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2 Maritime Logistics in the Age of the Northern Crusades Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Philosophischen Fakultät der Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel vorgelegt von Daniel Zwick Kiel Ein deutsch-dänisches Promotionsprojekt in Zusammenarbeit mit

3 Cover: A reproduction of a brass plaque from the 1420 s on Bishop Henry s sarcophagus in Nousis Church, Finland, commemorating the Swedish crusade against Finland under King Eric IX and the aforementioned bishop around 1150 (Bengtsson & Lovén 2012, fig. 7). Erstgutachter: Prof. Dr. Ulrich Wolf Müller Zweitgutachter: Prof. Dr. Jörn Staecker Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: Durch den zweiten Prodekan Prof. Dr. Elmar Eggert zum Druck genehmigt:

4 Supervision and external research collaborations Role Name Field of expertise Institution Ph.D. candidate Daniel Zwick M.A. B.A. Maritime Archaeology University of Kiel, Graduate School Human Developments in Landscapes (GSHDL) Principal supervisor Prof. Dr. Ulrich Müller Historical Archaeology University of Kiel, Institute of Pre- and Protohistoric Archaeology External cosupervisor Dr. Anton Englert* Maritime Archaeology Viking Ship Museum, Roskilde External cosupervisor Dr. Kurt VilladsJensen** Medieval History University of Southern Denmark, History Department, Odense *since Oct he is not affiliated with the museum anymore, but has agreed to continue his role as external cosupervisor. **in late 2014 he changed his affiliation to Stockholm University. Acknowledgements I am most indebted to my external co-supervisor Anton Englert, whose support was indefatigable and who contributed with countless insights, thoughtprovoking impulses and constructive criticism to this work. His eye for details has on many occasions triggered a new thought-process in me whereby I came to question things that I thought were set in stone. I learnt much whenever I was proven wrong and I came to appreciate to be proven wrong, as this gave me ample opportunity to hone my analytical skills. Anton s role cannot be over-emphasised enough, as I could always rely on his good judgement and support in difficult situations and a hearty welcome whenever I was on a research visit in Roskilde. At this occasion I would also like to extend my gratitude to other staff members of the Viking Ship Museum (Roskilde) for the welcoming and friendly work atmosphere and for allowing me to join the bådelaug to sail on the Viking ship reconstructions in the late afternoons after having worked in the knowledge mines of the museum s library. I thank my principal supervisor Ulrich Müller for presenting me with the option to submit my thesis cumulatively. This option was hitherto mainly practised in the Natural Sciences but still considered a pioneering path in the Humanities. This emergency cable to pull myself out of the drift-sands came at the right time, when I went into all possible directions with my publications, but not towards the finishing line. Despite its somewhat chaotic genesis, the various strands bundled together in this cumulative thesis are proof that the particularistic themes as a reflection of a generously interpreted academic freedom on my side are interconnected after all. I am also very grateful to my other external cosupervisor Kurt Villads Jensen s feedback on some sections with a historical focus, for his recommendations on literature and for making available manuscripts prior to publication. Particularly Damian Goodburn the ancient timber specialist of my former employer, the Museum of London Archaeology Service provided very detailed advice on my drafts for paper C and D. Damian also honoured us with a visit, presenting a paper at the GSHDL s bi-weekly colloquium on how ship-finds and timber structures can help us to reconstruct ancient extinct wooded landscapes. Thus he demonstrated an important intersection between Maritime Archaeology and the general landscapes theme of my Graduate School. I am indebted to Johan Rönnby for making available samples from the Kuggmaren wrecksite, and to Wiebke Kierleis and Helmut Kroll for their guidance in analysing the samples. I am indebted to Maili Roio for making available an unpublished catalogue of finds and for sending dendro samples of the Matsalu and Lootsi wrecksites to Aoife Daly, who was commissioned by this author with their analysis. Aoife s work as such was of central importance in many respects, and she kindly provided elucidations when necessary. For correspondence and kind exchange of ideas, information, unpublished or hard-to-get publications I wish to thank Jon Adams, Jan Bill, Aoife Daly, Jens Auer, Dieter Bishop, Anton Englert, Mikael Fredholm, Rolf Hammel-Kiesow, Kristof Haneca, Dieter Heckmann, Christina Link, Carsten Jahnke, Juhan Kreem, Jens Lindström, José Manuel Matés Luque, Thijs Maarleveld, Marika Mägi, Oliver Nelle, Kim Schou Nørøxe, Waldemar Ossowski, Alice Overmeer, Reinhard Paulsen, Johan Rönnby, Jürgen Sarnowsky, Albrecht Sauer, Mikel Soberón, Katrin

5 Thier, Mikkel Thomsen, Vello Mäss, Per Kristian Madsen, Peter Marsden, Gustav Milne, Stuart Jenks, Staffan van Arbin, Jeroen Vermeersch, Stefan Wessmann, Christer Westerdahl and Maris Zunde. This list is probably not complete and thus I would like to extend my apologies to individuals who I may have forgotten to mention. For the opportunity to get involved in an orlop-deck survey on Vasa (1628) during my time as Ph.D. student I wish to thank Fred Hocker. Although not factually related to the topic of my thesis, this gave me the opportunity to hone my recording skills and appreciation of the complexities of shipbuilding. On the basis of a rigorous critique of a first draft, Fred (now within the capacity of the 2nd examiner) recommended a thorough revision of the first draft, which lead to the current version, resubmitted in March Although this can be perceived as a setback, this author appreciates the instance of a hard quality control hurdle within a section of the humanities' academic culture, where the "anything goes" mentality is seemingly spinning out of control. Although exasperating at the time, this gave the author a chance to rethink some earlier assumptions and to construct arguments and hypotheses in a more rigorous manner, which added to the overall benefit of this work considerably. During my doctoral years I took part in numerous activities like fieldschools, underwater surveys and excavations, workshops and conferences. In 2010 I had the opportunity to present a paper at the Gentes trans Albiam conference in Toronto, Canada, organised by Sunhild Kleingärtner and Sébastian Rossignol. I am grateful for having been invited to the International Workshop on Underwater Archaeology in Gdańsk 2010 by Waldemar Ossowski and Iwona Pomian, to the Bologna Summer School by Massimo Capulli in 2011, twice to the Baltic Workshop for PhD Researchers in Maritime Archaeology in Stockholm and Helsinki, 2010 and 2011 respectively, organised by Johan Rönnby, Niklas Erikson, Kristin Ilves, Riikka Alvik and Minna Leino. I am also grateful for having had the opportunity to participate in the underwater excavation of the Hedvig Sophia in 2010, organised by Jens Auer, Sunhild Kleingärtner, Thijs Maarleveld and Martin Segschneider, and an underwater survey of the harbour barrier in Flensburg in 2011, organised by Ruth Blankenfeldt, Erich Halbwidl and Martin Segschneider. I am particularly grateful for having been invited to the Hanseatic Trade in the North Atlantic conference 2013 in Avaldsnes, Norway, organised by Endre Elvestad, Natascha Mehler, Arnfrid Opedal, Mark Gardiner, Rolf Hammel- Kiesow and Claus von Carnap-Bornheim, which gave me the opportunity to set my Beluga Ship excavated in Bremen 2007 into the wider context of other clinker-built shipwrecks. In October 2014 I also acquired a certificate as Scientific Diver. I am particularly indebted to Roland Friedrich a lieutenant commander of the German Navy as our kind, principled and committed training officer, ably assisted by Fabian Schuster. The training was hard but hearty, and my fellow divers made this a great overall experience. More often than not, the task of writing a doctoral thesis was a strain on social life. The only time where I could truly escape were the hours spent sailing with my firåring Skíðblaðnir, which was even converted into a research vessel for a sailing expedition into the Stockholm Archipelago in 2010, where I followed a leg of a 13 th -century route description King Valdemar s Itinerary (section 3.3) with my brother Tobias Zwick and Alexis McEntyre. My student years were enriched by all the nice people who joined my crew on the weekends and the annual Rum-Regatta in Flensburg. Last not least, I would like to thank my parents Wolfgang and Gisela Zwick for their indefatigable encouragement and continued support during all these years in which I chose the uncertain, stony and hazardous path of pursuing a career in the Humanities. Words cannot describe my gratitude and I therefore wish to dedicate this work... to my parents Wolfgang & Gisela Zwick

6 List of papers This is in part a cumulative and monograpic doctoral dissertation. The cumulative part is based on the following papers published by this author during the doctoral years. The facsimile or manuscript version of the respective papers are included in the appendix. A B C D E ZWICK 2013: D. Zwick, Dynamics for Cultural Change in the Baltic Sea Region in the Age of the Northern Crusades a maritime archaeological S. Kleingärtner, S. Rossignol, D. Wehner (eds) Landscapes and Societies in Medieval Europe East of the Elbe / Papers in Mediaeval Studies 23, Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, pp ZWICK 2014: D. Zwick, Conceptual Evolution in Ancient Shipbuilding: An Attempt to Reinvigorate a Shunned Theoretical Framework. In: J. Adams, J. Rönnby (eds.), Interpreting Shipwrecks: Maritime Archaeology Approaches / Southampton Monographs in Archaeology - New Series 4. Southampton: Highfield Press, pp ZWICK forthcoming: D. Zwick, A 15th-century shipwreck with Scandinavian features from Bremen, Germany. In: B. van Tilburg (ed.) Ships and Maritime Landscapes / 13th International Symposium on Boat and Ship Archaeology. Amsterdam. Groningen: Barkhuis. ZWICK forthcoming: D. Zwick, Interpreting a Scandinavian-built shipwreck from Bremen in the context of late medieval clinker constructions and northern European timber trade. In: E. Elvestad, M. Gardiner, N. Mehler, (eds.), German Trade in the North Atlantic : Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Arkeologisk museum Stavanger Skrifter. Stavanger. ZWICK 2016: D. Zwick, Bayonese cogs, Genoese carracks, English dromons and Iberian carvels: Tracing technology transfer in late medieval Atlantic shipbuilding. In: Itsas Memoria. Revista de Estudios Marítimos del País Vasco 8. Donostia/San Sebastián : Untzi Museoa/Museo Naval, pp