# Tracking of Maximum Power from Wind Using Fuzzy Logic Controller Based On PMSG

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1 International OPEN ACCESS Journal Of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) Tracking of Maximum Power from Wind Using Fuzzy Logic Controller Based On PMSG Bipin Biharee Srivastava 1, Er. Sudhanshu Tripathi 2 1 PG student, electrical Department SHIATS-DU,Allahabad faculty, Electrical, Department SHIATS-DU Allahabad Abstract: Wind energy has gained a growing worldwide interest due to the nonstop rise in fuel cost. The main aim of the wind-energy system is to extract the maximum power present in the wind stream. In order to extract the highest power, the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is used. This paper proposes the fuzzy logic MPPT controller to track the maximum power from the wind generation system. The maximum power is achieved based on the rotor speed of the wind system which consists of wind turbine and PMSG. The error and change in error is given as input to the fuzzy logic and its output is connected to the boost converter. The voltage from the dc link is controlled by the Voltage Source Inverter (VSI), and it is placed in grid side converter control. The proposed system is designed and evaluated in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Simulation results show the good dynamic performance of the proposed system. Index Terms: Wind turbine, Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG), Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and Fuzzy control. I. Introduction Wind power is used to produce electricity or mechanical power and supplies it to homes, business, schools, etc. Wind turbine converts kinetic energy into mechanical energy and then the generator in the wind turbine converts this mechanical energy into electrical power. Wind turbine consists of rotor, generator, tower that supports rotor, gear box, electrical cables, etc. It is classified into two major types; Horizontal Axis wind turbine and Vertical Axis wind turbine. A Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) is a generator contains the permanent magnet in the excitation field instead of coil. It is used to convert the mechanical power into electrical power and supply it to the grid. It consists of stator and rotor where stator is the armature and rotor contains the magnet. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is a technique which is used to track the maximum power from various devices especially photovoltaic systems. The capacity and higher value of current and voltage in the solar panel can make higher power. MPPT contains different algorithms such as Perturb and Observe, Incremental Conductance and Current Sweep Method. In wind turbine, the rotor speed continuously changes with changing the wind speed to get Maximum power. Therefore, the Maximum Power Point Tracking controller is presented in the wind energy conversion system to extract the maximum possible wind power [1-5]. MPPT is achieved by controlling the duty cycle of the dc-dc boost converter. When the boost converter is controlled, the rotor speed is also controlled to get the maximum power. Maximum power can also be tracked by maintaining the tip speed ratio (TSR) as optimal value [6]. Most of the authors [7-9] have proposed a various types of Fuzzy logic MPPT Controller for tracking maximum power from the wind turbine system. Two fuzzy logic controllers were used in the control scheme of wind energy conversion system [10]. In these papers, there is an impact of difference and uncertainty in the wind speed and the performance of the wind energy system is poor. In this paper, tracking of Maximum Power from the wind generation system by using the fuzzy logic MPPT controller is presented. An uncontrolled rectifier is employed to convert the ac power into dc power. The error between the actual rotor speed and the estimated speed is an input to the fuzzy logic controller. The change in error is another input to the fuzzy logic controller. The output of the fuzzy controller is given to the duty cycle of the boost converter. The maximum power is achieved by adjusting the duty cycle of the DC-DC boost converter. By adjusting the duty cycle, the rotor speed is controlled to get the maximum power from the wind. The boost converter increases the voltage and supply to the Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) which acts as an interface between the DC-DC boost converter and the grid. The concept of this paper is organized as follows: In Section 2, the Literature review related to the proposed work is discussed. Section 3 provides the detailed explanation of the proposed work. In Section 4, the IJMER ISSN: Vol. 4 Iss.11 Nov

3 Figure 1: Block diagram of the proposed Wind generation system Wind Energy Conversion System The output mechanical power of the wind generation system is given by the following equation. P m = 1 C 3 2 p(λ, β)ρav wind (1) where C p is the power coefficient of the wind, ρ is the air density (kg/m 3 ), A is the swept area of the turbine (m 2 ), V wind is the wind speed (m/s), λ is the tip speed ratio and β is the blade pitch angle (deg.). Tip speed ratio (TSR) depends on the number of rotor blades of the wind turbine. If the number of rotor blade is less than the wind turbine rotates fast to get the maximum power from the wind. The equation of the TSR (λ) can be explained as follows, λ = ω m R V wind (2) Whereω m, the rotor speed and R is the radius of the blade. The optimum value of TSR will be 8.1. The rotor speed can be estimated using the formula, ω m = V d+2r s I d (3) 3 3 π K m P 20 L si d Where V d and I d are the dc voltage and current respectively. The parameters of the wind generation system used in this paper are given in table 1. Table 1: Parameters of the proposed system Parameter Name Value Air density, ρ kg/m 3 Rated Wind Speed 12 m/s Pitch angle, β 0 deg. Power coefficient, C p 0.48 Stator Leakage Inductance, L s 4.48 mh Peak line-neutral back emf constant 1.4 V/rpm Stator winding resistance, R s ohm Fuzzy logic MPPT controller In this paper, the fuzzy logic controller is present to track the maximum power from the wind by using the rotor speed of the wind. Fuzzy logic is the best controller to track the maximum power point. The inputs of the fuzzy controller are the error between the actual rotor speed and the estimated rotor speed and change in this error. Output of the fuzzy controller is the duty cycle of the boost converter. By adjusting the duty cycle of the boost converter the maximum power will be achieved. The rotor speed is found out using the equation (3). At IJMER ISSN: Vol. 4 Iss.11 Nov

4 first, the various terms are selected to form the fuzzy rules. Based on these terms, the different rules are formed. The linguistic terms used here are: 1. Error (Very Negative, Negative, Small Negative, Zero, Small Positive, Positive, Very Positive) 2. Derivative of error (Negative, Zero, Positive) The seven various terms of error and three terms of change in error are shown in figure 2 (a) and (b) respectively. The output of fuzzy rule is shown in figure 3. (a) (b) Figure 2: (a) Variable terms of error, (b) Terms for change in error Figure 3: Output of fuzzy rules Table 2: Various fuzzy rules for MPPT Derivative of error D (%) Negative Zero Positive VN VP VP VP N SN SN VN SN N SN VN Error Z Z Z Z SP SP SP P P P VP VP VP VP VP VP In the proposed fuzzy controller, totally 21 rules are formed and it shown in table 2. For example, if the error is positive and change in error is negative then the duty cycle will be positive. The rules formed process is called as fuzzification. After the fuzzification process, the defuzzification is performed which converts the fuzzified value into defuzzified value. It gives the final output value. The defuzzification is shown in figure 4. IJMER ISSN: Vol. 4 Iss.11 Nov

5 Figure 4: Defuzzification IV. Simulation Results The proposed work is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK and its simulation diagram is shown in figure 5. For tracking the maximum power from the wind, the fuzzy logic controller is presented. Fuzzy controller tracks the maximum power with respect to the speed of the wind generation system. The simulation diagram for the main wind generation system with PMSG is shown in figure 6. The diagram for the estimation of rotor speed is shown in figure 7. The various results obtained from the simulation diagram are shown in figure 8. Figure 8(a) shows the output of wind speed, rotor speed, pitch angle and torque in the wind turbine model. The output from the PMSG is represented as generator terminal and generator terminal 2 and it is shown in figure 8(b) and 8(c) respectively. In figure 8(d), the overall output of the wind generation system is shown. Figure 8(e) shows the output voltage of uncontrolled rectifier and the voltage source inverter. The maximum power tracked from the wind using fuzzy controller is shown in figure 8(f). The maximum output power from the wind is KW is evaluated using fuzzy logic controller. Figure 5: Simulation diagram for the proposed work IJMER ISSN: Vol. 4 Iss.11 Nov

6 Figure 6: Simulation diagram for the wind generation system Figure 7: Estimated rotor speed (a) Simulation results for wind speed, rotor speed, pitch angle and torque in wind turbine IJMER ISSN: Vol. 4 Iss.11 Nov

7 (b) Results for voltage, current, power and rotor speed in PMSG (c) Generator terminal 2 (d) Torque from wind generation system IJMER ISSN: Vol. 4 Iss.11 Nov

8 (e) Voltage from rectifier VSI (f) Maximum output power from wind Figure 8: The various simulation results for the proposed system V. Conclusion In this paper, maximum power point is tracked from the wind using fuzzy logic MPPT controller is presented. The maximum power is tracked based on the rotor speed of the wind generation system. The output of the fuzzy controller is connected to the boost converter to adjust the duty cycle. The maximum power is achieved by controlling the duty cycle of the boost converter. The system evaluations are performed in the MATLAB/SIMULINK. The simulation results represent that the proposed system shows the dynamic and steady state performances. Some advantages of using fuzzy controller are quick response, limit insensitivity and IJMER ISSN: Vol. 4 Iss.11 Nov

9 universal control algorithm. The proposed wind generation system supplies maximum power to the grid with high efficiency and reliability. REFERENCES [1] M.E. Haque, Michael Negnevitsky and K. Muttaqi, A novel control strategy for a variable speed wind turbine with permanent magnet synchronous generator, IEEE transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 46, Issue. 1, pp , Jan-Feb [2] Ahmed G. Abo-Khalil and Dong-Choon Lee, MPPT control of Wind generation systems based on estimated wind speed using SVR, IEEE transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 3, Mar [3] Agarwal.V, R.K. Aggarwal, P. Patidar, and C. Patki, A Novel scheme for Rapid tracking of Maximum Power Point in Wind Energy Generation Systems, IEEE transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 25, no. 1, pp , Mar [4] N. Surekha, Dr. K. Ranjith Kumar, Dr. N. Deva Rajan, Simulation of Soft Computing based maximum Power point tracking for PMSG Wind Generation System, International Journal of Advanced Technology and Engineering Research, pp , [5] Abdullah M.A., Yatim A.H.M., Tan C.W., Saidur R., A Review of Maximum power point tracking algorithms for wind energy systems, Elsevier, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 16, no. 5, pp , June [6] M.M. Hussein, M. Orabi, M.E. Ahmed, M.A. Abd El-Wahab and M.M. Hamada, Simple Direct Sensorless Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Wind Turbine, Proceedings of the 14 th International Middle Power Systems Conference (MEPCON 10), pp , [7] Chitesh Dubey, Yogesh Tiwari, Dr. Anup Mishra, Maximum power point tracking of WECS using Fuzzy logic controller, International Journal of Emerging trends and technology in Computer Science, vol. 2, no. 2, Mar-April [8] T. Shanthi and A.S. Vanmukhil, Fuzzy logic based MPPT Control of Hybrid Power Generation System, International Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 86, no. 1, Jan [9] K. Sekhar, V. Durai Samy, Fuzzy logic MPPT Controller with energy management system for solar wind battery diesel Hybrid power system, Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology, vol. 59, no. 3, Jan [10] Huynh Quang Minh, Nollet Frederic, Essounbouli Najib, Hamzaoui Abdelaziz, Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator wind turbine for stand-alone system using fuzzy logic, Advances in Intelligent Systems research, vol. 1, no. 1, pp , July [11] Wei Qiao, Wei Zhou, Jose M. Aller, and Ronald G. Harley, Wind Speed estimation based sensor less output maximization control for a wind turbine driving a DFIG, IEEE transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 23, no. 3, pp , May [12] M. Sarvi, Sh. Abdi, S. Ahmadi, A New method for Rapid Maximum power point tracking of PMSG Wind Generator using PSO _ Fuzzy Logic, Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, vol. 3, no. 17, [13] Jogendra Singh Thongam and Mohand Ouhrouche, MPPT control methods in wind energy conversion systems, Fundamental and advanced Topics in Wind Power, pp July [14] E. Koutroulis and K. Kalaitzakis, Design of Maximum power tracking system for wind-energy conversion applications, IEEE transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 53, no. 2, pp , April [15] Y. Izumi, A. Pratap, K. Uchida and K. Uehara, T. Senjyu, T. Yona and T. Funabashi, A Control Method for Maximum power point tracking of a PMSG based WECS using Online parameter Identification of wind turbine, IEEE Ninth International Conference on Power Electronics and Drive systems, pp , Dec IJMER ISSN: Vol. 4 Iss.11 Nov

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