OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS S

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1 OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS S

2 Course program 1. Introduction and Optical Fibers 2. Nonlinear Effects in Optical Fibers 3. Fiber-Optic Components 4. Transmitters and Receivers 5. Fiber-Optic Measurements & Review 2

3 Outline Wavelength Division Multiplexing Filters Fabry-Pérot Filter Thin-Film Filter Mach-Zehnder Filter Fiber Bragg Grating Couplers Isolators Circulators Multiplexers/Demultiplexers Add/Drop Mux/Demux 3

4 Outline Optical Amplifiers Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier Raman Amplifier Semiconductor Optical Amplifier Wavelength Converters Switches 4

5 Optical Fiber Data Links Fiber-Optic systems transmit modulated infrared light Fiber Transmitter Components Receiver Optical fiber systems can transmit information over very long distances due to their low attenuation 5

6 Wavelength Division Multiplexing Systems Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) is the ability to combine multiple sources of data using multiple wavelengths (colors) of light propagating along one optical fiber Source 1 Source 2 Source 3 Source n 6

7 Why WDM Systems? Increase of the data traffic More bandwidth Limited number of fibers Longer non-regenerated distances 7

8 WDM Transmission Windows Attenuation of single-mode fiber Visible Infrared 400 nm nm O Band ~ nm E Band ~ nm S Band ~ nm C Band ~ nm L Band ~ nm 8

9 Coarse WDM (CWDM) CWDM grid defined in ITU recommendation G From 1270 nm to 1610 nm Spaced 20 nm apart Center wavelength deviates +/- 6 or 7 nm Non-cooled lasers Easy to Manufacture Less expensive Distributed Feedback lasers drift ~0.1 nm/ 0 C 13 nm CWDM filter bandwidth 9

10 Dense WDM (DWDM) Grid defined in ITU G Centered at THz ( nm) +/- 100, 50, 25 or 12.5 GHz ~ +/- 0.8, 0.4, 0.2 or 0.1 nm High stability (cooled) lasers More difficult to manufacture More expensive WDM channel spacing 100 GHz 50 GHz 25 GHz 12.5 GHz 20 nm CWDM 10

11 Example of WDM System Optical Spectrum 16 channels 0.8 nm spacing (100 GHz) Noise 1545 nm 1565 nm 11

12 Schematic of WDM Link Network monitoring MUX 3% Amp. λ-meter P-meter DEMUX 97% Filter Transmitter Add/Drop Module Receiver 12

13 WDM Components Couplers Wavelength Converter Isolators Switches Circulators Amplifiers Filters Multiplexers/Demultiplexers Add/Drop components 13

14 1 d Coupler 2 4 When d is small enough, the modes from top and bottom waveguides are coupled Light from port 1/2 is divided between port 3 and port 4 L 3 For symmetrical coupler: κ : coupling coefficient (Power=Amplitude 2 )! There is a π/2 phase shift for the cross signal! 14

15 Directional Coupler 1 L 3 d 2 4 Light can be fully coupled from 1(2) to 4(3) for appropriate choice of L (L=π/2κ): 15

16 50/50 Coupler 1 L 3 d 2 4 Light can be equally divided between 3 and 4 for appropriate choice of L (L=π/4κ): 16

17 Faraday Rotator Faraday Effect: certain materials rotate light polarization when placed in a static magnetic field θ θ polarization rotation θ =V B Magnetic field Verdet constant The sense of rotation is independent of the direction of propagation Materials: - Yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) - Terbium-iron-garnet (TbGG) - Terbium-aluminium-garnet (TbAlG) 17

18 Isolator Reflections (from Rayleigh scattering, fiber splices...) may impair the performances of optical amplifiers or lasers Isolators are based on Faraday rotators and prevent reflections Input light Polarizer Polarizer 45 Reflected light Net rotation=2 45 = 90 No light is reflected! 18

19 Isolator How it looks in practice Fiber Faraday rotator Magnet Polarizers Fiber Grin lenses Important parameters: -isolation: attenuation of reflected light (typical>30db) -insertion loss: losses of trasnmitted ligth (typical<0.5db) 19

20 Can have 3, 4, 6 ports... Circulator Multiport fiber devices directing light unidirectionally from port to port In Out Faraday rotator 3 Polarization beam splitter 4 20

21 Passband Insertion loss Flatness Bandwidth (defined at -3dB of max.) Edge Polarization dependence Filters Stopband λ k-1 Passband λ k Stopband λ k+1 Stopband Crosstalk rejection Bandwidth Filters are a basic block for building advanced WDM components Crosstalk 21

22 Fabry-Pérot Filter (FP) FP filter: resonant cavity formed by 2 highly reflective mirrors Transmission of a FP filter exhibits peaks at wavelengths corresponding to the longitudinal mode spacing of the cavity FP filter is a bandpass filter (wavelength located within the band are transmitted) Tunability can be achieved through the use of piezoelectric transducer to control the mirror spacing L Fiber Fiber Mirrors 22

23 Fabry-Pérot Filter Principle 2ϕ R 1 R 2 φ =n g ω L/c R 1, R 2 : mirror reflectivities If R 1 =R 2 =R 23

24 Fabry-Pérot Filter Transmission FSR=c/(2n g L) 1.0 R=0.9 R=0.5 T 0.5 Δν FP Higher reflectivity: higher finesse F Frequency [GHz] 24

25 Fabry-Pérot Filter in WDM System 1/B Channel spacing: Δν ch T ν 1 ν 2 ν 3 ν FP tuned through N channels (only 1 channel transmitted at a time) All the signal spectral content ( Bit rate B) must be transmitted Number of channels N is limited Total signal bandwidth: Δν sig F Δν sig N Δν ch <FSR Δν FP B 25

26 Fabry-Pérot Filter in WDM System Example: n g =1.5 R=99% B=10 Gb/s Δν ch =50 GHz F 312 N max =62 Δν sig =N max Δν ch =6.2 THz In addition, Δν sig <FSR=c/(2n g L) L<c/(2n g Δν sig ) 16 µm Δν sig increases if L decreases 26

27 Integrated Fabry-Pérot Filter Fibers+Piezoelectric Transducer Fiber PZT Fiber Mirrors Fibers+Liquid Crystal Fiber LC Fiber Thin Film+Dielectric Mirrors V Electrodes 27

28 Thin-Film Filter Thin-film cavities Advanced Fabry-Pérot cavities Mirrors consist of alternating dielectric thin-film layers with different refractive index Multiple reflections cause constructive & destructive interferences Bandpass filter Incoming Signal Reflected Signal Layers Substrate Transmitted Signal 28

29 Thin-Film Filter Properties Various filter shapes and bandwidths possible (0.1 to 10 nm) Insertion loss: 0.2 to 2 db Stopband rejection: 30 to 50 db The cavity thikness determines the center wavelength of the transmission band Several Thin-Film Filters can be cascaded to sharpen and flatten the transmission band Transmission 1535 nm 1555 nm 29

30 Mach-Zehnder Filter (MZ) Based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer Fiber, L introduce a delay τ=n g L/c In x 1-x Out 50/50 (3dB) coupler 30

31 Mach-Zehnder Filter Transmission τ =5mm The transfer function is not sharp enough to perform efficient WDM filtering operation! 31

32 Cascaded Mach-Zehnder Filter Solution: cascading several MZ In L 1,τ 1 L 2,τ 2 L n,τ n Out τ =5mm 32

33 Integrated Mach-Zehnder Filter All fiber-based bulky and not tunable Planar waveguide compact+refractive index can be changed with electric field (LiNbO 3 ) tunable delay! LiNbO 3 Electrodes 33

34 Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) Single-mode fiber with modulated refractive index along the fiber length Signal Selected λ Non-selected λ n Λ Δ n n 0 z 34

35 Fiber Bragg Grating Properties Bandstop filter Reflection/transmission spectrum depends on grating parameters Tuning these parameters allow for changing the spectrum Grating Parameters Grating period Grating length Modulation depth relative index contrast profile 35

36 Fiber Bragg Grating Principle Multiple Distributed Scattering Equivalent to 2 opposite-travelling waves A(z) B(z) 36

37 Fiber Bragg Grating Reflection Reflection coefficient at λ B =2n eff Λ given by: λ B :Bragg Wavelength (reflected wavelength) L: grating length Γ: overlap integral between the propagating mode and fiber core 1.0 Ex: λ B =1550 nm n eff 1.45 Δn= L=5 mm Λ=534.5 nm Reflection Δλ R Grating bandwidth: Wavelength [nm] 37

38 Characteristic of Fiber Bragg Grating Low loss (0.1 db) Polarization insensitivity High wavelength accuracy ( nm easily achieved) High adjacent crosstalk suppression (40 db) Flat tops Temperature coefficient (~1.25 x 10-2 nm/c) Temperature compensation by packaging (0.07 x 10-2 nm/c) 38

39 Acousto-Optic Filter Acoustic absorber θ 1 θ 2 Quartz PZT θ 4 θ 3 v S : sound velocity in medium ω m :modulation frequency applied to PZT ~ ω m PZT creates sound waves in the glass Sound waves modulate the refractive index with period Λ S Light scatters off the periodic index modulation (Bragg diffraction) 39

40 Acousto-Optic Filter λ 1 +λ 2 +λ 3 +λ 4 TE PZT sound wave Analyzer λ 2 TM LiNbO 3 Signal in TE mode n TE -n TM Phase-matching condition: Wavelength λ such that λ =ΔnΛ S is converted into TM mode and filtered out with an analyzer Different wavelengths can be selected by varying ω m ( ) 40

41 Multiplexers/Demultiplexers λ 1 λ 2 λ 3 MUX DEMUX λ 1 λ 2 λ 3 λ n λ n Mux/Demux are used to combine/separate indivual channels 41

42 Multiplexer: Wavelength Combiner Based on coupler The coupling coefficient κ is wavelength dependent κ (λ) The coupler can be designed such that L=π/2κ for λ 1 and L=2π/κ for λ 2 L A 1 λ 1 A 3 A 2 A 4 λ d 2 λ 1 + λ 2 WDM Combiner 42

43 Multiplexer: WDM Coupler Allows for combining the pump and signal in optical amplifiers Filter λ 2 λ 1 λ 1 + λ 2 Filter transmits light at λ 1 and reflects light at λ 2 T R λ 1 λ λ 2 λ 43

44 Mach-Zehnder Multiplexer L,τ Based on 2 2 couplers λ 1 Out 1 50/50 coupler Out 2 A 1 A 3! A 2 A 4 There is a π/2 phase shift for the cross signal! 44

45 Mach-Zehnder Multiplexer λ 1 τ 1 λ 3 λ 1 +λ 3 τ 2 Channels spacing so that 2πc / (1/λ i+1-1/λ i ) is constant τ 3 λ 2 λ 1 +λ 2 +λ 3 +λ 4 λ 2 +λ 4 λ 4 Delays chosen such that certain wavelengths are directed to through-port only and some other to cross-port only (interference effects) 45

46 Prism-Based Demultiplexer Based on dispersion principle Different wavelengths separated by prism due to dispersion Lens focuses different wavelengths to different points Fiber placed at the different focusing points to collect light 46

47 Grating-Based Demultiplexer Based on diffraction principle Different wavelengths focused onto a grating Grating diffracts different wavelengths at different angles Lens focuses different wavelengths to different fibers 47

48 Arrayed Waveguide Grating Demultiplexer Based on diffraction principle Array of curved waveguides (Si, InP...) with constant phase difference Different optical paths result in phase delays Different wavelengths have maximal interferences at different locations Different wavelengths directed to different ports 48

49 Demultiplexer: Multilayer Interference Filters Based on filtering operation Multiwavelength signal Thin-film filter Thin-film filters cascaded along the optical path Filters designed to transmit one wavelength and reflect the others Different wavelengths exit at different ports Demultiplexed wavelengths 49

50 Demultiplexer: Multilayer Interference Filters 50

51 Add/Drop Adding and substracting channels from the network 51

52 Circulator-Fiber Bragg Grating Add/Drop λ 1 λ 2 Drop λ 2 Add λ 2 FBG reflects one wavelength and transmit all the other wavelengths 52

53 Circulator-Fiber Bragg Grating Add-Drop λ 1 +λ 2 +λ 3 +λ λ 1 +λ 3 +λ 4 +λ 2 λ 1 +λ 2 +λ 3 +λ 4 λ 2 λ 2 λ 1 +λ 3 +λ λ 2 λ 2 dropped added Reflection λ 2 53

54 Mach-Zehnder-Fiber Bragg Grating Add-Drop Reflection λ 1 +λ 2 +λ 3 +λ 4 λ 5 λ 2 dropped FBG 50/50 50/50 Reflection λ 5 λ 1 +λ 3 +λ 4 +λ 5 added λ 2 54

55 Ring Resonator Add-Drop Reflected a In n eff, L a Transmitted with 55

56 Ring Resonator Add-Drop Transmission c/(n eff L) Frequency [GHz] λ 2 λ 5 Reflection λ 2 λ Frequency [GHz] In order to select one λ L must be very small (10 µm) λ 1 +λ 2 +λ 3 +λ 4 L λ 1 +λ 3 +λ 4 +λ 5 Integrated optics 56

57 Optical Signal Amplification Optical signal attenuated during propagation in optical fiber Additional losses from other optical components (multiplexers, couplers, isolators...) Losses can cause the optical signal to be too weak for accurate detection Solutions: Detect signal before it is too weak and re-transmit it (optical to electrical conversion, clean up, electrical to optical conversion) In-line optical amplifications (simpler and effective) 57

58 Optical Signal Amplification Advantages of Optical Amplifiers Insensitive to data-rate and modulation format Large gain bandwidth: multiple channels can be amplified simultaneously Drawbacks Introduce additional noise (cumulative effects) Spectral shape of the gain (not flat, i.e. signals at different wavelengths experience different gain) Types of Amplifiers Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFAs) Raman Amplifiers Semiconductaor Optical Amplifiers (SOAs) 58

59 EDFA Principle: Stimulated Emission Atomic Energy levels Excited state Strong Pump Signal Ground state Fast decay (no light emitted) Stimulated Emission 59

60 Stimulated Emission Strong pump ligth is absorbed by atoms Atoms decay to ground state and emit light (photon) with same frequency/wavelength and phase as signal Photons add up ( ) Signal is amplified (Coherent amplification) Pump Signal Amplified Signal Amplifier 60

61 Doped Fiber Amplifiers Idea: introduce active dopants (rare-earth ions) in the core of an optical fiber during fabrication and which will allow for amplification (through stimulated emission) Examples of dopants commonly used Neodymium (Nd 3+ ) (0.92, 1.06, 1.35 µm ) Erbium (Er 3+ ) (0.55, 0.85, 0.98, 1.55, 1.72 µm) Ytterbium (Yb 3+ ) (1.02 µm) Thulium (Th 3+ ) (1.7 to 2.1 µm) Praseodynium (Pr 3+ ) (1.05 & 1.32 µm).. TELECOMMUNICATIONS WAVELENGTH! 61

62 Raman Amplifiers Principle Raman Amplifiers use Stimulated Raman Scattering Optical signal with short wavelength acts as "pump" signal transferring energy to a modulated weak signal of a longer wavelength. Because it is based on a nonlinear process, Raman amplification requires very high pump powers (some Watts) 62

63 Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) Similar to lasers, but with non-reflecting ends and broad wavelength emission Working in 1.31 µm ( µm) and 1.55 µm windows ( µm) Application in Booster and Pre-Amplifier 63

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