LI.,..,,..,,.,.,, \\,'n,...,uvv.1 \ \ " EDITION. / THE IAI,."r» '»I.If1IfI1 1 ~r~" Editors. Springer-Verlag

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2 David Belforte Editors Morris Levitt / THE IAI,."r» '»I.If1IfI1 1 ~r~" II."U~ 1111,.... ""'~I/;II LI.,..,,..,,.,.,, \\,'n,.....,uvv.1 \ \ " EDITION With 106 illustrations Springer-Verlag tlew York Berlin tteidelberg London Paris Tokyo ttong Kong Barcelona Budapest

3 David Belforte Belforte Associates Sturbridge, MA USA Morris Levitt PennWell Publishing Westford, MA USA ISSN Printed on acid-free paper Springer-Verlag New York Inc. Softcover reprint of the hardcover I st edition 1992 All rights reserved. This work may not be translated or copied in whole or in part without the written permission of the publisher (Springer-Verlag, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010, USA), except for brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis. Use in connection with any form of information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed is forbidden. The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, etc., in this publication, even if the former are not especially identified, is not to be taken as a sign that such names, as understood by the Trade Marks and Merchandise Act, may accordingly be used freely by anyone. Production managed by Howard Ratner; manufacturing supervised by Robert Paella. Photocomposed copy prepared from the editors' XyWrite file using Ventura Publisher; camera-ready sections provided by the editors ISBN-13: DOl: / e-isbn-13:

4 Preface & acknowledgments In 1990, the editors of the Industrial Laser Annual Handbook celebrated 25 years of growth in this segment of laser technology. After completing the fifth edition of the handbook, the editors decided that the industry and technology had matured to the point where biennial publication would be more appropriate. Recognizing the spread of industrial technology beyond the major producing nations, the editors also decided to associate with a publisher with international standing in the fields of engineering and science. This edition ofthe renamed Industrial Laser Handbook, then, is the first in a continuing series of such handbooks to be published by Springer-Verlag on an every-other-year basis. Readers of the first five editions of the handbook will note that this new edition retains the same structure. Changes, while many, are mainly in production of the book and improvements in presentation. The economic review and technical forecast has been expanded to cover 1991 and the period Because of the length of this period, the editors have reduced the detailed analysis of the preceding year because this information is better placed in other, more frequently published, media. Section 1 has been overhauled to present new processing data, much of it in updated formats. It remains our intention that data presented is general enough to cover the most popular applications and materials for the widest readership. Wherever possible we have asked contributors to provide us with practical, rather than laboratory, process rate data. Section 2 reflects a change in editorial philosophy. After presenting the basics of industrial lasers, systems, and applications in the preceding five editions, the editors asked the editorial panel to submit articles for this section focused on the practical applications served by industrial lasers. We are indebted to our outstanding panel of experts, who have presented original articles for the continuing education of our readers. Section 3, the supplier directory, contains the industry's most comprehensive listing of international companies supplying laser goods and services. Readers of previous editions of the handbook tell us that this section is their most-used reference source. Section 4, related products, narrows the field of companies that support industrial lasers by identifying only those vendors that concentrate on this sector. Thus, as with past editions, and with editions to come, the handbook provides a constantly changing review of industrial laser technology. Intended to be a growing set of references, the handbook will continually add new reference information in a timely manner. The editors enjoy the invaluable assistance of a number of people who are necessary in compiling an international publication. We especially thank our associates at the Advanced Technology Group of Penn Well Publishing Co.: Linda Wright, publisher of Industrial Laser Review, who served as production liaison; Kathy Kincade, managing editor; Mary Williams, directory coordinator; and the graphic arts staff who provided us with professional support. We also thank the staff at our new publisher, Springer Verlag, for their patience and understanding during the transition. As always, we are indebted to our corporate sponsors in the industrial laser industry, whose support is vital to the preparation and publication of this handbook. David A. Belforte Morris Levitt

5 Contents Preface & acknowledgments v Economic review & technology trends 1 Section 1. Laser material processing data & guidelines 13 General processing 15 Laser welding 19 Laser cutting 21 Laser drilling 27 Laser cladding 28 Laser heat treating 28 Laser safety 29 Laser vs. nonlaser process comparisons 31 Section 2. Annual review of laser processing 37 Modeling of laser material processing 39 Dr. John C.lon Laser-beam quality and brightness in industrial applications 48 K.D. Hachfeld High-radiance near-infrared lasers for material processing 55 Ken Manes Physical mechanism and modeling of deep-penetration laser welding 67 Dieter Schuocker Potential and challenges in laser welding steel structures 74 Jens Klrestrup Kristensen Laser welding in the pipeline industry 81 V.E. Merchant Tailored welded blanks: A new alternative in automobile body design 89 J-c. Mombo-Caristan, V. Lobring, W. Prange, and A. Frings

6 viii Industrial Laser Handbook Pulsed welding with radio frequency-excited C02 lasers 103 Ole A. Sandven Laser material processing: Effects of polarization and cutting velocity 108 H.J. van Halewijn Drilling of aero-engine components: Experiences from the shop floor 113 Martien H.H. van Dijk Laser hardening of boring tools 119 Vladimir S. Kovalenko Laser hardening of chrome steels 121 Vladimir S. Kovalenko and Leonid F. Golovko Laser treatment of lead alloys for battery grid application 123 Narendra B. Dahotre, Mary Helen McCay, T. Dwayne McCay, and C. Michael Sharp Soviet development of laser equipment for commercial applications 132 G.A. Baranov and V.V. Khukharev Section 3. Company & product directory 139 Laser & system manufacturers 141 Specification chart 142 Directory 157 U.S. companies providing contract laser processing services 177 Specification chart 178 Directory 191 International companies providing contract laser processing services 206 Specification chart 207 Directory 227 Product specifications 245 CW gas lasers 246 Pulsed gas lasers 255 CW solid-state lasers 263 Pulsed solid-state lasers 269 Section 4. Related products & services 275 Suppliers of replacement parts and materials 277 Beam-delivery equipment 277 Beam-delivery fibers 277 Beam-focusing equipment 277 Beam-profiling instrumentation 277 Cooling equipment 277 Flashlamps for solid-state lasers 278 Gases 278 Industrial laser optics 279

7 Contents ix Laser rods for solid-state lasers 279 Positioning equipment 279 Power/energy meters 280 Repairs/service 280 Safety equipment 280 U sed laser sales 280 Subject index 281 Index to corporate sponsors 285

8 1992 International Editorial Board Gennady A. Baranov Scientific Industrial Amalgamation Electrofizika Leningrad USSR Dr. Narendra B. Dahotre University of Tennesse Space Institute APRG/CLA, MS 14 Tullanoma, TN USA Klaus Hachfeld Coherent General Inc. 1 Picker Rd. Sturbridge, MA USA H.V. Halewijn Drukker International Berersestraat SH Cuyck, The Netherlands Dr. John C. Ion Lappeenranta University of Technology PO Box 20 SF Lappeenranta, Finland Dr. Vladimir S. Kovalenko Kiev Poly technical Institute Laser Technology Laboratory Pr. Pobedy 37 Kiev Ukraine, USSR Jens Klrestrup Kristensen Danish Welding Institute Park Aile 345 DK-2605 Brondby, Denmark Ken Manes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory University of California PO Box 5508 Livermore, CA USA V.E. Merchant The Laser Institute th Ave. Edmonton, Alberta T6E 5J 1, Canada J-Charles Mombo-Caristan Thyssen Steel Technical Center 5151 Wesson Ave. Detroit, MI USA Dr. Ole Sandven 12 Canterbury Dr. Georgetown, MA USA Dr. Dieter Schuocker Institute for High Power Beam Technology Arsenal-Objekt 207 Franz Grill-Strasse 1 A-1030 Vienna, Austria Martien H.H. van Dijk Eldim bv PO Box ZG Arcen, The Netherlands

9 Technical Advisory Panel Dr. Charles Albright Ohio State University Columbus, OH, USA Dr. Y. Arata Welding Research Institute Osaka Univeristy Osaka, Japan Dr. Roger Ball General Systems Research Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Conrad Banas United Technologies Industrial Lasers S. Windsor, CT, USA Nie Bao-Cheng Shanghai Institute of Laser Technology Shanghai, China Dr. Mahmoud Eboo Quantum Laser Corp. Garden City Park, NY, USA Dr. Ing. G. Herziger Fraunhofer-Institut flir Lasertechnik Aachen,FRG Dr. Hiromichi Kawasumi Dept. of Precision Mechanical Engineering Chuo University Tokyo, Japan Dr. Edward Metzbower Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC, USA David M. Roessler General Motors Research Laboratories Warren, MI, USA Dr. Dieter Schuocker Technical University Vienna, Austria Dr. Gerd Sepold BIAS GmbH Bremen,FRG Prof. William Steen University of Liverpool Liverpool, UK Bernt Thorstensen Senter for Industriforskning Oslo, Norway Martien H.H. van Dijk Eldim bv Arcen, The Netherlands Dr. Thomas A. Znotins Lumonics Inc. Kanata, Ontario, Canada Dr. V.E. Merchant Laser Institute Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

10 Industry Advisory Panel Bernard Bruns Two-Six Inc. Saxonburg, P A, USA Jeff Carstens United Technologies Industrial Lasers S. Windsor, CT, USA Daniel Dechamps TrumpfInc. Farmington, CT, USA Terry Feeley HGG Laser Fare Ltd. Inc. Smithfield, RI, USA William G. Fredrick Laser Mechanisms Inc. Southfield, MI, USA Steven A. Llewellyn Lumonics Laser Systems Group Livonia, MI, USA Masahiro Nagasawa Technology Engineering & Marketing Co. Ltd. Tokyo, Japan Stanley L. Ream GEFanuc Charlottesville, V A, USA Dr. Glenn Sherman Laser Power Optics Corp. San Diego, CA, USA Samuel S. Simonsson Rofin Sinar GmbH Hamburg, FRG Donald Hoffman US Amada Buena Park, CA USA