UNITYMAGNITUDE INPUT SHAPERS AND THEIR RELATION TO TIMEOPTIMAL CONTROL


 Georgia Hopkins
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Proceedings of the 1996 IFAC World Congress UNITYMAGNITUDE INPUT SHAPERS AND THEIR RELATION TO TIMEOPTIMAL CONTROL Lucy Y. Pao University of Colorado Boulder, CO William E. Singhose Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA 2139 Abstract: Input shaping reduces residual vibrations by convolving a sequence of impulses, an input shaper, with the desired system command. Using negative impulses in the shaper leads to faster maneuvers. Unfortunately, when negative input shapers are used, there is no guarantee that the shaped command will satisfy actuator limitations. A new type of negative input shaper is presented that satisfies actuator limits for a large class of unshaped commands. The performance of these input shapers is compared to the timeoptimal control and other types of input shapers. Keywords: Shaping Filters, Feedforward Compensation, PointtoPoint Control, Modeling Errors 1. INTRODUCTION Input shaping reduces residual vibrations in computer controlled machines. A sequence of impulses, an input shaper, is convolved with the desired system command to produce a shaped input. This process is demonstrated in Figure 1. The amplitudes and time locations of the impulses are determined by solving a set of equations. Many papers have been published on robust input shaping since its original presentation (Singer and Seering, 199). Methods for increasing the insensitivity to modeling errors have been presented (Singhose et al., 1994a; Singhose et al., 1995). Input shaping was shown to be effective for multiplemode systems (Hyde and Seering, 1991), as well as for systems equipped with constantforce actuators (Liu and Wie, 1992; Singh and Vadali, 1994; Singhose et al., 1996). Input shaping was used to improve the throughput of a silicon wafer handling robot (Rappole et al., 1994) and it has been proposed as a means of reducing residual vibrations of long reach manipulators (Magee and Book, 1995). Input shaping was also a major component of an experiment in flexible system control which flew on the Space Shuttle in March 1995 (Tuttle and Seering, 1995). Move time can be significantly reduced by allowing the input shaper to contain negative impulses (Singhose et al., 1994b). The equivalence of timeoptimal control and input shaping using special negative input shapers has been demonstrated (Pao and Singhose, 1995b). Others have developed negative input shapers using zero placement algorithms (Seth et al., 1993; Jones and Ulsoy, 1994; Tuttle 1..5 Unshaped Input * A 1 A 2 Input Shaper 1. Shaped Input A.5 1 Component Shaped A 2 Component Input Figure 1: The Input Shaping Process. and Seering, 1994; Magee and Book, 1995). Unfortunately, the negative input shapers presented thus far can lead to shaped commands that overcurrent the actuators. That is, the shaped commands have small periods when they require more current (torque) than the unshaped commands. This paper will first present a new type of negative shaper that can be used to shape a large class of inputs without causing overcurrenting. The new shapers are compared to other shaping methods. The properties that will be compared are move speed, robustness to modeling errors, and transient vibration amplitude. 2. UNITYMAGNITUDE INPUT SHAPERS The constraint equations used to design an input shaper always limit the amplitude of residual vibration. The constraints are based on a superposition of simple systems like the one shown in Figure 2. The constraint on vibration amplitude can be expressed as the ratio of residual vibration
2 u m 1 x 1 b k m 2 x 2 Figure 2: System with Flexible and Rigid Body Modes. amplitude with shaping to that without shaping. This percentage vibration can be determined by using the expression for residual vibration of a secondorder harmonic oscillator of frequency ω radians/sec and damping ratio ζ, which is given in (Bolz and Tuve, 1973). The vibration from a series of impulses is divided by the vibration from a single unitymagnitude impulse to get the percentage vibration: V(ω) = e ζωt n C 2 + S 2 (1) where, C = n i=1a i e ζωt i cos(ω d t i ) and S = n i=1a i e ζωt isin(ω d t i ). Ai and ti are the amplitudes and time locations of the impulses, n is the number of impulses in the input shaper, and ω d = ω 1 ζ 2. In addition to limiting vibration amplitude, robust shaping formulations require some amount of insensitivity to modeling errors. Insensitivity refers to the shaper s ability to reduce residual vibration in the presence of modeling errors. A shaper's insensitivity is displayed graphically by a sensitivity curve: a plot of vibration versus frequency, (Eq. 1 plotted as a function of ω). A sensitivity curve reveals how much residual vibration will exist when there is an error in the estimation of the system frequency. This paper describes three types of input shapers: Zero Vibration (ZV) shapers. These shapers satisfy Eq. 1 with V set equal to zero at the modeling frequency (Smith, 1958; Singer and Seering, 199). Zero Vibration and Derivative (ZVD) shapers. These satisfy the ZV constraints and the constraint that the derivatives of Eq. 1 with respect to ω and ζ be zero at the modeling frequency (Singer and Seering, 199). ExtraInsensitive (EI) shapers. These shapers satisfy Eq. 1 with V set equal to a small nonzero value. The insensitivity to modeling errors is then maximized (Singhose et al., 1994a; Singhose et al., 1995). The vibration reducing characteristics of the input shapers can be compared using sensitivity curves as shown in Figure 3. The ZV shaper is very sensitive to modeling errors; small errors in the modeling frequency lead to significant residual vibration. The ZVD shaper has considerably more insensitivity to modeling errors, which is evident by noting that the width of the ZVD curve is much larger than the width of the ZV curve. The additional insensitivity of the ZVD incurs a time penalty; the ZVD shaper is longer than the ZV shaper by one half period of the vibration. This means that a ZVD shaped command will be one half period of vibration longer than a ZV shaped Vibration Percentage ZV Shaper ZVD Shaper EI Shaper Normalized Frequency (ω actual /ω model ) Figure 3: Sensitivity Curves for the ZV, ZVD, and EI Input Shapers. command. The EI shaper is essentially the same length as the ZVD shaper, but it is considerably more insensitive. Robustness can be compared quantitatively by measuring the curve width at a specific level of vibration. For example, the 5% insensitivity is obtained by measuring the width at the level indicated by the dashed line in Figure 3. In addition to constraints on residual vibration and sensitivity to modeling errors, some type of constraint must be placed on the amplitudes of the impulses in the shaper. Requiring that the sum of the amplitudes equal one: n A i = 1 (2) i=1 ensures that the shaped command will reach the same final setpoint as the unshaped command. If no additional constraints are placed on the amplitudes, then when the constraint equations are solved while minimizing the length of the shaper, the impulse amplitudes will go to positive and negative infinity (Singer, 1989). The most common solution to this problem is to restrict the amplitudes to only positive values. This is an attractive solution because when an allpositive input shaper is convolved with any unshaped input, the actuator limitations are preserved. That is, if the unshaped command does not cause actuator limits to be exceeded, then neither will the shaped command. Although positive input shapers are wellbehaved, they move the system slower than shapers containing negative impulses. If the positive constraint is abandoned, another amplitude constraint must be used to limit the impulses to finite positive and negative values. A previously proposed constraint limits the partial sums of the impulse sequence to be less than one (Singhose et al., 1994b): p A j j=1 1, p = 1, 2,..., n. (3) When solving (1)(3) while minimizing the shaper length, the impulse amplitudes are such that the equality sign in (3) holds, giving impulse amplitudes of: A = [ ]. (4) When convolving this shaper with a step command whose amplitude is equal to the maximum acceleration level, the result of the convolution is a series of alternatingsign pulses which is equivalent to the timeoptimal control (Pao and Singhose, 1995b).
3 12 2 * OverCurrenting 2 OverCurrenting Figure 4: Shaping with Negative Shapers Can Lead to Overcurrenting. Unfortunately, most real inputs are not a single step in acceleration. Figure 4 shows that when a shaper of the form given in (4) is convolved with the acceleration command corresponding to a trapezoidal velocity profile there will be short periods of overcurrenting. The presence of the overcurrenting is tolerable for many applications because most systems have peak current capabilities that greatly exceed the steadystate levels. However, elimination of the overcurrenting altogether is desirable and has motivated the derivation of a new amplitude constraint. Velocity commands that consist of ramps and constants are very common. These correspond to acceleration commands that consist of step changes: u = u i (t) T i 1 < t < T i, i = 1, 2,...,r (5) where u i 1 (where we assume the actuator limits are at 1 and +1 for simplicity), T i is the time where the command transitions from u i to u i+1, and r is the number of step changes in the command. When commanding a flexible system, each transition causes vibration. If the magnitude change and timing of the transitions are carefully selected, there may be very little or no vibration at the end of the command. However, commands are usually specified independently of the flexibility in the system and input shapers can be used to reduce residual vibration. An input shaper shapes each of the transitions in (5) to reduce or eliminate residual vibration at the end of the command. Evaluating the shaping of the i th transition yield constraints that ensure that the shaped command does not violate actuator limits. Before the transition, u = u i where 1 u i 1; after the transition, u = u i+1, where 1 u i+1 1. If the shaper impulse amplitudes satisfy p 1 u i M i A j 1 u i, p = 1, 2,...,n (6) j=1 where M i = u i+1  u i, then the actuator limits will not be violated. When convolved with the shaper, the shaped command u s equals u i for t < t 1 (the time of the first impulse). At t 1, the shaped command u s becomes M i A 1 + u i and it is necessary to have 1 M i A 1 + u i 1 Command Figure 5: Shaping a BangBang Command with a UnityMagnitude Shaper. for actuator limits not to be exceeded. Similarly, at t 2, it is necessary to have 1 M i ( A 1 + A 2 )+ u i 1 etc. which leads to constraint (6). Constraint (6) assumes that the i th transition must be completely shaped before the (i+1) th transition is reached. This requires that the minimum length of time between transitions satisfy min( T i T i 1 ) > t n (7) i.e., the minimum time between transitions must be larger than the shaper length. If constraint (7) is not met, actuator limits may or may not be exceeded depending on the unshaped command and the shaper design. If (2), (6), and (7) are satisfied, then actuator limits will not be exceeded. For speed critical applications, bangbang acceleration commands are very common. These commands are a subset of the class of commands characterized in (5) with u i taking on only the values +1 or 1. M i is either +2 or 2 and constraint (6) simplifies to p A j 1, p = 1, 2,...,n. (8) j=1 When solving for the minimumtime input shapers satisfying (2) and (8), the impulse amplitudes are: A i = ( 1) i+1, i = 1,..,n (9) where n is odd. For example, if n = 5, then A = [ ]. (1) Note that a shaper meeting the amplitude constraint of (9) automatically satisfies (2). For bangbang acceleration commands, satisfaction of (2), (7), and (8) guarantee that actuator limits are not exceeded. Figure 5 shows the shaped command resulting from the convolution of a shaper satisfying (9) with a bangbang command. Condition (7) is easily satisfied for most real bangbang commands because shapers are generally about one period of vibration in length, but typical moves last longer than several periods of vibration. 2.1 UnityMagnitude ZV and ZVD Shapers Combining the amplitude constraint of (9) with the vibration constraint of (1), the impulse time locations of the
4 new negative unitymagnitude ZV shapers were solved for as a function of damping ratio for a onemode system as in Figure 2. To satisfy the ZV constraints there must be three impulses in the shaper. The solutions were obtained using GAMS (Brooke et al., 1988) a linear and nonlinear programming package. To eliminate the need for using an optimizer to calculate these shapers, curve fits to impulse time locations are provided in Table 1. To obtain a shaper for a system under consideration, substitute in the approximate frequency and damping ratio into the tabulated equations. ZV shapers do not work well for most applications because they are sensitive to modeling errors, as shown in Figure 3. To generate shapers that work on most real systems, sensitivity constraints like those outlined above must be added. To satisfy the ZVD constraints, the shaper must contain five impulses, i.e., its amplitudes will be given by (1). Table 1 gives the impulse time locations as a function of system frequency and damping ratio. Additional derivatives of (1) with respect to ω and ζ can be constrained to zero to further increase the insensitivity to modeling errors (Singer and Seering, 199). 2.2 UnityMagnitude EI Shapers Extrainsensitive constraints achieve significantly more insensitivity by relaxing the constraint of zero vibration at the damped modeling frequency. If the residual vibration at the modeling frequency, ω, is limited to some small value, V, instead of zero, and the zero vibration constraint is enforced at two frequencies, one higher than ω and the other lower than ω, then this set of constraints leads to input shapers that are essentially the same length in time as the ZVD shapers, but have more insensitivity. For a detailed discussion of these constraints see the references. Equations describing the EI shapers as a function of system frequency and damping are given in Table 1. The EI algorithm can be extended by requiring more than one hump in the sensitivity curve (Singhose et al., 1995). 3. COMPARISON WITH OTHER SHAPERS The timeoptimal control for resttorest motion of a rigid body is bangbang with the switch occurring at midmaneuver, as shown in Figure 6. The bangbang input can be interpreted as the convolution of a 3impulse sequence and a step input. Applying these bangbang control inputs to flexible structures can cause large amounts of both residual and movetime vibration. In this section, the negative shapers of the previous section are used to shape the timeoptimal rigidbody command to obtain shaped commands for flexible systems. Since the bangbang commands that are being shaped are the timeoptimal commands for a rigid body (RB), the commands generated by the negative shapers are denoted as, NEG ZVD RB, and. t 1 t 2 t 3 * Figure 6: Using Input Shaping to Form the  Optimal Control of a Rigid Body. t 2 t 3 When timeoptimal rigidbody commands are shaped with a positive shaper, the resulting commands are referred to as,, and POS EI RB (Pao and Singhose, 1995a). A major advantage of using positive input shapers is that they can be specified analytically in terms of the system parameters ω, ζ, and L, where L is the desired move distance. However, using the negative unitymagnitude shapers of the previous section will lead to faster maneuvers. And, given the information in Table 1, they are almost as easy to use. In this section, the tradeoffs between move duration, robustness to modeling errors, and vibration reduction are examined. The negative unitymagnitude shapers are compared to positive shapers, as well as to the timeoptimal commands subject to actuator constraints. The command that results from shaping the rigidbody bangbang command is not itself a bangbang signal. The shaped command has a variable amplitude that is not always equal to the maximum actuator limit; see Figure 5. For resttorest motion, Pontryagin's maximum principle states that the timeoptimal control consists of a series of alternating positive and negative pulses. That is, commands exist that are shorter in duration than the shaped commands, yet still meet the requirement of zero residual vibration. It has been shown that the timeoptimal commands satisfying the ZV, ZVD, and EI constraints are a series of bangbang pulses (Pao and Singhose, 1995b). The timeoptimal control can be generated with input shaping if the unshaped input is a step input whose magnitude is equal to the maximum actuator limit and the input shaper has the form: A [ i t i ] = [ 1 t t 3 t 4... t n 1 t n ]. (11) Because the timeoptimal shapers lead to constant amplitude pulse (CAP) commands, the timeoptimal shapers are denoted as ZV CAP, etc. There are no positive and negative versions of the timeoptimal shapers; they must contain negative impulses. Figure 7 shows the relative timeoptimality of the various shapers compared to the ZV CAP shaper, which is the timeoptimal command for resttorest motion of the system given only actuator constraints. The results shown are for shapers that guarantee no overcurrenting. That is, the results for the,, and NEG EI
5 % Increase in Move Duration % Increase in Move Duration Saved with Negative Shapers Damping Ratio, ζ Saved with Negative Shapers a) Move Distance, L b) Figure 7: Percentage Increase in Move Duration Over the ZV CAP Shaper. a) As a Function of Damping (L=1), b) As a Function of Move Distance (ζ=.4). RB shapers are only given for parameter values where the constraints (2), (7), and (8) are met. For the same robustness constraints (ZV or ZVD), the negative shapers lead to faster maneuvers than the corresponding positive shapers. The and the yield approximately the same maneuver times. Figure 8 presents 5% insensitivities of the various shapers relative to that for the ZV CAP. The 5% insensitivity is the width of the sensitivity curve at V=.5 and represents the frequency range over which the vibration would remain below 5%. Although the and cost somewhat (2 to 45%) in maneuver time, they offer a significant increase in robustness. Compared with the ZV CAP shaper, the and shapers exhibit increases of 3 to 45 percent in 5% insensitivity. For most parameter values, the 5% insensitivities for the are 1 to 3% greater than the. Thus, while the ZV CAP shaper leads to the fastest maneuvers given actuator limits, the and NEG ZVD RB lead to moderately longer maneuvers that are significantly more robust to modeling errors. Another quality to compare among the shapers is the amount of vibration during the move rather than just at the end of a maneuver. Decreasing vibration during the move can increase the lifetime of many systems and improve the trajectory following of the endpoint. The vibration during the move is defined as the mean of the magnitude of deviation of the flexible structure position from the position of a rigid body experiencing the same actuator force inputs; that is, the amount of additional motion the flexible structure has over a rigid body subject to the same forces. % Increase in 5% Insensitivity % Increase in 5% Insensitivity Damping Ratio, ζ a) Positive ZV RB Positive ZVD RB Negative ZV RB Negative ZVD RB Negative EI RB Move Distance, L b) Figure 8: Percentage Increase in 5% Insensitivity Over the ZV CAP Shaper. a) As a Function of Damping (L=1), b) As a Function of Move Distance (ζ=.4). For the onebendingmode model of a flexible structure as shown in Figure 2, the vibration during a maneuver is V m = 1 t n x t 2 (t) x 1 (t) dt (12) n where x 1 and x 2 are the positions of the masses in Figure 2. Figure 9 shows the amount of move vibration, Vm, for the various shapers. The negative ZV and ZVD shapers yield about 5 to 1% more move vibration than their positive shaper counterparts, and the performances of the NEG ZVD RB and shapers are again very close in terms of move vibration. In general, the ZVD RB is seen to be slower, more robust to parameter variations, and causes less vibration during moves than the other shapers. However, given the tradeoff of gains in robustness over loss in speed, the shaper gives the greatest increase in insensitivity and greatest decrease in move vibration for only a moderate increase in maneuver time. The and NEG ZVD RB shapers are 1 to 3% faster than the and shapers, respectively, while only degrading the insensitivity and move vibration by 2 to 1%. 4. CONCLUSIONS A new method of designing negative shapers has been proposed which will not cause actuator limits to be exceeded for a large class of commands. Various negative shapers using this method have been tabulated, evaluated and compared with other shaping strategies. Using the performance metrics of speed, insensitivity, and transient vibration, the new negative shaper designs give better overall performance than corresponding positive shapers.
6 t2 t3 t4 t5 t1 % Decrease in Move Vibration % Decrease in Move Vibration Damping Ratio, ζ a) Move Distance, L b) Figure 9: Percentage Decrease in Move Vibration Over the ZV CAP Shaper. a) As a Function of Damping (L=1), b) As a Function of Move Distance (ζ=.4). Table 1: UnityMagnitude Shapers ti = ( M + M 1 ζ + M 2 ζ 2 + M 3 ζ 3 )T, T = 2π ω Shaper A i t i M M 1 M 2 M 3 Unity 1 t 1 Magnitude 1 t ZV 1 t Unity 1 t 1 Magnitude 1 t ZVD 1 t t t Unity 1 t 1 Magnitude 1 t EI 1 t V=5% 1 t t Unity 1 t 1 Magnitude 1 t Hump EI 1 t V=5% 1 t t t t 7 5. REFERENCES Bolz, R. E. and Tuve, G. L., (1973). CRC Handbook of Tables for Applied Engineering Science, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc., pp Brooke, A., Kendrick, D. and Meeraus, A., (1988). GAMS: A User s Guide, Redwood City, CA: The Scientific Press. Hyde, J. M. and Seering, W. P., (1991). Inhibiting Multiple Mode Vibration in Controlled Flexible Systems, Proceedings of the American Control Conference, Boston, MA. Jones, S. D. and Ulsoy, A. G., (1994). Control Input Shaping for Coordinate Measuring Machines, Proceedings of the American Control Conference, Baltimore, MD, Vol. 3, pp Liu, Q. and Wie, B., (1992). Robust Optimal Control of Uncertain Flexible Spacecraft, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 15(3), pp Magee, D. P. and Book, W. J., (1995). Filtering Micro Manipulator Wrist Commands to Prevent Flexible Base Motion, American Control Conference, Seattle, WA. Pao, L. Y. and Singhose, W. E., (1995a). A Comparison of Constant and Variable Amplitude Command Shaping Techniques for Vibration Reduction, IEEE Conference on Control Applications, Albany, New York. Pao, L. Y. and Singhose, W. E., (1995b). On the Equivalence of Minimum Input Shaping with Traditional Optimal Control, IEEE Conference on Control Applications, Albany, NY, pp Rappole, B. W., Singer, N. C. and Seering, W. P., (1994). MultipleMode Impulse Shaping Sequences for Reducing Residual Vibrations, Proceedings of the ASME Mechanisms Conference, Minneapolis, MN. Seth, N., Rattan, K. S. and Brandstetter, R. W., (1993). Vibration Control of a Coordinate Measuring Machine, IEEE Conference on Control Applications, Dayton, OH, pp Singer, N. C., 1989, Residual Vibration Reduction in Computer Controlled Machines, MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab. Singer, N. C. and Seering, W. P., (199). Preshaping Command Inputs to Reduce System Vibration, ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, Vol. 112(March), pp Singh, T. and Vadali, S. R., (1994). Robust Optimal Control: A Frequency Domain Approach, AIAA Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics, Vol. 17(2), pp Singhose, W., Derezinski, S. and Singer, N., (1996). Extra Insensitive Input Shapers for Controlling Flexible Spacecraft, Accepted to the AIAA Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics. Singhose, W., Porter, L. and Singer, N., (1995). Vibration Reduction Using MultiHump ExtraInsensitive Input Shapers, American Control Conference, Seattle, WA, Vol. 5, pp Singhose, W., Seering, W. and Singer, N., (1994a). Residual Vibration Reduction Using Vector Diagrams to Generate Shaped Inputs, ASME Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 116(June), pp Singhose, W., Singer, N. and Seering, W., (1994b). Design and Implementation of Optimal Negative Input Shapers, International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, DSC 551, Chicago, IL, pp Smith, O. J. M., (1958). Feedback Control Systems, New York: McGrawHill Book Company, Inc., pp Tuttle, T. D. and Seering, W. P., (1994). A Zeroplacement Technique for Designing Shaped Inputs to Suppress Multiplemode Vibration, Proceedings of the American Control Conference, Baltimore, MD, Vol. 3, pp Tuttle, T. D. and Seering, W. P., (1995). Vibration Reduction in g Using Input Shaping on the MIT Middeck Active Control Experiment, Proceedings of the American Control Conference, Seattle, WA, Vol. 2, pp
Fundamentals of Servo Motion Control
Fundamentals of Servo Motion Control The fundamental concepts of servo motion control have not changed significantly in the last 50 years. The basic reasons for using servo systems in contrast to open
More informationMinimizing Input Filter Requirements In Military Power Supply Designs
Keywords Venable, frequency response analyzer, MILSTD461, input filter design, open loop gain, voltage feedback loop, ACDC, transfer function, feedback control loop, maximize attenuation output, impedance,
More informationProcidia Control Solutions Dead Time Compensation
APPLICATION DATA Procidia Control Solutions Dead Time Compensation AD353127 Rev 2 April 2012 This application data sheet describes dead time compensation methods. A configuration can be developed within
More informationCHAPTER 6 INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION
CHAPTER 6 INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION Broadly speaking, system identification is the art and science of using measurements obtained from a system to characterize the system. The characterization
More informationAppendix. RF Transient Simulator. Page 1
Appendix RF Transient Simulator Page 1 RF Transient/Convolution Simulation This simulator can be used to solve problems associated with circuit simulation, when the signal and waveforms involved are modulated
More informationHighspeed wavefront control using MEMS micromirrors T. G. Bifano and J. B. Stewart, Boston University [ ] Introduction
Highspeed wavefront control using MEMS micromirrors T. G. Bifano and J. B. Stewart, Boston University [589527] Introduction Various deformable mirrors for highspeed wavefront control have been demonstrated
More informationRotary Motion Servo Plant: SRV02. Rotary Experiment #02: Position Control. SRV02 Position Control using QuaRC. Student Manual
Rotary Motion Servo Plant: SRV02 Rotary Experiment #02: Position Control SRV02 Position Control using QuaRC Student Manual Table of Contents 1. INTRODUCTION...1 2. PREREQUISITES...1 3. OVERVIEW OF FILES...2
More informationSHAKER TABLE SEISMIC TESTING OF EQUIPMENT USING HISTORICAL STRONG MOTION DATA SCALED TO SATISFY A SHOCK RESPONSE SPECTRUM
SHAKER TABLE SEISMIC TESTING OF EQUIPMENT USING HISTORICAL STRONG MOTION DATA SCALED TO SATISFY A SHOCK RESPONSE SPECTRUM By Tom Irvine Email: tomirvine@aol.com May 6, 29. The purpose of this paper is
More informationResponse spectrum Time history Power Spectral Density, PSD
A description is given of one way to implement an earthquake test where the test severities are specified by time histories. The test is done by using a biaxial computer aided servohydraulic test rig.
More informationCLOCK AND DATA RECOVERY (CDR) circuits incorporating
IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLIDSTATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 39, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2004 1571 Brief Papers Analysis and Modeling of BangBang Clock and Data Recovery Circuits Jri Lee, Member, IEEE, Kenneth S. Kundert, and
More informationGLOSSARY OF TERMS FOR PROCESS CONTROL
Y1900SS1a 1 GLOSSARY OF TERMS FOR PROCESS CONTROL Accuracy Conformity of an indicated value to an accepted standard value, or true value. Accuracy, Reference A number or quantity which defines the limit
More informationLecture 9. Lab 16 System Identification (2 nd or 2 sessions) Lab 17 Proportional Control
246 Lecture 9 Coming week labs: Lab 16 System Identification (2 nd or 2 sessions) Lab 17 Proportional Control Today: Systems topics System identification (ala ME4232) Time domain Frequency domain Proportional
More informationA new method of designing MIL STD (et al) shock tests that meet specification and practical constraints. Biography. Abstract
A new method of designing MIL STD (et al) shock tests that meet specification and practical constraints Richard Lax  m+p international (UK) Ltd Biography The author has a degree in Electronic Engineering,
More informationThe e ect of actuator saturation on the performance of PDcontrolled servo systems
Mechatronics 9 (1999) 497±511 The e ect of actuator saturation on the performance of PDcontrolled servo systems Michael Goldfarb*, Taweedej Sirithanapipat Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vanderbilt
More informationExperiment 9. PID Controller
Experiment 9 PID Controller Objective:  To be familiar with PID controller.  Noting how changing PID controller parameter effect on system response. Theory: The basic function of a controller is to execute
More informationAdvanced Features of InfraTec Pyroelectric Detectors
1 Basics and Application of Variable Color Products The key element of InfraTec s variable color products is a silicon micro machined tunable narrow bandpass filter, which is fully integrated inside the
More informationModebased Frequency Response Function and Steady State Dynamics in LSDYNA
11 th International LSDYNA Users Conference Simulation (3) Modebased Frequency Response Function and Steady State Dynamics in LSDYNA Yun Huang 1, BorTsuen Wang 2 1 Livermore Software Technology Corporation
More informationSpecify Gain and Phase Margins on All Your Loops
Keywords Venable, frequency response analyzer, power supply, gain and phase margins, feedback loop, openloop gain, output capacitance, stability margins, oscillator, power electronics circuits, voltmeter,
More informationLECTURE FOUR Time Domain Analysis Transient and SteadyState Response Analysis
LECTURE FOUR Time Domain Analysis Transient and SteadyState Response Analysis 4.1 Transient Response and SteadyState Response The time response of a control system consists of two parts: the transient
More informationLoad Observer and Tuning Basics
Load Observer and Tuning Basics Feature Use & Benefits Mark Zessin Motion Solution Architect Rockwell Automation PUBLIC INFORMATION Rev 5058CO900E Questions Addressed Why is Motion System Tuning Necessary?
More informationDEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING BANGLADESH UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY EEE 402 : CONTROL SYSTEMS SESSIONAL
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING BANGLADESH UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY EEE 402 : CONTROL SYSTEMS SESSIONAL Experiment No. 1(a) : Modeling of physical systems and study of
More informationCHAPTER 5 The Parallel Resonant Converter
CHAPTER 5 The Parallel Resonant Converter T he objective of this chapter is to describe the operation of the parallel resonant converter in detail. The concepts developed in chapter 3 are used to derive
More informationSystem Inputs, Physical Modeling, and Time & Frequency Domains
System Inputs, Physical Modeling, and Time & Frequency Domains There are three topics that require more discussion at this point of our study. They are: Classification of System Inputs, Physical Modeling,
More informationIMPLEMENTATION OF NEURAL NETWORK IN ENERGY SAVING OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES WITH INDIRECT VECTOR CONTROL
IMPLEMENTATION OF NEURAL NETWORK IN ENERGY SAVING OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES WITH INDIRECT VECTOR CONTROL * A. K. Sharma, ** R. A. Gupta, and *** Laxmi Srivastava * Department of Electrical Engineering,
More informationMAGNETIC LEVITATION SUSPENSION CONTROL SYSTEM FOR REACTION WHEEL
IMPACT: International Journal of Research in Engineering & Technology (IMPACT: IJRET) ISSN 23218843 Vol. 1, Issue 4, Sep 2013, 16 Impact Journals MAGNETIC LEVITATION SUSPENSION CONTROL SYSTEM FOR REACTION
More informationA Novel Approach for the Characterization of FSK Low Probability of Intercept Radar Signals Via Application of the Reassignment Method
A Novel Approach for the Characterization of FSK Low Probability of Intercept Radar Signals Via Application of the Reassignment Method Daniel Stevens, Member, IEEE Sensor Data Exploitation Branch Air Force
More informationAppendix. Harmonic Balance Simulator. Page 1
Appendix Harmonic Balance Simulator Page 1 Harmonic Balance for Large Signal AC and Sparameter Simulation Harmonic Balance is a frequency domain analysis technique for simulating distortion in nonlinear
More informationAC : A CIRCUITS COURSE FOR MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING
AC 20102256: A CIRCUITS COURSE FOR MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING L. Brent Jenkins, Southern Polytechnic State University American Society for Engineering Education, 2010 Page 15.14.1 A Circuits Course for
More informationDesigning Better Industrial Robots with Adams Multibody Simulation Software
Designing Better Industrial Robots with Adams Multibody Simulation Software MSC Software: Designing Better Industrial Robots with Adams Multibody Simulation Software Introduction Industrial robots are
More informationand using the step routine on the closed loop system shows the step response to be less than the maximum allowed 20%.
Phase (deg); Magnitude (db) 385 Bode Diagrams 8 Gm = Inf, Pm=59.479 deg. (at 62.445 rad/sec) 6 4 22 46 81 1214 1618 11 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 and using the step routine on the closed loop system shows
More informationLab 1: Simulating Control Systems with Simulink and MATLAB
Lab 1: Simulating Control Systems with Simulink and MATLAB EE128: Feedback Control Systems Fall, 2006 1 Simulink Basics Simulink is a graphical tool that allows us to simulate feedback control systems.
More informationUpgrading from Stepper to Servo
Upgrading from Stepper to Servo Switching to Servos Provides Benefits, Here s How to Reduce the Cost and Challenges Byline: Scott Carlberg, Motion Product Marketing Manager, Yaskawa America, Inc. The customers
More informationCombo Hot Swap/Load Share Controller Allows the Use of Standard Power Modules in Redundant Power Systems
Combo Hot Swap/Load Share Controller Allows the Use of Standard Power Modules in Redundant Power Systems by Vladimir Ostrerov and David Soo Introduction High power, highreliability electronics systems
More informationNonlinear Control. Part III. Chapter 8
Chapter 8 237 Part III Chapter 8 Nonlinear Control The control methods investigated so far have all been based on linear feedback control. Recently, nonlinear control techniques related to One Cycle
More informationLab 4: Transmission Line
1 Introduction Lab 4: Transmission Line In this experiment we will study the properties of a wave propagating in a periodic medium. Usually this takes the form of an array of masses and springs of the
More informationThis chapter discusses the design issues related to the CDR architectures. The
Chapter 2 Clock and Data Recovery Architectures 2.1 Principle of Operation This chapter discusses the design issues related to the CDR architectures. The bangbang CDR architectures have recently found
More informationInternational Journal of Research in Advent Technology Available Online at:
OVERVIEW OF DIFFERENT APPROACHES OF PID CONTROLLER TUNING Manju Kurien 1, Alka Prayagkar 2, Vaishali Rajeshirke 3 1 IS Department 2 IE Department 3 EV DEpartment VES Polytechnic, Chembur,Mumbai 1 manjulibu@gmail.com
More informationDesign of ResistiveInput Class E Resonant Rectifiers for VariablePower Operation
14th IEEE Workshop on Control and Modeling for Power Electronics COMPEL '13), June 2013. Design of ResistiveInput Class E Resonant Rectifiers for VariablePower Operation Juan A. SantiagoGonzález, Khurram
More informationMETHODS TO IMPROVE DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF POWER FACTOR PREREGULATORS: AN OVERVIEW
METHODS TO IMPROE DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF POWER FACTOR PREREGULATORS: AN OERIEW G. Spiazzi*, P. Mattavelli**, L. Rossetto** *Dept. of Electronics and Informatics, **Dept. of Electrical Engineering University
More informationDesign of infinite impulse response (IIR) bandpass filter structure using particle swarm optimization
Standard Scientific Research and Essays Vol1 (1): 18, February 13 http://www.standresjournals.org/journals/ssre Research Article Design of infinite impulse response (IIR) bandpass filter structure using
More informationAnti Windup Implementation on Different PID Structures
Pertanika J. Sci. & Technol. 16 (1): 2330 (2008) SSN: 01287680 Universiti Putra Malaysia Press Anti Windup mplementation on Different PD Structures Farah Saleena Taip *1 and Ming T. Tham 2 1 Department
More informationEXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE ROLE OF STABILIZERS IN THE ENHANCEMENT OF AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE REGULATORS PERFORMANCE
Engineering Journal of Qatar University, Vol. 4, 1991, p. 91102. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE ROLE OF STABILIZERS IN THE ENHANCEMENT OF AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE REGULATORS PERFORMANCE K. I. Saleh* and M.
More informationbinary sensors and actuators (such as an on/off controller) are generally more reliable and less expensive
Process controls are necessary for designing safe and productive plants. A variety of process controls are used to manipulate processes, however the most simple and often most effective is the PID controller.
More informationCHAPTER 4. Techniques of Circuit Analysis
CHAPTER 4 Techniques of Circuit Analysis 4.1 Terminology Planar circuits those circuits that can be drawn on a plane with no crossing branches. Figure 4.1 (a) A planar circuit. (b) The same circuit redrawn
More informationFilling in the MIMO Matrix Part 2 Time Waveform Replication Tests Using Field Data
Filling in the MIMO Matrix Part 2 Time Waveform Replication Tests Using Field Data Marcos Underwood, Russ Ayres, and Tony Keller, Spectral Dynamics, Inc., San Jose, California There is currently quite
More informationDistance Relay Response to Transformer Energization: Problems and Solutions
1 Distance Relay Response to Transformer Energization: Problems and Solutions Joe Mooney, P.E. and Satish Samineni, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories Abstract Modern distance relays use various filtering
More informationDesign of FIR Filters
Design of FIR Filters Elena Punskaya wwwsigproc.eng.cam.ac.uk/~op205 Some material adapted from courses by Prof. Simon Godsill, Dr. Arnaud Doucet, Dr. Malcolm Macleod and Prof. Peter Rayner 1 FIR as a
More informationVishay Siliconix AN724 Designing A HighFrequency, SelfResonant Reset Forward DC/DC For Telecom Using Si9118/9 PWM/PSM Controller.
AN724 Designing A HighFrequency, SelfResonant Reset Forward DC/DC For Telecom Using Si9118/9 PWM/PSM Controller by Thong Huynh FEATURES Fixed Telecom Input Voltage Range: 30 V to 80 V 5V Output Voltage,
More informationNOISE FACTOR [or noise figure (NF) in decibels] is an
1330 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS I: REGULAR PAPERS, VOL. 51, NO. 7, JULY 2004 Noise Figure of Digital Communication Receivers Revisited Won Namgoong, Member, IEEE, and Jongrit Lerdworatawee,
More informationLecture 10. Lab next week: Agenda: Control design fundamentals. Proportional Control ProportionalIntegral Control
264 Lab next week: Lecture 10 Lab 17: Proportional Control Lab 18: ProportionalIntegral Control (1/2) Agenda: Control design fundamentals Objectives (Tracking, disturbance/noise rejection, robustness)
More informationLowLevel RF. S. Simrock, DESY. MAC mtg, May 05 Stefan Simrock DESY
LowLevel RF S. Simrock, DESY Outline Scope of LLRF System Work Breakdown for XFEL LLRF Design for the VUVFEL Cost, Personpower and Schedule RF Systems for XFEL RF Gun Injector 3rd harmonic cavity Main
More informationI1 19u 5V R11 1MEG IDC Q7 Q2N3904 Q2N3904. Figure 3.1 A scaled down 741 op amp used in this lab
Lab 3: 74 Op amp Purpose: The purpose of this laboratory is to become familiar with a two stage operational amplifier (op amp). Students will analyze the circuit manually and compare the results with SPICE.
More informationStability Issues of Smart Grid Transmission Line Switching
Preprints of the 19th World Congress The International Federation of Automatic Control Stability Issues of Smart Grid Transmission Line Switching Garng. M. Huang * W. Wang* Jun An** *Texas A&M University,
More informationDesign and Analysis of TwoPhase Boost DCDC Converter
Design and Analysis of TwoPhase Boost DCDC Converter Taufik Taufik, Tadeus Gunawan, Dale Dolan and Makbul Anwari Abstract Multiphasing of dcdc converters has been known to give technical and economical
More informationThe Discussion of this exercise covers the following points: Angular position control block diagram and fundamentals. Power amplifier 0.
Exercise 6 Motor Shaft Angular Position Control EXERCISE OBJECTIVE When you have completed this exercise, you will be able to associate the pulses generated by a position sensing incremental encoder with
More informationTRANSFORMS / WAVELETS
RANSFORMS / WAVELES ransform Analysis Signal processing using a transform analysis for calculations is a technique used to simplify or accelerate problem solution. For example, instead of dividing two
More informationDFT: Discrete Fourier Transform & Linear Signal Processing
DFT: Discrete Fourier Transform & Linear Signal Processing 2 nd Year Electronics Lab IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON Table of Contents Equipment... 2 Aims... 2 Objectives... 2 Recommended Textbooks... 3 Recommended
More informationCOGNITIVE Radio (CR) [1] has been widely studied. Tradeoff between Spoofing and Jamming a Cognitive Radio
Tradeoff between Spoofing and Jamming a Cognitive Radio Qihang Peng, Pamela C. Cosman, and Laurence B. Milstein School of Comm. and Info. Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of
More informationIntroduction to Servo Control & PID Tuning
Introduction to Servo Control & PID Tuning Presented to: Agenda Introduction to Servo Control Theory PID Algorithm Overview Tuning & General System Characterization Oscillation Characterization Feedforward
More informationSHOCK AND VIBRATION RESPONSE SPECTRA COURSE Unit 4. Random Vibration Characteristics. By Tom Irvine
SHOCK AND VIBRATION RESPONSE SPECTRA COURSE Unit 4. Random Vibration Characteristics By Tom Irvine Introduction Random Forcing Function and Response Consider a turbulent airflow passing over an aircraft
More informationSitespecific seismic hazard analysis
Sitespecific seismic hazard analysis ABSTRACT : R.K. McGuire 1 and G.R. Toro 2 1 President, Risk Engineering, Inc, Boulder, Colorado, USA 2 VicePresident, Risk Engineering, Inc, Acton, Massachusetts,
More informationExperiment 1 LRC Transients
Physics 263 Experiment 1 LRC Transients 1 Introduction In this experiment we will study the damped oscillations and other transient waveforms produced in a circuit containing an inductor, a capacitor,
More informationBJT AC Analysis CHAPTER OBJECTIVES 5.1 INTRODUCTION 5.2 AMPLIFICATION IN THE AC DOMAIN
BJT AC Analysis 5 CHAPTER OBJECTIVES Become familiar with the, hybrid, and hybrid p models for the BJT transistor. Learn to use the equivalent model to find the important ac parameters for an amplifier.
More informationTHE GROWTH of the portable electronics industry has
IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS LETTERS 1 A ConstantFrequency Method for Improving LightLoad Efficiency in Synchronous Buck Converters Michael D. Mulligan, Bill Broach, and Thomas H. Lee Abstract The lowvoltage
More informationA New Quadratic Boost Converter with PFC Applications
Proceedings of the th WSEAS International Conference on CICUITS, uliagmeni, Athens, Greece, July , 6 (pp38) A New Quadratic Boost Converter with PFC Applications DAN LASCU, MIHAELA LASCU, IOAN LIE, MIHAIL
More informationDegrees of Freedom in Adaptive Modulation: A Unified View
Degrees of Freedom in Adaptive Modulation: A Unified View Seong Taek Chung and Andrea Goldsmith Stanford University Wireless System Laboratory David Packard Building Stanford, CA, U.S.A. taek,andrea @systems.stanford.edu
More informationProceedings of the 5th WSEAS Int. Conf. on SIGNAL, SPEECH and IMAGE PROCESSING, Corfu, Greece, August 1719, 2005 (pp1721)
Ambiguity Function Computation Using OverSampled DFT Filter Banks ENNETH P. BENTZ The Aerospace Corporation 5049 Conference Center Dr. Chantilly, VA, USA 90245469 Abstract:  This paper will demonstrate
More informationINSTANTANEOUS POWER CONTROL OF DSTATCOM FOR ENHANCEMENT OF THE STEADYSTATE PERFORMANCE
INSTANTANEOUS POWER CONTROL OF DSTATCOM FOR ENHANCEMENT OF THE STEADYSTATE PERFORMANCE Ms. K. Kamaladevi 1, N. Mohan Murali Krishna 2 1 Asst. Professor, Department of EEE, 2 PG Scholar, Department of
More informationCHAPTER 2 CURRENT SOURCE INVERTER FOR IM CONTROL
9 CHAPTER 2 CURRENT SOURCE INVERTER FOR IM CONTROL 2.1 INTRODUCTION AC drives are mainly classified into direct and indirect converter drives. In direct converters (cycloconverters), the AC power is fed
More informationAgilent Time Domain Analysis Using a Network Analyzer
Agilent Time Domain Analysis Using a Network Analyzer Application Note 128712 0.0 0.045 0.6 0.035 Cable S(1,1) 0.4 0.2 Cable S(1,1) 0.025 0.015 0.005 0.0 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 Frequency (GHz) 0.005
More informationOvercurrent Protection / 7SJ45
Overcurrent Protection / SJ SIPROTEC easy SJ numerical overcurrent protection relay powered by CTs Fig. / Description SIPROTEC easy SJ numerical overcurrent protection relay powered by current transformers
More informationME scope Application Note 01 The FFT, Leakage, and Windowing
INTRODUCTION ME scope Application Note 01 The FFT, Leakage, and Windowing NOTE: The steps in this Application Note can be duplicated using any Package that includes the VES3600 Advanced Signal Processing
More informationExperiment 2 Effects of Filtering
Experiment 2 Effects of Filtering INTRODUCTION This experiment demonstrates the relationship between the time and frequency domains. A basic rule of thumb is that the wider the bandwidth allowed for the
More informationTCS3 SERVO SYSTEM: Proposed Design
UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII INSTITUTE FOR ASTRONOMY 2680 Woodlawn Dr. Honolulu, HI 96822 NASA Infrared Telescope Facility TCS3 SERVO SYSTEM: Proposed Design.......... Fred Keske June 7, 2004 Version 1.2 1 INTRODUCTION...
More informationANNA UNIVERSITY :: CHENNAI MODEL QUESTION PAPER(VSEMESTER) B.E. ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING EC334  CONTROL SYSTEMS
ANNA UNIVERSITY :: CHENNAI  600 025 MODEL QUESTION PAPER(VSEMESTER) B.E. ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING EC334  CONTROL SYSTEMS Time: 3hrs Max Marks: 100 Answer all Questions PART  A (10
More informationVibratory Feeder Bowl Analysis
The Journal of Undergraduate Research Volume 7 Journal of Undergraduate Research, Volume 7: 2009 Article 7 2009 Vibratory Feeder Bowl Analysis Chris Green South Dakota State University Jeff Kreul South
More informationModel Correlation of Dynamic Nonlinear Bearing Behavior in a Generator
Model Correlation of Dynamic Nonlinear Bearing Behavior in a Generator Dean Ford, Greg Holbrook, Steve Shields and Kevin Whitacre Delphi Automotive Systems, Energy & Chassis Systems Abstract Efforts to
More informationPROFFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE
SUMAN CHAKRAVORTY Aerospace Engineering email: schakrav@aero.tamu.edu Texas A& M University Phone: (979) 4580064 611 B, H. R. Bright Building, FAX: (979) 8456051 3141 TAMU, College Station Webpage: Chakravorty
More informationOptimal FIR filters Analysis using Matlab
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Information Technology VOL. 4, NO. 1, SEPTEMBER 2015, 82 86 Available online at: www.ijceit.org EISSN 24128856 (Online) Optimal FIR filters Analysis
More informationA Novel Control Method to Minimize Distortion in AC Inverters. Dennis Gyma
A Novel Control Method to Minimize Distortion in AC Inverters Dennis Gyma HewlettPackard Company 150 Green Pond Road Rockaway, NJ 07866 ABSTRACT In PWM AC inverters, the dutycycle modulator transfer
More informationA Candidate to Replace PID Control: SISO Constrained LQ Control 1
A Candidate to Replace PID Control: SISO Constrained LQ Control 1 James B. Rawlings Department of Chemical Engineering University of Wisconsin Madison Austin, Texas February 9, 24 1 This talk is based
More informationPractical Application of Wavelet to Power Quality Analysis. Norman Tse
Paper Title: Practical Application of Wavelet to Power Quality Analysis Author and Presenter: Norman Tse 1 Harmonics Frequency Estimation by Wavelet Transform (WT) Any harmonic signal can be described
More informationA study of Vibration Analysis for Gearbox Casing Using Finite Element Analysis
A study of Vibration Analysis for Gearbox Casing Using Finite Element Analysis M. Sofian D. Hazry K. Saifullah M. Tasyrif K.Salleh I.Ishak Autonomous System and Machine Vision Laboratory, School of Mechatronic,
More informationOverview of Code Excited Linear Predictive Coder
Overview of Code Excited Linear Predictive Coder Minal Mulye 1, Sonal Jagtap 2 1 PG Student, 2 Assistant Professor, Department of E&TC, Smt. Kashibai Navale College of Engg, Pune, India Abstract Advances
More informationRealtime digital signal recovery for a multipole lowpass transfer function system
Realtime digital signal recovery for a multipole lowpass transfer function system Jhinhwan Lee 1,a) 1 Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141, Korea
More informationRandomized Motion Planning for Groups of Nonholonomic Robots
Randomized Motion Planning for Groups of Nonholonomic Robots Christopher M Clark chrisc@sunvalleystanfordedu Stephen Rock rock@sunvalleystanfordedu Department of Aeronautics & Astronautics Stanford University
More informationCHAPTER 9 FEEDBACK. NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 91
CHAPTER 9 FEEDBACK Chapter Outline 9.1 The General Feedback Structure 9.2 Some Properties of Negative Feedback 9.3 The Four Basic Feedback Topologies 9.4 The Feedback Voltage Amplifier (SeriesShunt) 9.5
More informationCHOOSING THE RIGHT TYPE OF ACCELEROMETER
As with most engineering activities, choosing the right tool may have serious implications on the measurement results. The information below may help the readers make the proper accelerometer selection.
More informationBandPass SigmaDelta Modulator for wideband IF signals
BandPass SigmaDelta Modulator for wideband IF signals Luca Daniel (University of California, Berkeley) Marco Sabatini (STMicroelectronics Berkeley Labs) maintain the same advantages of BaseBand converters
More informationSystem on a Chip. Prof. Dr. Michael Kraft
System on a Chip Prof. Dr. Michael Kraft Lecture 4: Filters Filters General Theory Continuous Time Filters Background Filters are used to separate signals in the frequency domain, e.g. remove noise, tune
More informationOptimal PMU Placement in Power System Considering the Measurement Redundancy
Advance in Electronic and Electric Engineering. ISSN 22311297, Volume 4, Number 6 (2014), pp. 593598 Research India Publications http://www.ripublication.com/aeee.htm Optimal PMU Placement in Power System
More informationImpact of etch factor on characteristic impedance, crosstalk and board density
IMAPS 2012  San Diego, California, USA, 45th International Symposium on Microelectronics Impact of etch factor on characteristic impedance, crosstalk and board density Abdelghani Renbi, Arash Risseh,
More informationDesign of IIR HalfBand Filters with Arbitrary Flatness and Its Application to Filter Banks
Electronics and Communications in Japan, Part 3, Vol. 87, No. 1, 2004 Translated from Denshi Joho Tsushin Gakkai Ronbunshi, Vol. J86A, No. 2, February 2003, pp. 134 141 Design of IIR HalfBand Filters
More informationOptimized Process Performance Using the Paramount /Navigator Power Delivery/Match Solution
Optimized Process Performance Using the Paramount /Navigator Power Delivery/Match Solution Dan Carter, Advanced Energy Industries, Inc. Numerous challenges face designers and users of today s RF plasma
More informationCHAPTER 9 BRIDGES, STRAIN GAGES AND SOME VARIABLE IMPEDANCE TRANSDUCERS
CHPTE 9 BIDGES, STIN GGES ND SOME IBLE IMPEDNCE TNSDUCES Many transducers translate a change in the quantity you wish to measure into a change in impedance, i.e., resistance, capacitance or inductance.
More informationMotomatic Servo Control
Exercise 2 Motomatic Servo Control This exercise will take two weeks. You will work in teams of two. 2.0 Prelab Read through this exercise in the lab manual. Using Appendix B as a reference, create a block
More informationPower supplies are one of the last holdouts of true. The Purpose of Loop Gain DESIGNER SERIES
DESIGNER SERIES Power supplies are one of the last holdouts of true analog feedback in electronics. For various reasons, including cost, noise, protection, and speed, they have remained this way in the
More informationFind, read or write documentation which describes work of the control loop: Process Control Philosophy. Where the next information can be found:
1 Controller uning o implement continuous control we should assemble a control loop which consists of the process/object, controller, sensors and actuators. Information about the control loop Find, read
More informationWING rock is a highly nonlinear aerodynamic phenomenon,
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 6, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 1998 671 Suppression of Wing Rock of Slender Delta Wings Using a Single Neuron Controller Santosh V. Joshi, A. G. Sreenatha, and
More informationAnthony Chu. Basic Accelerometer types There are two classes of accelerometer in general: ACresponse DCresponse
Engineer s Circle Choosing the Right Type of Accelerometers Anthony Chu As with most engineering activities, choosing the right tool may have serious implications on the measurement results. The information
More information