1 Basic Electronics: Diodes and Transistors Eşref Eşkinat E October 14, 2005 ME 435
2 Electric lectricity ity to Electronic lectronics Electric circuits are connections of conductive wires and other devices whereby the uniform flow of electrons occurs. Electronic circuits add a new dimension to electric circuits in that some means of control is exerted over the flow of electrons by another electrical signal, either a flow of electrons by another electrical signal, either a voltage or a current. Electronics technology experienced a revolution in 1948 with the invention of the transistor. Transistors control the flow of electrons through solid semiconductor substances. T solid-state state electronics.. Transistor technology is often referred to as
3 Active versus passive devices Active versus passive devices An active device is any type of circuit component with the ability to electrically control electron flow (electricity controlling electricity). In order for a circuit to be properly called electronic,, it must contain at least one active device. Components incapable of controlling current by means of another electrical signal are called passive devices. Resistors, capacitors, inductors, transformers, and even diodes are all passive devices. Active devices include, vacuum tubes, transistors, silicon-controlled rectifiers ( controlled rectifiers (SCRs SCRs), and TRIAC s
4 Amplifiers The practical benefit of active devices is their amplifying ability. An n active device allows a small amount of electricity to control a large amount of electricity. Devices utilizing a voltage as the controlling signal are called voltage- controlled devices. Devices working on the principle of one current controlling another current are known as current-controlled controlled devices.
5 Semiconductors Semiconductors have had a monumental impact. You find semiconductors at the heart of microprocessor chips as well as transistors. Anything that's computerized or uses radio waves depends on semiconductors. Today, most semiconductor chips and transistors are created with silicon.. You may have heard expressions like "Silicon Valley" and the "silicon economy," and that's why -- silicon is the heart of any electronic device. Clockwise from top: A chip, an LED and a transistor are all made from semiconductor material.
6 Understanding Silicon Understanding Silicon Silicon is a very common element.. It I t is the main element in sand. Silicon ilicon" " in the periodic table, is next to Aluminum luminum,, below carbon and above germanium. Carbon, silicon and germanium have a unique property in their electron structure -- each has four electrons in its outer orbital.. This allows them to form nice crystals. The four electrons form perfect covalent bonds with four neighboring atoms, creating a lattice.. In carbon, we know the crystalline form as diamond. In silicon, the crystalline form is a silvery, metallic- looking substance. Metals tend to be good conductors of electricity because they usually have "free electrons" that can move easily between atoms, and electricity involves the flow of electrons. All of the outer electrons in a silicon crystal are involved in perfect covalent bonds,, so they can't move around. A pure silicon crystal is nearly an insulator
7 Doping Silicon Doping Silicon You can change the behavior of silicon and turn it into a conductor by doping an impurity into the silicon crystal. N-type - In N-type N doping, phosphorus or arsenic is added to the silicon in small quantities. Phosphorus and arsenic each have five outer electrons. The fifth electron has nothing to bond to, so it's free to move around. N-type N silicon is a good conductor. Electrons have a negative charge, hence the name N-type. doping it. In doping, you mix a small amount of P-type - In P-type P doping, boron or gallium is the dopant. Boron and gallium each have only three outer electrons. When mixed into the silicon lattice, they form "holes" in the lattice where a silicon electron has nothing to bond to. The absence of an electron creates the effect of a positive charge, hence the name P-type. P Holes can conduct current. A hole accepts an electron from a neighbor, moving the hole over a space. P-type P silicon is a good conductor. N-type and P-type P silicon are not that amazing by themselves; but when you put them together, you get some very interesting behavior at the junction.
8 P-N N Junction The free electrons in the N-type silicon are repelled by the negative terminal of the battery. The holes in the P-type silicon are repelled by the positive terminal. At the junction between the N-type and P- type silicon, holes and free electrons meet. The electrons fill the holes. Those holes and free electrons cease to exist, and new holes and electrons spring up to take their place. The effect is that current flows through the junction. The negative electrons in the N-type silicon get attracted to the positive terminal of the battery. The positive holes in the P-type silicon get attracted to the negative terminal of the battery. No current flows across the junction because the holes and the electrons are each moving in the wrong direction.
9 Junction Diodes Junction Diodes A PN junction passes current only in one direction. A diode is an electrical device allowing current to move through it in one direction with far greater ease than in the other.
10 Diode Operation Diode Operation When the diode is forward- biased and conducting current, there is a small voltage dropped across it, leaving most of the battery voltage dropped across the lamp. When the battery's polarity is reversed and the diode becomes reverse- biased, it drops all of the battery's voltage and leaves none for the lamp.
11 Diode Characteristic Curve Diode Characteristic Curve A real diode requires about 0.7 V to enable significant current flow.
12 Review A diode is an electrical component acting as a one-way valve for current. When voltage is applied across a diode in such a way that the diode allows current, the diode is said to be forward forward-biased biased. When voltage is applied across a diode in such a way that the diode prohibits current, the diode is said to be reverse-biased biased. The voltage dropped across a conducting, forward-biased diode is called the forward voltage.. Forward voltage for a diode varies only slightly for changes in forward current and temperature, and is fixed principally by the chemical composition of the P-N P junction. Silicon diodes have a forward voltage of approximately 0.7 volts
13 Half Wave Rectifier Circuit Half Wave Rectifier Circuit Application : Light dimming When V i is positive, diode is reverse biased and is equivalent to open circuit. Therefore V 0 =V i. When Vi is negative, diode is forward biased and is equivalent to short circuit. Therefore V 0 =0 V.
14 Full Wave Rectifier Full Wave Rectifier If we need to rectify AC power so as to obtain the full use of both half-cycles of the sine wave, a different rectifier circuit configuration must be used. Such a circuit is called a full-wave rectifier.
15 Full rectifier Full rectifier
16 Inductive Kick Inductive Kick The switch attempts to change the current instantaneously. Inductors generate voltage to oppose current changes. The diode allows the voltage to dissipate through the resistor.
17 without Flyback diode Flyback diode with
18 Peak Detector Peak Detector When a time varying signal V in is applied at the input, the output V out retains the maximum positive value of the input signal. In the actual circuit there is some decrease of Vout in time because of the capacitor leakage.
19 Zener Diodes Zener Diodes When a diode is reverse biased with large voltage, it allows a large reverse current to flow : Breakdown. Special diodes with well defined breakdown voltages maintain constant voltage over a wide range of currents. They are Zener diodes and used as voltage regulators. Zener diode should be reverse biased with a voltage in excess of its zener voltage V z. Typically : V z = V.
20 Zener Diode as Voltage regulator Zener Diode as Voltage regulator In the above circuit, output voltage of the source, V z, is kept relatively constant, because of the breakdown characteristic of the Zener diode. Zener diodes are often rated by their power dissipation, which is: P Zmax = i Zmax V Z
22 LED (Light Emitting Diodes) LED (Light Emitting Diodes) While all diodes release light, most don't do it very effectively. In an ordinary diode, the semiconductor material itself ends up absorbing a lot of the light energy. LEDs are specially constructed to release a large number of photons outward. of photons outward. LED LED s form the numbers on digital clocks,, transmit information from remote controls,, light up watches and tell you when your appliances are turned on. Collected together, they can form images on a jumbo television screen or illuminate a traffic light.
23 Diode Video Diode Video
24 Transistors and Chips Transistors and Chips A transistor is created by using three layers rather than the two layers used in a diode. You can create either an NPN or a PNP sandwich. A transistor can act as a switch or an amplifier you apply a small current to the center layer of the sandwich, a much larger current can flow through the sandwich as a whole. This gives a transistor its switching behavior. A small current A transistor can act as a switch or an amplifier. When can turn a larger current on and off. A silicon chip is a piece of silicon that can hold thousands of transistors. With transistors acting as switches, you can create Boolean gates,, and with Boolean gates you can create microprocessor chips. The natural progression from silicon to doped silicon to transistors to chips is what has made microprocessors and other electronic devices so inexpensive. The fundamental principles are surprisingly simple. Today oday,, tens of millions of transistors can be inexpensively formed onto a single chip.
25 Transistors Transistors consist of multiple layers of Transistors consist of multiple layers of n- and p- silicon, examples are npn configuration or a pnp configuration in the bipolar junction transistor (BJT). A small amount of current introduced at the base (center) of the transistor will cause the overall device to be forward biased and allow current rent to flow from collector to emitter October 14, 2005 ME 435
27 BJT Transistor (NPN) BJT Transistor (NPN) I E =I C +I B V BE = V B -V E V CE = V C -V E V C > V B > V E I C = β I B Typically β 100.
31 Characteristics of a common emitter Characteristics of a common emitter NPN BJT Cutoff : V BE < 0.7 V, i B =0 i C 0, V CE > 0. Active : V BE = 0.7 V i C =βi B, V CE > 0.7 V Saturation : i B >i C /β and V BE = 0.7 V V CE = V SAT = 0.2 V.
32 Power dissipation in Transistors Power dissipation in Transistors
33 The common emitter transistor circuit for a npn transistor. The transistor is forward biased when the base-to to-emitter voltage is V. When designing a transistor switch, the transistor must be in saturation when it is on (otherwise it will heat up and might fail) For BJT s,, the V CE at saturation is about 0.2V.2V. I C R C I B + - V BE - + V CE
34 Guaranteeing that the transistor is in saturation Guaranteeing that the transistor is in saturation Given a typical signal transistor, 2N3904 specifications : Max. collector current, I C (max) = 200mA, V CE at saturation = 0.2V, β= 100 Find the necessary input voltage to ensure saturation: Since V CE is 0.2 V, I C =10-0.2/10kΩ = 9.8 ma. Thus, the base current must be at least 9.8/β or ma and I B =(Vin-.7)/10kΏ : Vin = = 1.68 V. Remember these guidelines for a transistor switch: The base-to-emitter voltage must be 0.7 V to be on. Maximum values of I C, I B and V CE must be observed and maintained. There must be sufficient base current to ensure saturation (I B > I C /β, and V CE = 0.2 V)) Collector current is independent of base current at saturation.
35 This is a very poor amplifier. Clips the negative values of I B
36 We shall not study amplifiers in this course. We shall not study amplifiers in this course.
37 Darlington Pair Darlington Pair
38 And Gate And Gate
39 OR gate OR gate
40 FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS n Three terminals : Gate, Drain, Source. BJT is current controlled amplifier, FET is voltage (V D ) controlled. i D ~ V G FET s have very high input impedance, therefore : I G = 0. This simplifies circuit design FET s require less operating power compared to BJT. Have better high frequency characteristics than BJT : up to 200kHz. However, they are sensitice to static electricity. Therefore, elctrical insulation is very important for FET s.
41 JFET s With no voltage applied between gate and source, the channel is an a open path for electrons to flow If f a voltage is applied between gate and source of such polarity that it reverse- biases the PN junction, the flow between source and drain connections becomes limited. This behavior is due to the depletion region of the PN junction. This action may be likened to reducing the flow of a liquid through a flexible hose by squeezing it: with enough force, the hose will be constricted enough to completely block the flow.
42 Behavior of FET s Saturation Cutoff : V GS < V T, i G =0 i C 0, V DS V DD. V T = 1-2 V. Active (Ohmic Region) : V GS > V T i D ~ (V GS -V T ) 2, V DS > V GS -V T Saturation : V GS >> V T i D = V DD /R D : constant V DS i D R ON V GS
43 I o 10mA 5mA MOSFET Characteristics MOSFET Characteristics V GS = 5V 4V 3V 2V V os V GS = 5V 30V 150 µa 4V R os = 1/g m I o 100 µa 3V 50 µa 2V V os (V)
44 Applications of MOSFET s When V G -V T V DD, the mosfet enters into saturation, resulting nearly full voltage V DD across the load (R on is small). If the load is inductive, a flyback diode is necessary to prevent damage to the mosfet, when switched off. Mosfet power switch circuit.
Diodes: What do we use diodes for? Lecture 5: Diodes and Transistors protect circuits by limiting the voltage (clipping and clamping) turn AC into DC (voltage rectifier) voltage multipliers (e.g. double
PHYS 3050 Electronics I Chapter 4. Semiconductor Diodes and Transistors Earth, Moon, Mars, and Beyond Dr. Jinjun Shan, Associate Professor of Space Engineering Department of Earth and Space Science and
Lecture 3: Transistors Now that we know about diodes, let s put two of them together, as follows: collector base emitter n p n moderately doped lightly doped, and very thin heavily doped At first glance,
Lesson 5 Electronics: Semiconductors Doping p-n Junction Diode Half Wave and Full Wave Rectification Introduction to Transistors- Types and Connections Semiconductors Semiconductors If there are many free
UNIT-I FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR 1. Explain about the Field Effect Transistor and also mention types of FET s. The Field Effect Transistor, or simply FET however, uses the voltage that is applied to their
Mechatronics and Measurement Lecturer:Dung-An Wang Lecture 2 Lecture outline Reading:Ch3 of text Today s lecture Semiconductor 2 Diode 3 4 Zener diode Voltage-regulator diodes. This family of diodes exhibits
Mathematics and Science in Schools in Sub-Saharan Africa SEMICONDUCTORS What is a Semiconductor? What is a Semiconductor? Microprocessors LED Transistors Capacitors Range of Conduciveness The semiconductors
Questions on JFET: 1) Which of the following component is a unipolar device? a) BJT b) FET c) DJT d) EFT 2) Current Conduction in FET takes place due e) Majority charge carriers only f) Minority charge
FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR: UNIT 3: FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS The field effect transistor is a semiconductor device, which depends for its operation on the control of current by an electric field. There are
Electronics Questions Answer the following with the MOST CORRECT answer. 1. The cathode end terminal of a semiconductor diode can be identified by: a. the negative sign marked on the case b. a circular
THE METAL-SEMICONDUCTOR CONTACT PROBLEM 1 To calculate the theoretical barrier height, built-in potential barrier, and maximum electric field in a metal-semiconductor diode for zero applied bias. Consider
Solutions--Ch. 15 (Semi-conducting Devices) CHAPTER 15 -- SEMI-CONDUCTING DEVICES QUESTION & PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 15.1) What is the difference between a conductor and a semi-conductor? Solution: A conductor
WK 5 Reg. No. : Question Paper Code : 27184 B.E./B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2015. Time : Three hours Second Semester Electronics and Communication Engineering EC 6201 ELECTRONIC DEVICES
About the Tutorial An electronic signal contains some information which cannot be utilized if doesn t have proper strength. The process of increasing the signal strength is called as Amplification. Almost
EE 5611 Introduction to Microelectronic Technologies Fall 2014 Thursday, September 04, 2014 Lecture 02 1 Lecture Outline Review on semiconductor materials Review on microelectronic devices Example of microelectronic
Semiconductors Crystalline solid materials whose resistivities are values between those of conductors and insulators. Good electrical characteristics and feasible fabrication technology are some reasons
Electronic Devices 1. Current flowing in each of the following circuits A and respectively are: (Circuit 1) (Circuit 2) 1) 1A, 2A 2) 2A, 1A 3) 4A, 2A 4) 2A, 4A 2. Among the following one statement is not
SEMICONDUCT ELECTRONICS: MATERIALS, DEVICES AND SIMPLE CIRCUITS Class XII : PHYSICS WKSHEET 1. How is a n-p-n transistor represented symbolically? (1) 2. How does conductivity of a semiconductor change
Semiconductors, ICs and Digital Fundamentals The Diode The semiconductor phenomena. Diode performance with ac and dc currents. Diode types: General purpose LED Zener The Diode The semiconductor phenomena
Q. No. WINTER 16 EXAMINATION (Subject Code: 17321) Model Answer Important Instructions to examiners: 1) The answers should be examined by key words and not as word-to-word as given in themodel answer scheme.
KOM2751 Analog Electronics :: Dr. Muharrem Mercimek :: YTU - Control and Automation Dept. 1 2 (CONT D - II) DIODE APPLICATIONS Most of the content is from the textbook: Electronic devices and circuit theory,
Introduction to Solid State Electronics Semiconductors: These are the materials, which do not have free electrons to support the flow of electrical current through them at room temperature. However, valence
MEMS1082 Mechatronics Chapter 3-1 Semiconductor devices Diode Semiconductor: Si Semiconductor N-type and P-type Semiconductors There are two types of impurities: N-type - In N-type doping, phosphorus or
ELECTRONIC DEVICES - Class XII (Boys Wing) Page 01 Electronics is the fast developing branch of Physics. Before the discovery of transistors in 1948, vacuum tubes (thermionic valves) were used as the building
lass X - Physics Semiconductor Electronics Materials, Device and Simple ircuit hapter-wise Problems Multiple hoice Question :- 14.1 The conductivity of a semiconductor increases with increase in temperature
WINTER 14 EXAMINATION Subject Code: 17213 Model Answer Important Instructions to examiners: 1) The answers should be examined by key words and not as word-to-word as given in the model answer scheme. 2)
Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT) Transistors In analog circuits, transistors are used in amplifiers and linear regulated power supplies. In digital circuits they function as electrical switches,
Reading 24 Ron Bertrand VK2DQ http://www.radioelectronicschool.com SEMICONDUCTORS Part 1 The objective of this reading and the following, is to provide a basic coverage of the most generally employed solid
Field Effect Transistors (npn) gate drain source FET 3 terminal device channel e - current from source to drain controlled by the electric field generated by the gate base collector emitter BJT 3 terminal
MOSFETS Although the base current in a transistor is usually small (< 0.1 ma), some input devices (e.g. a crystal microphone) may be limited in their output. In order to overcome this, a Field Effect Transistor
Field Effect Transistors Purpose In this experiment we introduce field effect transistors (FETs). We will measure the output characteristics of a FET, and then construct a common-source amplifier stage,
Transistor Characteristics Topics covered in this presentation: Transistor Construction Transistor Operation Transistor Characteristics 1 of 15 The Transistor The transistor is a semiconductor device that
FATIMA MICHAEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Senkottai Village, Madurai Sivagangai Main Road, Madurai - 625 020. [An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution] QUESTION BANK EC6201 ELECTRONIC DEVICES SEMESTER:
UNT X ELECTRONC DECES Weightage Marks : 07 Semiconductors Semiconductors diode-- characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as rectifier. - characteristics of LED, Photodiodes, solarcell and Zener
(a) BJT-OPERATING MODES & CONFIGURATIONS 1. The leakage current I CBO flows in (a) The emitter, base and collector leads (b) The emitter and base leads. (c) The emitter and collector leads. (d) The base
Basic Fabrication Steps and Layout Somayyeh Koohi Department of Computer Engineering Adapted with modifications from lecture notes prepared by author Outline Fabrication steps Transistor structures Transistor
EDC UNIT IV- Transistor and FET Characteristics Lesson-9: JFET and Construction of JFET 2008 EDC Lesson 9- ", Raj Kamal, 1 1. Transistor 2008 EDC Lesson 9- ", Raj Kamal, 2 Transistor Definition The transferred-resistance
MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION (Autonomous) (ISO/IEC 27001 2005 Certified) SUMMER 13 EXAMINATION Subject Code: 12025 Model Answer Page No: 1/ Important Instructions to examiners: 1) The
Diode Limiters or Clipper Circuits Circuits which are used to clip off portions of signal voltages above or below certain levels are called limiters or clippers. Types of Clippers Positive Clipper Negative
Basic Electronics Introductory Lecture Course for Technology and Instrumentation in Particle Physics 2011 Chicago, Illinois June 9-14, 2011 Presented By Gary Drake Argonne National Laboratory Session 3
EXPERIMENT 9 EXPERIMENTS USING SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES Semiconductor Diodes Structure 91 Introduction Objectives 92 Basics of Semiconductors Revisited 93 A p-n Junction Operation of a p-n Junction A Forward
Physics 481 Experiment 3 LAST Name (print) FIRST Name (print) TRANSISTORS (BJT & FET) npn BJT n-channel MOSFET 1 Experiment 3 Transistors: BJT & FET In this experiment transistor properties and transistor
EIE209 Basic Electronics Transistor Devices Contents BJT and FET Characteristics Operations 1 What is a transistor? Three-terminal device whose voltage-current relationship is controlled by a third voltage
Analog Electronics BJT Structure The BJT has three regions called the emitter, base, and collector. Between the regions are junctions as indicated. The base is a thin lightly doped region compared to the
1) A silicon diode measures a low value of resistance with the meter leads in both positions. The trouble, if any, is A [ ]) the diode is open. B [ ]) the diode is shorted to ground. C [v]) the diode is
Lesson 08 Title of the Experiment: Identification of active components in electronic circuits and characteristics of a Diode, Zener diode and LED (Activity number of the GCE Advanced Level practical Guide
MEMS1082 Chapter 3-2 Semiconductor devices Transistors and Amplifiers-BJT Bipolar Transistor Construction npn BJT Transistor Structure npn BJT I = I + E C I B V V BE CE = V = V B C V V E E Base-to-emitter
Department of Electrical Engineering IIT Madras Sample Questions on Semiconductor Devices EE3 applicants who are interested to pursue their research in microelectronics devices area (fabrication and/or
Figure 2: Symbols and nomenclature of a (a) npn and (b) pnp transistor. The BJT consists of three regions, emitter, base, and collector. The emitter and collector are usually of one type of doping, while
Experiment (1) Principles of Switching Introduction When you use microcontrollers, sometimes you need to control devices that requires more electrical current than a microcontroller can supply; for this,
Chapter 3. Bipolar Junction Transistors Outline: Fundamental of Transistor Common-Base Configuration Common-Emitter Configuration Common-Collector Configuration Introduction The transistor is a three-layer
SET - 1 1. a) Define i) transient capacitance ii) Diffusion capacitance (4M) b) Explain Fermi level in intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductor (4M) c) Derive the expression for ripple factor of Half wave
Laboratory #5 BJT Basics and MOSFET Basics I. Objectives 1. Understand the physical structure of BJTs and MOSFETs. 2. Learn to measure I-V characteristics of BJTs and MOSFETs. II. Components and Instruments
Chapter Semiconductor Electronics Q1. p-n junction is said to be forward biased, when  (a) the positive pole of the battery is joined to the p- semiconductor and negative pole to the n- semiconductor
Class XII Chapter 14 Semiconductor Electronics Materials Devices And Simple Circuits Physics Question 14.1: In an n-type silicon, which of the following statement is true: (a) Electrons are majority carriers
Electronic Materials, Devices and Fabrication Dr. S. Prarasuraman Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Lecture - 18 Transistors Last couple of classes
ELECTRONIC DEVICES AND CIRCUITS 1. At room temperature the current in an intrinsic semiconductor is due to A. holes B. electrons C. ions D. holes and electrons 2. Work function is the maximum energy required
Chapter 6: Field-Effect Transistors FETs vs. BJTs Similarities: Amplifiers Switching devices Impedance matching circuits Differences: FETs are voltage controlled devices. BJTs are current controlled devices.
Field Effect Transistor: Construction and Characteristic of JFETs. Transfer Characteristic. CS,CD,CG amplifier and analysis of CS amplifier MOSFET (Depletion and Enhancement) Type, Transfer Characteristic,
Date 14/2/2013 Eini FINALTERM EXAMINATION Spring 2010 PHY301- Circuit Theory Time: 90 min Marks: 60 Question No: 1 If we connect 3 capacitors in parallel, the combined effect of all these capacitors will
KOM2751 Analog Electronics :: Dr. Muharrem Mercimek :: YTU - Control and Automation Dept. 1 6 FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTORS Most of the content is from the textbook: Electronic devices and circuit theory, Robert
SEMICONDUCTOR PHYSICS-2 [Transistor, constructional characteristics, biasing of transistors, transistor configuration, transistor as an amplifier, transistor as a switch, transistor as an oscillator] Transistor
Q. Explain the construction and principle of operation of N-Channel and P-Channel Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET). Answer: N-Channel Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) Construction: Drain(D)
P-N Junction Diode EDC Lecture Notes Diode: A pure silicon crystal or germanium crystal is known as an intrinsic semiconductor. There are not enough free electrons and holes in an intrinsic semi-conductor
Q.2 a. By using Norton s theorem, find the current in the load resistor R L for the circuit shown in Fig.1. (8) Fig.1 IETE 1 b. Explain Z parameters and also draw an equivalent circuit of the Z parameter
Physics 160 Lecture 5 R. Johnson April 13, 2015 Half Wave Diode Rectifiers Full Wave April 13, 2015 Physics 160 2 Note that there is no ground connection on this side of the rectifier! Output Smoothing
Summer 2015 Examination Subject Code: 17213 Model Answer Important Instructions to examiners: 1) The answers should be examined by key words and not as word-to-word as given in the model answer scheme.
The Common Source JFET Amplifier Small signal amplifiers can also be made using Field Effect Transistors or FET's for short. These devices have the advantage over bipolar transistors of having an extremely
Introductory Medical Device Prototyping Analog Circuits Part 2 Semiconductors, http://saliterman.umn.edu/ Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota Concepts to be Covered Semiconductors
Introduction to Transistors Transistors form the basic building blocks of all computer hardware. Invented by William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain in 1947, replacing previous vaccuumtube technology
Exercise 1 The Diode EXERCISE OBJECTIVE When you have completed this exercise, you will be familiar with the operation of a diode. DISCUSSION OUTLINE The Discussion of this exercise covers the following
BJT Amplifier Two types analysis DC analysis Applied DC voltage source AC analysis Time varying signal source Superposition principle (linear amplifier) The response of a linear amplifier circuit excited
Name of the faculty: GYANENDRA KUMAR YADAV Discipline: APPLIED SCIENCE(C.S.E,E.E.ECE) Year : 1st Subject: FEEE Lesson Plan Lesson Plan Duration: 31 weeks (from July, 2018 to April, 2019) Week Theory Practical
Diode and Bipolar Transistor Circuits 2 2.1 A Brief Review of Semiconductors Semiconductors are crystalline structures in which each atom shares its valance electrons with the neighboring atoms. The simple
It is made up of semiconductor material such as Si and Ge. Usually, it comprises of three terminals namely, base, emitter and collector for providing connection to the external circuit. Today, some transistors
INTRODUCTION TO MOS TECHNOLOGY 1. The MOS transistor The most basic element in the design of a large scale integrated circuit is the transistor. For the processes we will discuss, the type of transistor
TRADEMARK OF INNOVATION Power Semiconductor Devices Introduction This technical article is dedicated to the review of the following power electronics devices which act as solid-state switches in the circuits.
SYED AMMAL ENGINEERING COLLEGE (Approved by the AICTE, New Delhi, Govt. of Tamilnadu and Affiliated to Anna University, Chennai) Established in 1998 - An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution Dr. E.M.Abdullah