2 Concrete Pavement Preservation and Preventive Maintenance (A Webinar Series) Part 1 The Essentials: From Pavement Evaluation to Strategy Selection - March 15 Part 2 Partial- and Full-Depth Repair Methods Part 3 Tips and Techniques for Specialized Repair and Construction Methods September 14 Includes Slab Stabilization, Slab Jacking, Retrofit Edge Drains, Dowel Bar Retrofit, Cross-Stitching and Slot Stitching Part 4 Concrete Pavement Surface Restoration and Joint/Crack (Re)Sealing October 6 Includes Diamond Grinding and Grooving Part 5 Pavement Maintenance and Preservation Using Concrete Overlays October 25
3 Webinar Part 1 - Highlights What is Pavement Preservation? Network level, long-term strategy for enhancing pavement performance Focus on extending pavement life and restoring functional condition Goals accomplished with a collection of preventive maintenance treatments and a few minor rehabilitation and routine maintenance treatments What is Preventive Maintenance? Planned strategy of cost effective treatments Applied to structurally sound pavements with significant remaining life Maintain or improve functional condition
4 Webinar Part 1 - Highlights Pavement Evaluation Determine causes of deterioration Develop appropriate alternatives Provides quantitative information for quantity estimates, LCCA As-built info, distress surveys, NDT, sampling Strategy Selection Treatment-Distress Matrix Concurrent Treatment Sequencing Distress Treatment Matrix Concrete Pavement Preservation Treatment Cross Partial- Full- Dowel Thin Slab Stabilization Jacking Edge Drains Slot Grinding Grooving Resealing Sealing Slab Retrofitted Stitching/ Diamond Diamond Joint Crack Depth Depth Bar Concrete Repair Repair Retrofit Overlay Distress Stitching Corner breaks a Linear cracking b a Punchouts D-cracking c c Alkali-aggregate reaction c c Map cracking, crazing, scaling Joint seal damage Joint spalling Blowup Pumping Faulting Bumps, settlements, heaves Polishing/Low Friction Concurrent Treatment Sequencing
5 Partial-Depth Repairs
6 Introduction Definition: Removal and replacement of small, shallow areas of deteriorated PCC at spalled or distressed joints. Criteria for application: Distress limited to upper 1/3 1/2 of slab Existing load transfer devices are functional
7 Benefits Restores slab integrity Improves ride quality Extends the service life Restores a well-defined uniform joint sealant reservoir
8 Good Candidate Projects Spalls caused by: Incompressibles in joints Localized areas of weak material Joint inserts Surface deterioration caused by: Reinforcing steel too close to surface Poor curing or finishing practices Recommended evaluation procedures: Distress surveys Sounding
9 Poor Candidate Projects Spalls due to dowel bar misalignment Spalls at working cracks due to shrinkage, fatigue, or vertical movement Spalls due to D-cracking or reactive aggregate
10 Good candidate?
11 Good candidate?
12 Good candidate?
13 Good candidate?
14 Partial-Depth Repair Types Fig. 5.1 on p. 5.2
15 Design Considerations Sizing of repair Material selection Bonding agent
16 Sizing of Repair Greater than 3 inches beyond spall Combine spalls if closer than 24 inches Cementitious: 4 inch x 10 inch 2 inch depth Proprietary: Refer to manufacturer s instructions
17 Material Selection Factors Allowable lane closure time Ambient temperature Material and placement cost Material properties (shrinkage, CTE, bond strength) Compatibility between repair material and existing pavement Size and depth of repair Performance capabilities
18 Repair Material Selection Repair materials for partial-depth repairs are generally classified cementitious, polymeric, or bituminous Concrete mixes along with a wide variety of rapidsetting and high-early-strength proprietary materials have been developed High-quality portland cement concrete is generally accepted as the most appropriate material for the repair of existing concrete pavements Concrete mix requires use of small-sized, coarse aggregate, usually less than 1/2 in.
19 Material Selection Repair Material MnDOT Cementitious 3U18 Material Recommended for Use in Partial-Depth Repairs 850 lbs Type I Cement 295 lbs of water 1,328 lbs of coarse aggregate 1,328 lbs of sand Target W/C of 0.35 Type E Water Reducing and Accelerator 6.5% air ~2500 psi strength in 18 hours Used successfully for 30+ years
20 Material Selection Repair Material Cementitious 3U18 Recommended for Use in Partial-Depth Repairs Maximum 1 in. slump (measured after allowing to set 5 minutes after mixing) Cure time of 18± hours Aggregate gradation of o100% passing the 3/8 in. sieve o55% 95% passing the #4 sieve onot more than 5% shall pass the #50 sieve
21 Bonding Agent Intended to enhance bond between repair material and existing pavement. Can reduce bond if not installed properly Required for many cementitious repair materials. Some agencies allow clean, SSD surface in lieu of bonding agent Manufacturer s instructions should be consulted for proprietary mixes
22 Bonding (Grout) Agent Sand-cement grouts have proven adequate when properly used as bonding agents with concrete repair materials. 2 parts Type I cement 1 part water (more or less, as needed to develop a creamy consistency) 1 part sand
23 Bonding (Grout) Agent: Kansas DOT Approach Use a more watery mix which helps cool and pre-wet the existing concrete pavement before placement. 1 part Type I cement 3 parts water
27 1. Repair Dimension Selection Recommendations for Cementitious L A N E 3 in (min) Spall 3 in (min) Patch area Min. Patch Length 10 in Min. Patch Width 4 in
28 2. Concrete Removal Methods Saw and Patch Saw perimeter and light jackhammer breakout Chip and Patch Light jackhammer breakout (no sawing) Mill and Patch Removal of deteriorated concrete through cold milling
29 2. Concrete Removal Sawing
30 2. Concrete Removal Chipping
31 2. Concrete Removal Cold Milling Transverse Milling (small head, moves along joint) Longitudinal Milling (wide head, pick up & move over) Fig on p. 5.15
32 2. Concrete Removal Cold Milling Milling Along the Joint Milling Across the Joint
33 2. Concrete Removal Cold Milling Heads V Shape Milling Head and Pattern Rock Saw and Rounded Pattern Vertical Edge Mill Head and Pattern 30 to 60 degrees
34 3. Repair Area Preparation Sandblasting
35 3. Repair Area Preparation Air Blasting Air blasting to remove dust and debris (90 psi minimum) Free of oil and moisture Direct away from patches
36 4. Joint Preparation joint 3 in scoring 3 in Plan View bond breaker patch pavement 1 in Profile View Fig on p. 5.19
37 Placement of Compression Relief (Waxed Cardboard) Often more easily fits the irregular nature of random cracks. Has the ability to maintain its rigidity for the concrete placement. Hold in place during concrete vibration so that it doesn t float. Concrete placement for Type 1 repair using waxed cardboard Type 2B Crack Repair
39 6. Patch Material Placement Batch small quantities Temperature restrictions Typically require <40 o F at placement with forecast temps above 40 o F) Some epoxy materials placed in lifts Overfill patch area by ~1/8 inch (3 mm) Consolidate material with small spud vibrator or other appropriate means Screed and hand trowel (center to edge)
40 6. Patch Material Placement
41 6. Patch Material Placement Consolidation Finish Towards Edges
42 6. Patch Material Placement Sealing Edges and Runouts
43 7. Curing Prevent moisture loss White-pigmented curing compound commonly used Opening to traffic Mix- /temperature-dependent Common values: 1600 to 1800 psi
44 Re-establish Joint/Crack Type 1 and Type 2A joints have been successfully sawed. Fresh concrete can also be tooled prior to sawing. Joint reservoir must be wider than the crack under the repair. Tooling of the joint Sawing following tooling of the joint
45 8. Diamond Grinding (optional)
46 9. Joint Resealing
47 Completed Repairs
48 Examples of Long-Lasting Partial-Depth Repairs 20 year old Type 2A longitudinal and transverse partial-depth repairs in Hopkins, MN Close up of partial-depth patch in Hopkins, MN done in 1991 and picture taken 2011
49 Key Factors For Success Proper selection of candidate projects Proper material selection Identification of repair boundaries Use of joint/crack reformers Achieving good bond Clean and dry repair area Sandblasting sidewalls Proper application of bonding agent followed by timely placement of repair material Proper placement and curing
50 Troubleshooting Problem Deterioration found to extend beyond the original repair boundaries Solutions?
51 Troubleshooting What is wrong here?
52 Troubleshooting What is wrong here?
53 Problem Troubleshooting Construction Quality Problems Patch material flows into joint Potential causes? Solutions?
54 Troubleshooting What is wrong here?
55 Additional Resource 55
56 Full-Depth Repairs
57 Introduction Definition Cast-in-place concrete repairs that extend the full-depth of the existing slab Benefits Restore rideability Restore structural integrity
58 Applications Address structural deterioration Deteriorated cracks Corner breaks Shattered slabs and blowups Punchouts (CRCP) Address joint deterioration Severe spalling Joint lockup Utility cut repairs Prepare pavement for overlay
61 Punchout (CRCP)
62 Limitations Does not address structural inadequacy Not a long-term solution for materialrelated distresses (ASR, D-cracking) Not cost-effective for widespread deterioration Potentially an expensive cost item
63 Repair boundaries Repair materials Load transfer design Design and Materials Considerations
64 Repair Boundaries Encompass all deterioration Typically use full lane-width repairs Length > 6 ft Provide intermediate joint for long repairs (>15 ft) Independent repairs in adjacent lanes Combine repairs when there is less than 8 10 ft between them Maintain minimum distance between repair and existing joints and cracks.
65 Repair Boundaries Example Repairs in JPCP Before L L L M L L M M M H M H After L, M, H = Low, Medium, High Severity NOTES a Minimum length is 1.8 m (6 ft) b Check distance between patches and nearby joints c Replace the entire slab if there are multiple intersecting cracks Fig. 6.2 on p. 113
66 Selecting Repair Boundaries Potential Extent of Deterioration at Joint Existing Joint Visual deterioration of surface Dowel bar Potential deterioration at bottom of slab Fig. 6.1 on p. 6.4
67 CRCP Pavements Repair Recommendations H H H H M Replace as a single area b a b b a b b a b b a b >1.8 m Fig. 6.4 on p. 6.7 a >1.8 m (6 ft) tied steel a >1.2 m (4 ft) welded or mechanical connection b >0.46 m (1.5 ft) 6 67
68 Selecting Repair Materials Based largely on required opening times Conventional PCC mixes most common Proprietary materials and specialty cements available Various materials can be used within a project to meet opening requirements
69 Load Transfer Design Dowel Bars Critical to long-term performance Dowel characteristics: Diameter: Typically D/8 Length: Typically 18 in Corrosion-resistant (epoxy common) Debonding medium
70 Load Transfer Design Example Layout Traffic Direction Mid depth slab 12 ft 2 ft Smooth dowels 1.5 inch dia. 1 ft typical 6 ft minimum Fig. 6.5 on p. 116
71 Construction Steps 1. Concrete sawing 2. Concrete removal 3. Repair area preparation 4. Restoration of load transfer 5. Treatment of longitudinal joints 6. Concrete placement/finishing 7. Curing and opening to traffic 8. Diamond grinding and joint sealing
72 1. Concrete Sawing Full-depth, diamond-bladed sawing Limit traffic loading on sawed pavement to avoid pumping Maintain straight edge along shoulder side
73 2. Concrete Removal Breakup and Cleanout Simple and straightforward May disturb base and underlying utilities Relatively slow
74 2. Concrete Removal Liftout Method (preferred) Minimizes disturbance High productivity Requires heavy lifting equipment
75 3. Repair Area Preparation
76 4. Restoration of Load Transfer Schematic of Dowel Bar Installation Grout retention disk (optional) Repair area Subbase Existing slab Anchoring material Hole dia. = d+a d = dowel diameter a = 1/8 in for epoxy a = 1/4 in for cement grout Subgrade Soil Fig on p. 124
77 Load Transfer Design Dowel Bars Critical to long-term performance Dowel characteristics: Diameter: Typically D/8 (or more) Length: Typically 457 mm (18 in) Corrosion-resistant (epoxy common) Bond-breaking agent
78 Load Transfer Design Example Layout Traffic Direction Mid depth slab 3.7 m (12 ft) 0.6 m (2 ft) 3 5 dowels/wheel path (typical) Smooth dowels 38 mm (1.5 in) dia. 0.3 m (1 ft) typical 1.8 m (6 ft) minimum Fig. 6.5 on p. 116
79 Restoration of Load Transfer Drilling Recommendations Dowel holes drilled at mid-depth (typically) of existing slab at specified spacings Dowel holes drilled slightly larger than dowel diameter Use gang drills for better alignment and increased productivity
83 MnDOT: Multiple Projects Tested Road MP 2010 ADT 2010 %Trucks Dowels per lane FWD LTE Range CPR Year I , % 2009 I , % 2010 I , % 2009 I , % 2010 MN , % 2011 MN , % 2007 Visual examination of the cores FWD Testing Does LTE tell us what we need to know? Michigan DOT suggested looking at deflection.
84 2013 Construction Season MnDOT randomly cored every CPR project in 2013 One Contractor took initiative to core and check their own workmanship Most effective cause for Contractor to change was when MnDOT cored each project even when Contractors were working on multiple projects
85 Dowel Bar Installation Recommendations Blow debris and dust from holes Place grout or epoxy in holes Insert dowel into hole with slight twisting motion Install grout retention disks (optional) Apply bond-breaker to protruding dowel ends
86 Restoration of Load Transfer Cleaning Holes (Air Blasting)
87 Restoration of Load Transfer Injecting Anchoring Material
88 Restoration of Load Transfer Dowel Bar Placement 1 2 3
89 Restoration of Load Transfer Area Prepared with Dowels in Place
90 CRCP Restoring Longitudinal Steel Most agencies maintain continuity of longitudinal steel through repair Longitudinal reinforcement in existing pavement exposed using 2 sets of sawcuts Partial-depth at each end of repair area Full-depth inside of partial-depth cuts New steel affixed via either: Tied splices Welded splices Mechanical connection
91 Fig. 6.6 on p CRCP Pavements Sawcut Locations and Repair Details
92 CRCP Pavements Exposed Steel Fig on p. 6.18
93 CRCP Pavements Restoring Continuity of Reinforcing Steel
94 5. Treatment of Longitudinal Joints Bondbreaker Board
95 6. Concrete Placement Consolidation and level finish are critical Vibrate along edges of repair and in vicinity of dowel bars Don t use vibrators to move concrete Avoid addition of extra water Texture surface to match existing pavement
96 6. Concrete Placement Consolidation and level finish are critical Vibrate along edges of repair and in vicinity of dowel bars Don t use vibrators to move concrete Avoid addition of extra water Texture surface to match existing pavement
97 Concrete Placement Finishing < 10 ft > 10 ft Straight Edge Vibrating Screed Fig on p. 125
98 Concrete Placement Texturing
99 7. Curing and Opening to Traffic White-pigmented curing compound Apply immediately after texturing Uniform coverage
104 Heavy Traffic = Short Work Windows 145,000 vpd I-287, Tarrytown, NY 200,000 vpd I-15, Ontario, CA Requires Rapid, Durable Repair/Reconstruction! 180,000 vpd I-66, Fairfax, VA Source: The Fort Miller Co., Inc.
105 Precast Concrete Slabs Prefabricated panels used for repair or reconstruction of roadway pavements Advantages: Good quality concrete Improved curing Minimal weather impacts Rapid opening Application: Heavily trafficked roads Intersections Ramps Bridge approach slabs
108 Many Uses Tappan Zee Bridge Toll Plaza Santa Monica, California Bus Pad New York City Intersection LaGuardia Airport (New York)
110 Troubleshooting (a.k.a. What could possibly go wrong?!? )
111 Troubleshooting What is wrong here?
112 Troubleshooting What is wrong here?
113 Troubleshooting What is wrong here?
114 Troubleshooting What is wrong here?
115 Additional Resource 8_final.pdf 115
116 Acknowledgments American Concrete Pavement Association (ACPA) California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) Jeff Uhlmeyer/Washington State DOT John Donahue/Missouri DOT Kurt Smith/Applied Pavement Technology, Inc. Maria Masten/Minnesota DOT National Precast Concrete Association The Fort Miller Company, Inc. U.S. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Shiraz Tayabji/Applied Research Associates, Inc. (ARA)
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