and Selection (pg 396) This note is onl a guideline for using the tet book. Detailed eplaination and tables are found in Shigle Mechanical Engineering Design tet book.

### LIFTING MECHANISM FOR ATTACHMENTS OF AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENTS

LIFTING MECHANISM FOR ATTACHMENTS OF AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENTS Neil Purandare 1, Ashish Shejwal 2, Hrishikesh Sane 3, Siddharth Patil 4 1 B.E, Mechanical, M.I.T., Maharastra, India 2 B.E, Mechanical, M.I.T.,

### Bolts and Set Screws Are they interchangeable?

1903191HA Bolts and Set Screws Are they interchangeable? Prof. Saman Fernando Centre for Sustainable Infrastructure SUT Introduction: This technical note discusses the definitions, standards and variations

### Design and analysis of Power hack Saw attachment to a Center Lathe

Design and analysis of Power hack Saw attachment to a Center Lathe Parvataneni Chaitanya Vasavi College of Engineering, Email: pchaitanya9@outlook.com and Ph. No: 8019760145. Abstract This work provides