1 MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY UNIT III THEORY OF METAL CUTTING
2 Broad classification of Engineering Manufacturing Processes. It is extremely difficult to tell the exact number of various manufacturing processes existing and are being practiced presently because very large number of processes have been developed till now and the number is still increasing exponentially with the growing demands and rapid progress in science and technology. However, all such manufacturing processes can be broadly classified in four major groups as follows Shaping or forming Manufacturing a solid product of definite size and shape from a given material taken in three possible states: in liquid or semi-liquid state e.g., casting, injection moulding etc. in solid state e.g., forging rolling, extrusion, drawing etc. in powder form e.g., powder metallurgical process.
3 Joining process Manufacturing Technology Welding, brazing, soldering etc. Removal or Cutting process Machining (Traditional or Non-traditional), Grinding etc. Regenerative manufacturing Process Production of solid products in layer by layer from raw materials in different form: liquid e.g., stereo lithography powder e.g., selective sintering sheet e.g., LOM (laminated object manufacturing) wire e.g., FDM. (Fused Deposition Modeling) Out of the fore said groups, Regenerative Manufacturing is the latest one which is generally accomplished very rapidly and quite accurately using CAD and CAM for Rapid Prototyping and Tooling.
4 Material Removal Processes Metal Cutting Process A family of shaping operations, the common feature of which is removal of material from a starting work part so the remaining part has the desired geometry Traditional Process (Machining) Material removal by a sharp cutting tool, e.g., turning, milling, drilling Nontraditional processes - Various energy forms other than sharp cutting tool to remove material. e.g., Laser and Electron Beam machining Abrasive processes Material removal by hard, abrasive particles, e.g., grinding
5 Why Machining is Important Variety of work materials can be machined Most frequently used to cut metals Variety of part shapes and special geometric features possible, such as: Screw threads Accurate round holes Very straight edges and surfaces Good dimensional accuracy and surface finish
6 Disadvantages with Machining Wasteful of material Chips generated in machining are wasted material, at least in the unit operation Time consuming A machining operation generally takes more time to shape a given part than alternative shaping processes, such as casting, powder metallurgy, or forming
7 Machining in Manufacturing Sequence Generally performed after other manufacturing processes, such as casting, forging, and bar drawing Other processes create the general shape of the starting work part Machining provides the final shape, dimensions, finish, and special geometric details that other processes cannot create
8 Machining Operations Most important machining operations Turning Drilling Milling Other machining operations Shaping and planing Broaching Sawing
9 Turning Single point cutting tool removes material from a rotating work piece to form a cylindrical shape
10 Drilling Used to create a round hole, usually by means of a rotating tool (drill bit) with two cutting edges
11 Milling Manufacturing Technology (c) peripheral milling (d) face milling. Rotating multiple-cutting-edge tool is moved across work to cut a plane or straight surface
12 Machining requirements Manufacturing Technology The blank and the cutting tool are properly mounted (in fixtures) and moved in a powerful device called machine tool enabling gradual removal of layer of material from the work surface resulting in its desired dimensions and surface finish. Additionally some environment called cutting fluid is generally used to ease machining by cooling and lubrication.
13 Machine Tool - Definition A machine tool is a non-portable power operated and reasonably valued device or system of devices in which energy is expended to produce jobs of desired size, shape and surface finish by removing excess material from the preformed blanks in the form of chips with the help of cutting tools moved past the work surface's. Basic functions of Machine Tools Machine Tools basically produce geometrical surfaces like flat, cylindrical or any contour on the preformed blanks by machining work with the help of cutting tools.
14 The physical functions of a Machine Tool in machining are Firmly holding the blank and the tool Transmit motions to the tool and the blank Provide power to the tool-work pair for the machining action. Control of the machining parameters, (speed, feed and depth of cut).
15 Orthogonal and oblique cutting Orthogonal cutting The cutting edge of the tool is straight and perpendicular to the direction of motion. Oblique cutting The cutting edge of the tool is set at an angle to the direction of motion.
16 Comparison btw oblique and orthogonal
17 Classification of cutting tools Single-Point Cutting Edge Tools One dominant cutting edge Point is usually rounded to form a nose radius Turning uses single point tools Multiple Point Cutting Edge Tools More than one cutting edge Motion relative to work achieved by rotating Drilling and milling use rotating multiple cutting edge tools
18 Cutting Tools Manufacturing Technology a. Single-Point Cutting Tool b. Multi-Point Cutting Tool Figure (a) A single-point tool showing rake face, flank, and tool point; and (b) a helical milling cutter, representative of tools with multiple cutting edges.
19 Tool signature for single point cutting tool Flank
20 Tool signature for single point cutting tool Shank It is the main body of the tool Flank The surface of the tool adjacent to the cutting edge Face or Rake The surface on which the chip slides Nose It is the point where the side cutting edge and end cutting edge intersect Nose Radius Strengthens finishing point of tool Cutting Edge It is the edge on the face of the tool which removes the material from the work piece Side cutting edge angle Angle between side cutting edge and the side of the tool shank
21 Tool signature for single point cutting tool End cutting edge angle Angle between end cutting edge and the line normal to the tool shank Side Relief angle Angle between the portion of the side flank immediately below the side cutting edge and a line perpendicular to the base of the tool, measured at right angle to the side flank End Relief angle Angle between the portion of the end flank immediately below the end cutting edge and a line perpendicular to the base of the tool, measured at right angle to the end flank Side Rake angle Angle between the tool face and a line parallel to the base of the tool and measured in a plane perpendicular to the base and the side cutting edge Back Rake angle Angle between the tool face and a line parallel to the base of the tool and measured in a plane perpendicular to the side cutting edge
22 Single Point Cutting Tool Terminology-2D Ƴ B. S. Rake E.S. Relief E. S. Edge Nose mm.
23 Single Point Cutting Tool Terminology 3D
24 Cutting Tool Materials Carbon steels, High-speed steels Cast carbides, Cemented carbides, Coated carbides Cermets, Ceramic Tools Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride (PCBN) Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD) Properties of Cutting Tool Materials Harder than work piece. High toughness High thermal shock resistance Low adhesion to work piece material Low diffusivity to work piece material
25 Theory of Metal Cutting Metal cutting or machining is the process of producing a work piece by removing unwanted material from a block of metal, in the form of chips. This process is most important since almost all the products get their final shape and size by metal removal, either directly or indirectly. Figure (a) A cross-sectional view of the machining process, (b) tool with negative rake angle; compare with positive rake angle in (a).
26 The Mechanism of Cutting Cutting action involves shear deformation of work material to form a chip. As chip is removed, new surface is exposed Orthogonal Cutting - assumes that the cutting edge of the tool is set in a position that is perpendicular to the direction of relative work or tool motion. This allows us to deal with forces that act only in one plane. (a) A cross-sectional view of the machining process, (b) tool with negative rake angle; compare with positive rake angle in (a).
27 Orthogonal Cutting Mechanics of Orthogonal Cutting Ideal Orthogonal Cutting is when the cutting edge of the tool is straight and perpendicular to the direction of motion. During machining, the material is removed in form of chips, which are generated by shear deformation along a plane called the shear plane. The surface the chip flows across is called the face or rake face. The surface that forms the other boundary of the wedge is called the flank. The rake angle is the angle between the tool face and a line perpendicular to the cutting point of the work piece surface.
28 Mechanics of Orthogonal Cutting The relief or clearance angle is the angle between the tool flank and the newly formed surface of the work piece angle.
29 Mechanics of Orthogonal Cutting Orthogonal cutting model: t 1 = un deformed chip thickness t 2 = deformed chip thickness (usually t 2 > t 1 ) α = rake angle If we are using a lathe, t 1 is the feed per revolution.
30 The Mechanism of Cutting In turning, w = depth of cut and t 1 = feed
31 The Mechanism of Cutting Cutting force (Fc) is tangential and Thrust force is axial (Ft) Cutting forces in a turning operation
32 Mechanics of Orthogonal Cutting Chip thickness ratio (or) cutting ratio Cutting ratio r t t 1 2 where r = chip thickness ratio or cutting ratio; t 1 = thickness of the chip prior to chip formation; t 2 = chip thickness after separation Which one is more correct? r 1 r 1 Chip thickness after cut always greater than before, so chip ratio always less than 1.0
33 Mechanics of Orthogonal Cutting Shear Plane Angle Based on the geometric parameters of the orthogonal model, the shear plane angle ө can be determined as: tan r cos 1 r sin where r = chip thickness ratio or cutting ratio; = Rake angle ө = Shear angle
34 Mechanics of Orthogonal Cutting Shear Plane Angle Proof
35 Mechanics of Orthogonal Cutting Shear Strain in chip formation θ θ θ -α (a) chip formation depicted as a series of parallel plates sliding relative to each other, (b) one of the plates isolated to show shear strain, and (c) shear strain triangle used to derive strain equation.
36 Mechanics of Orthogonal Cutting Shear Strain in chip formation Shear strain in machining can be computed from the following equation, based on the preceding parallel plate model: = tan(θ - ) + cot θ where = shear strain θ = shear angle = rake angle of cutting tool
37 Mechanics of Orthogonal Cutting Shear Strain Proof From the shear strain triangle (image c slide 35) = AC/DB= (AD+DC)/DB = AD/DB + DC/DB AD/DB = Cot θ DC/DB = tan (θ - ) Therefore = Cot θ + tan (θ - ) = tan(θ - ) + cot θ
Metal Cutting (Machining) Metal cutting, commonly called machining, is the removal of unwanted portions from a block of material in the form of chips so as to obtain a finished product of desired size,
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