Curs 3 Fizica sem. 2

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1 Curs 3 Fizica sem. 2

2 Tipuri de microscoape Instrument pentru obtinerea unor imagini marite cu o mare rezolutie a detaliilor. Microscoapele optice si electronice sunt cele mai utilizate Microscoape: acustice - utilizeaza ultrasunete de inalta frecventa Microscoapele cu efect tunel Microscoapele de forta, care formeaza imagini dupa felul probei de a resimti bombardamentele cu particule. Acestea pot mari de milioane de ori, pentru a reda un singur atom.

3 Clasificare in functie de tipul iluminarii microscop cu lumină artificială: microscop cu lumină polarizată microscop fluorescent microscop cu contrast de fază microscop de contrast prin interferenţă microscop cu lumină catodică microscop confocal cu laser (CLSM - Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope) microscop de contrast şi reflexie microscop cu imersie microscop-roentgen microscop electronic: microscop cu neutroni microscop cu unde ultrascurte

4 Microscopul simplu Microscop bazat pe principiul lupei ce foloseste o lentila cu convergenta mare si distanta focala foarte mica

5 Primul microscop

6 Microscop cu structura de baza din lemn

7 Microscop cu montura din metal si fildes

8 Microscop construit in intregime din lemn

9 Microscop cu reglare a claritatii prin fir metalic

10 Microscop portabil cu montura metalica si caseta de transport

11 Microscopul compus Sistem optic centrat format din obiectiv si ocular

12 Primul microscop alcatuit din mai multe lentile

13 Microscop din lemn cu suport tripod metalic

14 Microscop cu corpul din lemn

15 Microscop cu suport din metale pretioase

16 Microscop cu structura apropiata de cele moderne

17 Microscop portabil cu caseta de transport din lemn

18 Microscop modern

19

20 Euglena verde

21 Ameoba

22 Parameciul

23 Diatomee

24 Foita de ceapa

25 Alcatuirea microscopului

26

27 Caracteristicile optice ale aparatelor optice Mărirea transversală a unui aparat optic este dată de raportul: m = it o t unde i t este mărimea imaginii în direcţia perpendiculară pe axa optică, iar o t este mărimea obiectului în aceeaşi direcţie. Mărirea longitudinală sau axială este dată de raportul dintre mărimea imaginii şi obiectului în direcţia axei optice: m = i o l l

28 Caracteristicile optice ale aparatelor optice Puterea de mărire este raportul: P = unde 2 este unghiul sub care se vede prin aparatul optic un obiect, iar o t este mărimea obiectului în direcţie perpendiculară pe axa optică. Pentru unghiuri mici, relaţia precedentă se poate scrie şi sub forma: 2 p o t Grosismentul sau mărirea unghiulară este raportul: tg G = tg 2 1 unde α 2 este unghiul sub care se vede un obiect prin aparat, iar α 1 este unghiul sub care se vede obiectul când este privit direct cu ochiul. tg o 2 t

29 Caracteristicile optice ale aparatelor optice Pentru unghiuri mici se poate scrie: G 2 1 Dacă δ este distanţa de vedere optimă, la care este privit obiectul direct cu ochiul, atunci: = ot 1 Combinând relaţiile anterioare rezultă: G = P

30 Rezumat Puterea separatoare se referă la posibilitatea de a vedea prin instrument, ca distincte, două puncte obiect. Ea poate fi determinată fie prin inversul distanţei minime dintre două puncte obiect care mai dau imagini diferite, numită putere separatoare liniară (S l ), fie prin inversul unghiului minim dintre razele care vin de la două puncte obiect care se văd distinct, numită putere separatoare unghiulară (S u ) sau putere de rezoluţie (A). Câmpul optic al unui aparat este regiunea din spaţiu în care sunt conţinute puncte care pot fi văzute pentru o poziţie oarecare a aparatului. Există un câmp în adâncime şi un câmp în lărgime.

31 Fig1 Aparatul fotografic Aparatul fotografic are ca parte principală un sistem optic numit obiectiv fotografic care este un sistem de lentile, optic convergent, care formează imagini reale pe placa sau filmul aparatului fotografic (Fig.1). Să presupunem că pe obiectivul unui aparat de fotografiat cade o undă plană, provenită de la un izvor îndepărtat. Difracţia produsă de diafragmă va face ca la un punct obiect să corespundă inele circulare întunecate şi luminoase care înconjoară o pată luminoasă centrală (Fig.2). Fig 2 Deschiderea maximă a diafragmei este egală cu diametrul obiectivului.

32 Aparatul fotografic Raza primului inel întunecat corespunde unghiului φ dat de relaţia: sin = 1, 22 D unde D este diametrul obiectivului iar λ lungimea de undă a sursei Dacă r este raza primului inel întunecat atunci: r = f tg unde f este distanţa focală a obiectivului. Datorită faptului că φ este mic se poate scrie: r = 1, 22 f D

33 Aparatul fotografic Rayleigh a propus drept limită a rezolvării, acea situaţie pentru care primul inel întunecat al unei imagini de difracţie i 1 trece prin centrul luminos al celeilalte imagini de difracţie (Fig. 2). In această situaţie avem: = i sin = sin = 1, 22 D Deoarece α şi φ sunt mici, putem scrie 1 22 = =, D Puterea separatoare unghiulară (sau de rezoluţie) este cu atât mai mare cu cât diametrul obiectivului este mai mare şi λ mai mic. S n 1 1 = A= = 1, 22 D

34 Electron in, Electron out: Microscopy Techniques Brief discussion of Transmission/Reflection Electron Microscopy (TEM/REM) Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Scanning Probe Microscopy: Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

35 TEMElectron Microscopy: Electron Gun Non-scanning TEM, REMREM Transmission Electron Microscopy Electron Gun Reflection EM Sample is located BEFORE the magnetic lens, allowing the entire image to be collected at one time.

36 Electron Microscopy: Scanning SEM Scanning Electron Microscopy SEM, STEM STEM Scanning Transmission EM Electron Gun Electron Gun Sample is located AFTER the magnetic lens and the beam is scanned to obtain an image.

37 Scanning Electron Microscope Examples of SEM images SEM Optics: Gun, Lenses, Apertures, Scan Generator, Detector Mr. BUG! Electron Interactions: Secondary and Backscattered Electrons semguy.com/gfx/bobz1.jpg

38 Optical Image SEM Image SEM Images: Improved Depth of Focus screw From Brundle cells From Flegler Secondary electrons of SEM provide higher depth of

39 SEM: Optics #1 Electron gun produces beam of monochromatic electrons. First condenser lens forms beam and limits current ("coarse knob"). Condenser aperture eliminates high-angle electrons. Second condenser lens forms thinner, coherent beam ("fine knob" ). Objective aperture further eliminates high-angle electrons from beam. Phys Baski Microscopy Techniques Page 7

40 SEM: Optics #2 Beam "scanned" by deflection coils to form image. Final objective lens focuses beam onto specimen. Beam interacts with sample and outgoing electrons are detected. Detector counts electrons at given location and displays intensity. Process repeated until scan is finished (usu. 30 frames/sec). Phys Baski Microscopy Techniques Page 8

41 Bibliografie

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