Research. Maria Masten, P.E and Gordy Bruhn MnDOT Concrete Engineering Unit CPAM Concrete Paving Workshop March 9, 2017

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1 MnDOT Update on Full Depth Repairs Research Maria Masten, P.E and Gordy Bruhn MnDOT Concrete Engineering Unit CPAM Concrete Paving Workshop March 9, 2017

2 What did we try? Epoxy dip and stick Epoxy double dip Epoxy fill and twist Grout box method Grout dip and stick 1 hour old grout Grout capsules Polygrip epoxy Also tried additional brushing and compressed air and grout rings to see if any made a significant impact on the performance of the repair Had problems with epoxy due to cold temperatures

3 2013 Construction Season MnDOT randomly cored every CPR project in 2013 One Contractor took initiative to core and check their own workmanship Most effective cause for Contractor to change was when MnDOT cored each project even when Contractors t were working on multiple projects

4 MnROAD FDR Field Installation Phase 2 8/15-16/2013 / 1 and 1.25 diameter dowel bars All lanes diamond ground No grout, modified dgrout bag, grout capsule, epoxy (2 types) Controlled dlocation FWD testing seasonally Coring Monitoring over time

5 Old I-94 By-Pass Lane Test Section MnROAD Mainline - Old Westbound Interstate I-94 (By-Pass) 13 cells 9 JRCP / 6 Class-6 Base / Clay (1973) each cell has 3 joints = 81 feet long = both lanes Estimated 140,000 Rigid ESAL/Year 28,500 ADT - 13% Trucks Starts MP-199 Cell 970 Cell 971 Cell 972 Cell 973 Cell East joint# feet Diamond Grinding Diamond Grinding Diamond Grinding Diamond Grinding Diamond Grinding Full Depth Joint Repair Full Depth Joint Repair Full Depth Joint Repair Full Depth Joint Repair Full Depth Joint Repair No Grout No Grout Grout - Bag Injected Grout - Bag Injected Grout - Dip Method 1" Dowels 1.25" Dowels 1" Dowels 1.25" Dowels 1" Dowels 1 Cell 975 Cell 976 Cell 977 Cell 978 Cell joint# feet Diamond Grinding Diamond Grinding Diamond Grinding Diamond Grinding Diamond Grinding Full Depth Joint Repair Full Depth Joint Repair Full Depth Joint Repair Full Depth Joint Repair Full Depth Joint Repair Grout - Dip Method Grout - Capsule Method Grout - Capsule Method Epoxy - Powers Epoxy - Powers 125" 1.25 Dowels 1" Dowels 125" 1.25 Dowels 1" Dowels 125" 1.25 Dowels 2 Cell 980 Cell 981 Cell 982 West Note: Updated - July 24, 2013 Need to discuss the - joint# Monitoring (FWD Joints, Distress, LISA Ride) feet Analysis - Need to discuss Diamond Grinding Diamond Grinding Diamond Grinding Full Depth Joint Repair Full Depth Joint Repair No Repair FWD Point pre-full depth repair Epoxy - Rezi Weld Epoxy - Rezi Weld "control" 26 points (2 per cell) 1" Dowels 1.25" Dowels marked on roadway

6 MnROAD Traffic (I-94 Bypass) 9 JRCP/6 Class-6 Base / Clay (1973) Estimated 140, Rigid id ESAL/Year 28,500 AADT 13% Trucks Since Test Section Installations (8/16/13-12/31/16) Days on Rigid AADT %WB %Trucks in By-pass CESALS Traffic DL 9/1/ , , , , Totals 319 1,699,076

7 FWD Testing Locations Cells (w/patches) East Patch "X" West Passing Cell 982 (control w/o patch) East Joint "X" West Passing Driving Driving X, approach, pavement X, leave, pavement X, approach, patch X, leave, patch X, leave, pavement X, approach, pavement

8 Measuring Dowel Bar Effectiveness with FWD Testing Larson and Smith (2005) suggest that doweled joints with LTE of 85 percent or less and/or a differential deflection greater than 5 mils in five years or less are unlikely to provide satisfactory long-term performance. Values reflect new construction I believe adaptive to performance of full depth repairs Source: Guide to Dowel Load Transfer Systems for Jointed Concrete Roadway Pavements (Sept 2011)

9 Measuring Dowel Bar Effectiveness with FWD Testing Typical l Action thresholds h range from 50 to 70 percent Load Transfer Efficiency (LTE) considering LTE only Larson and Smith (2005) suggest that The maximum differential deflection criteria i of 5 mils may help evaluate dowel looseness or the possibility of delaminations intheconcreteatthedowelbarlevel level. Source: Guide to Dowel Load Transfer Systems for Jointed Concrete Roadway Pavements (Sept 2011)

10 D10 D1 D3 direction of traffic and testing approach, pavement NG1 NG1.25 GB1 GB1.25 GD1 GD1.25 GC1 GC1.25 EP1 EP1.25 ER1 ER1.25 C

11 direction of traffic and testing D10 D1 D3 Cells 970 leave, patch NG1 NG1.25 GB1 GB1.25 GD1 GD1.25 GC1 GC1.25 EP1 EP1.25 ER1 ER1.25

12 direction of traffic and testing D10 D1 D3 approach, patch NG1 NG1.25 GB1 GB1.25 GD1 GD1.25 GC1 GC1.25 EP1 EP1.25 ER1 ER1.25

13 w/patches) direction of traffic and testing D10 D1 D3 leave, pavement NG1 NG1.25 GB1 GB1.25 GD1 GD1.25 GC1 GC1.25 EP1 EP1.25 ER1 ER1.25 C

14 Dowel bar looseness D10 D1 D3 direction of traffic and testing approach, pavement NG1 NG1.25 GB1 GB1.25 GD1 GD1.25 GC1 GC1.25 EP1 EP1.25 ER1 ER1.25 C

15 direction of traffic and testing D10 D1 D3 Cells 970 leave, patch Dowel bar looseness NG1 NG1.25 GB1 GB1.25 GD1 GD1.25 GC1 GC1.25 EP1 EP1.25 ER1 ER1.25

16 direction of traffic and testing D10 D1 D3 approach, patch Dowel bar looseness NG1 NG1.25 GB1 GB1.25 GD1 GD1.25 GC1 GC1.25 EP1 EP1.25 ER1 ER1.25

17 w/patches) direction of traffic and testing D10 D1 D3 leave, pavement Dowel bar looseness NG1 NG1.25 GB1 GB1.25 GD1 GD1.25 GC1 GC1.25 EP1 EP1.25 ER1 ER1.25 C

18 NG1 NG1.25 GB1 GB1.25 GD1 GD1.25 GC1 GC1.25 EP1 EP1.25 ER1 ER1.25 C

19 NG1 NG1.25 GB1 GB1.25 GD1 GD1.25 GC1 GC1.25 EP1 EP1.25 ER1 ER1.25 C

20 Preliminary Conclusions No Grout and Dip and Stick Grout repairs are performing the worst In some cases the data shows that the No Grout and Dip and Stick were worse than doing nothing (control) The 1 diameter dowel bars are showing increased differential deflection vs. the 1.25 diameter dowels Final Report on Research will be completed by Fall Final Report on Research will be completed by Fall 2017

21 Summer of 2017 Concrete Rehab Projects Verification of Increased Drill Bit Diameter MnROAD construction National Road Research Alliance (NRRA) pooled fund Concrete Rehab and Diamond Grinding

22 Utilize Drill Bit Diameter 1/8 th -inch larger then Specified Dowel Bar Diam Dowel requires a drill bit 1.25 Dowel requires a drill bit diameter of (1 3/8 min.)

23 Full Depth Repair Type CD-HV Increased Drill and Grout Dowel Bar Size, From 1-inch to inch Dowel Bar Diam. Full Depth Repair 12 wide (typical) Low Volume Full Depth Repair will Remain 1 Diameter Dowel Bars

24 Summer of 2017 MnROAD Construction MnROAD has roughly 1800 ft 27 foot panels ~ 60+ panels 1973 PCC Doweled Concrete (9" thick) Looking for 15 material Types 3U18 Modified, 3U18 Accelerator, HMA 2-3" depth patches GOAL: 5 year maintenance type fixes

25 Proposed Repair Layout 3 foot HMA Inside Shoulder Transition Slab no repairs Panel 1 Panel 2 Panel 3 Transition Slab no repairs 12' Passing Lane Transition Slab no repairs Transition Slab no repairs 12' Driving Lane 27' 27' 27' 27' 27' 10 foot HMA Outside Shoulder MnDOT Specifications - / / / Centerline Patch (10" x 60" - 5" on each side of C/L) Corner Patch (10"x10") 1 pass 6 feet 2 pass 4 feet Midlane Patch (10"x36" - 5" on each side of C/L)) C/L Joint Patch (10"x24" -- 5" in into each panel) 2 pass 6 feet 2 pass 4 feet Full length patch (10" x 144" - 5" on each side of C/L) Wheel Path Patch (10"x92" -- 5" in into each panel - ends in WP) 1 pass 24 feet 1 pass 8 feet Midlane Patch (10"x10") 2 pass 2 feet

26 Summer of 2017 MnROAD Construction Diamond Grind Low Volume Road Loops See if diamond grinding accelerates materials related distress (MRD) One lane environmental one lane traffic Both will have deicing activities similar to the highway Apply sealer on some sections to see if mitigate MRD GOAL: Controlled sections to monitor

27 Thank you Questions? Maria Masten Gordy Bruhn

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